02 the present eu institutional framework


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02 the present eu institutional framework

  1. 1. The present EU institutional framework<br />Decision-making processes<br />
  2. 2. Two processes in integration<br />Widening<br />More members 6 -> 27<br />Deepening<br />More powers: common market in coal and steel -> internal market, common foreign policy, monetary union etc.<br />
  3. 3. Member States<br />1952: 6 BeNeLux, Germany, France, Italy<br />1973: 9 Denmark, Ireland, UK<br />1981: 10 Greece<br />1986: 12 Spain, Portugal<br />1995: 15 Austria, Finland, Sweden<br />2004: 25 Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Cyprus, Malta<br />2007: 27 Bulgaria, Romania<br />
  4. 4. Treaty framework<br />1951 European Coal and Steel Community<br />1957 European EconomicCommunity, EURATOM<br />1965 MergerTreaty<br />1979 Directelectionstothe European Parliament<br />1986 Single European Act<br />1992 Treatyonthe European Union<br />1997 Treaty of Amsterdam<br />2000 Treaty of Nice<br />2009 Treaty of Lisbon<br />
  5. 5. Group work<br />Formgroups of 5-6 people<br />Introduceyourselves!<br />Importantdates of the European Union<br />Writeimportanthappeningsin Korea!<br />History<br />Politics<br />Family<br />Sport<br />Culture<br />…<br />
  6. 6. Today<br />Institutional structure<br />Decision-making processes<br />
  7. 7. Institutions<br />Institutions<br />European Council<br />European Commission<br />European Parliament<br />Council of Ministers <br />Court of Justice of the European Union<br />Court of Auditors<br />European Central Bank<br />Advisory bodies<br />Economic and Social Committee<br />Committee of Regions<br />Financial bodies<br />European Investment Bank<br />
  8. 8. President of the European Council<br />Representation of the EU <br />Heads of StateorGovernmentoftheMemberStates<br />President of theCommission<br />General guidelinesforthe European integration<br />Main politicaldecisions<br />
  9. 9. Representstheinterests of the Union<br />EachMemberStateappoints a Commissioner<br />27 Members<br />including President<br />First Vice-President: High Representative ofthe Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy<br />6 Vice-Presidents<br />Commissionersactindependently of MemberState<br />Agenda-settingrole: right of initiative<br />Legislativerole: delegatedlegislation<br />Implementation<br />Guardian of theTreaties<br />Representation of the EU <br />Not a government, notasecretariat<br />
  10. 10. Berlaymont building, Brussels<br />
  11. 11. Representstheinterests of thecitizens<br />751 MEPs<br />Electedbythecitizensfor 5 years<br />Verylittlepoweratfirst<br />Growinginfluencewithnewdecision-makingprocedures<br />Legislative power <br />Supervision of the budget <br />Supervision of the executive<br />International (European) parties<br />Strasbourg, France; Brussels, Belgium; Luxembourg<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Members of the EP<br />Regressively proportional to population<br />
  14. 14. Representstheinterests of theMemberStateGovernments<br />Has thedecision-makingpowerinco-decisionwiththeParliament<br />Made upbytheministers of theMemberStates<br />COREPER I-II<br />Antici group (II), Mertens group (I) prepares meetings<br />Permanent Representations of MS<br />Special committees (agriculture, Art. 207 (133), PSC…)<br />~250 working groups<br />Council Secretariat <br />PresidencyrotatesbetweenMemberStates<br />
  15. 15. Council shall meet in different configurations…<br />1. General affairs<br />2. Foreign affairs (ChairedbytheHighRepresentativeforForeign Affairs and Security Policy)<br />3. Economic and financial affairs<br />4. Justice and home affairs<br />5. Employment, social policy, health and consumer affairs<br />6. Competitiveness (internal market, industry, research and space)<br />7. Transport, telecommunications and energy<br />8. Agriculture and fisheries<br />9. Environment<br />10. Education, youth, culture and sport<br />
  16. 16. Voting procedures<br />Qualifiedmajority (differentsystemsfrom 2014, 2017)<br />255 votes out of 345<br />Over half of theMemberStates<br />Option: verificationthatthevotesalsorepresent 62% of the EU population<br />Simplemajority<br />14 votes<br />Unanimous<br />27 votes<br />
