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Outline – problemsin Europe Democracy deficit European identity EU’sfuture? Economicdevelopment Education Socialsituation
Democracy deficit Institutional Only European Parliament elected directly by citizens Commission, Council, Court of Justice not, but they make important decisions People don’t know how they work (transparency) Identity Many Europeans feel that EU is not useful, not important or even harmful They think their country lost its independence and got nothing in return They identify more or only with their country
European identity – what? European Union Common set of values Sense of belonging to the EU in addition to national identities Indirectly (unity in diversity) Citizenship European public sphere
CONSTITUTIONAL TOOLS FOR FOSTERING EUROPEAN IDENTITY – democraticparticipation Symbols of the European Union European Parliamentelections Referendums European Citizens’ Initiative
Symbols 9th of May Europe Day “United in diversity” is the motto of the European Union € .eu TLD Anthem
Beethoven set to music the "Ode to Joy" written in 1785 by Friedrich von Schiller
Joy, beautiful divine spark,Daughter of Elysium,We enter, drunk with fire,O heavenly one, your holy shrine.Your magic once again bonds togetherWhat custom strictly divided,All Mankind become brothersWhere your gentle wings hold sway.
Referendums 1992 Denmark: no, France: yes, butsmallmargin 2001 Ireland: no ConstitutionalTreaty 2005: France, Netherlandsvote no Reform (Lisbon) Treaty 2008: Irelandvotes no
European citizens’ initiative Constitutionaltoolusedinseveralcountries IntheConstitutionalTreaty (I-47) InLisbon – TEU Provisionsondemocraticprinciples (Art. 11)
Enlargement - Turkeyand the EU 1987 applicationformembership 2005 recognisedas a candidate country Conditionsforjoining: Democraticsystem Functioningmarket economy Adoptingtheacquiscommunautaire
Issues of joining “too big, too poor, and too Muslim” Referendums Positive example for European Christian and Moslim cooperation Common Foreign and Security Policy
Other candidates Croatia Iceland The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Montenegro Albania Serbia Kosovo
Reform of the EU 6 membersto 27 Supranationality Amendingtreaties, case-law ConstitutionalTreaty 2005: France, Netherlandsvote no Reform (Lisbon) Treaty 2008: Irelandvotesno Now adopted – needs to be applied