  17. 17. 3 Courts:<br />Court of Justice<br />General Court<br />Civil Service Tribunal / specialisedcourts<br />1 judge per MemberStateforCoJ, GC (27-27)<br />8 advocates-generalfortheCourt of Justice<br />Plus: Civil Service Tribunal (7 judges)<br />Responsibleforenforcing European law; interpreting and developingit<br />Insomecasestogetherwithnationalcourts<br />viapreliminaryrulings and directactions<br />Mandatoryjurisdiction<br />
  18. 18. Court of Auditors<br />Controls the budget of the EU<br />Controls all the spendings of all institutions and bodies<br />1 auditor per Member State<br />
  19. 19. European Central Bank<br />responsible for the stability of the euro, including regulating the money supply, and, together with the other national central banks, defines and implements the monetary policy of the Union<br />Based in Frankfurt-am-Main<br />
  20. 20. Advisory bodies<br />Economic and Social Committee<br />representatives ofsocial and economic aspects of society<br />farmers, transporters, workers, businessmen and tradesmen, the professions, consumers and the public in general<br />consultative role<br />integral part of European decision-making: must be consulted<br />
  21. 21. Advisory bodies<br />Committee of Regions<br />representatives of regional and local government<br />role is to raise awareness of local and regional points of view with regard to European legislation <br />
  22. 22. Financial bodies<br />European Investment Bank<br />long-term lending bank of the European Union<br />raises substantial volumes of funds on the capital markets <br />lends on favourable terms to projects furthering EU policy objectives<br />
  23. 23. Otherbodies<br />European Ombudsman<br />Complaintsagainstinstitutions: discrimination, unnecessarydelay, lack of information…<br />Agencies (forexample):<br />Community Fisheries Control Agency (CFCA)<br />Community Plant Variety Office (CPVO)<br />European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)<br />European Environment Agency (EEA)<br />European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)<br />European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EUROFOUND)<br />European Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) <br />…<br />
  24. 24. Decision-making<br />
  25. 25. Participants<br />Commission <br />Parliament<br />Council<br />Committee of Regions<br />Economic and SocialCommittee<br />
  26. 26. Commission…<br />has the power of initiative – decide if:<br />it should act <br />on what legal basis<br />in which form (if not defined by the treaty)<br />has the right to amend or withdraw proposals<br />
  27. 27. Parliament…<br />optional consultation<br />compulsory consultation<br />co-operation<br />co-decision<br />Assent<br />other procedures<br />
  28. 28. Council…<br />Was main decision-maker<br />Nowco-decisionwithParliament<br />Sometimesassent is required<br />
  29. 29. Co-decision procedure<br />OrdinarylegislativeprocedureafterLisbonTreaty<br />introduced by the Treaty on European Union<br />Council cannot disregard the opinion of Parliament<br />in the event of disagreement, a conciliation committee made up of representatives of the Council and of Parliament has to arrive at a text that is acceptable to the two institutions<br />two institutions on an equal footing in the legislative roles<br />If no agreement is reached, the legislative process fails<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Consultation procedure<br />division of tasks between the Commission and the Council <br />before the Council can take a decision opinionaskedfrom<br />European Parliament<br />European Economic and Social Committee <br />Committee of the Regions<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Assent procedure<br />introduced by the Single European Act<br />Parliament has the possibility of expressing its approval or disapproval of certain Council instruments<br />Parliament gives its consent by an absolute majority of its members <br />right of veto for Parliament<br />
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Assent procedure 2.<br />introduced by the LisbonTreaty<br />Council has the possibility of expressing its approval or disapproval of certain Parliament instruments<br />right of veto for Council<br />
  36. 36. Separateordifferentproceduresfor…<br />Budget<br />Common Foreign and Security Policy (only Council, European Council)<br />In some cases, cooperation in criminal matters<br />
  37. 37. Whichprocedure is used?<br />Dependson policy area<br />SettledintheTreaties<br />