A CLOSER LOOK ATELECTRON CONFIGURATION
THE RULES• Theaufbau principle states that the elctrons occupy the lowest available energy level providing the atom is in ...
GROUND STATE AND              GROUND STATE• Ground    state: All electrons in the lowest level• Excited   state: An electr...
NOTES• An   electron is promoted to an excited state with heat• Electrons          cannot occupy spaces between shells bec...
QUANTUM NUMBERS• Each   electron in an atom has four quantum numbers• Principal   quantum number, n: main energy level• Su...
Principal quantum number, n: main energy level•   The principal quantum number (n) describes the size of the    orbital. O...
Subsidiary quantum number, l: gives energy sub-                         level•   The subsidiary quantum number (l) describ...
Magnetic quantum number, m: gives orbital                      direction•   magnetic quantum number (m), to describe the o...
FIND THE FOUR QUANTUM NUMBERS     OF THE LAST ELECTRON IN THE             FOLLOWING• Li• Cl•B•O• Ar
2006 QUESTION 8
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2...
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2...
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2...
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2...
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2...
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2...
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2...
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2...
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2...
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2...
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2...
2006 QUESTION 8•   (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium    ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2...
•   (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?
•   (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) cryst...
•   (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) cryst...
•   (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) cryst...
•   (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) cryst...
•   (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) cryst...
•   (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) cryst...
•   (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) cryst...
2005 QUESTION 8
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atom
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atom
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomN...
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomN...
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomN...
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomN...
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomN...
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomN...
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomN...
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomN...
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomN...
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomN...
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomN...
2005 QUESTION 8•   (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomN...
•   (b) Define an ionic bond
•   (b) Define an ionic bond•   attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 ...
•   (b) Define an ionic bond•   attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 ...
•   (b) Define an ionic bond•   attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 ...
•   (b) Define an ionic bond•   attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 ...
•   (b) Define an ionic bond•   attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 ...
•   (b) Define an ionic bond•   attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 ...
•   (b) Define an ionic bond•   attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 ...
•   (b) Define an ionic bond•   attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 ...
•   (b) Define an ionic bond•   attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 ...
•   (b) Define an ionic bond•   attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 ...
2009 QUESTION 8
2009 QUESTION 8•   Explain the term atomic orbital. 2×3 region in space/ around    the nucleus / in an atom...3 [area unac...
2009 QUESTION 8•   Explain the term atomic orbital. 2×3 region in space/ around    the nucleus / in an atom...3 [area unac...
2009 QUESTION 8•   Explain the term atomic orbital. 2×3 region in space/ around    the nucleus / in an atom...3 [area unac...
2009 QUESTION 8•   Explain the term atomic orbital. 2×3 region in space/ around    the nucleus / in an atom...3 [area unac...
2009 QUESTION 8•   Explain the term atomic orbital. 2×3 region in space/ around    the nucleus / in an atom...3 [area unac...
•   (a) Diamond and graphite are crystalline solids of carbon. Explain in    terms of bonding why diamond and graphite dif...
•   (a) Diamond and graphite are crystalline solids of carbon. Explain in    terms of bonding why diamond and graphite dif...
•   (a) Diamond and graphite are crystalline solids of carbon. Explain in    terms of bonding why diamond and graphite dif...
•   (a) Diamond and graphite are crystalline solids of carbon. Explain in    terms of bonding why diamond and graphite dif...
•   (a) Diamond and graphite are crystalline solids of carbon. Explain in    terms of bonding why diamond and graphite dif...
•   (b) Iron is a transition metal. How is a transition element    identified from its electron configuration?
•   (b) Iron is a transition metal. How is a transition element    identified from its electron configuration?•   incomplete...
•   (b) Iron is a transition metal. How is a transition element    identified from its electron configuration?•   incomplete...
•   (b) Iron is a transition metal. How is a transition element    identified from its electron configuration?•   incomplete...
•   (b) Iron is a transition metal. How is a transition element    identified from its electron configuration?•   incomplete...
•   (b) Iron is a transition metal. How is a transition element    identified from its electron configuration?•   incomplete...
•   (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule?   polar    (covalent bond) ...3
•   (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule?   polar    (covalent bond) ...3State the shape of a water molecule a...
•   (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule?   polar    (covalent bond) ...3State the shape of a water molecule a...
•   (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule?   polar    (covalent bond) ...3State the shape of a water molecule a...
•   (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule?   polar    (covalent bond) ...3State the shape of a water molecule a...
•   (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule?   polar    (covalent bond) ...3State the shape of a water molecule a...
•   (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule?   polar    (covalent bond) ...3State the shape of a water molecule a...
2004 QUESTION 8
2004 QUESTION 8•   (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete)    (specific) level of en...
2004 QUESTION 8•   (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete)    (specific) level of en...
2004 QUESTION 8•   (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete)    (specific) level of en...
2004 QUESTION 8•   (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete)    (specific) level of en...
2004 QUESTION 8•   (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete)    (specific) level of en...
2004 QUESTION 8•   (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete)    (specific) level of en...
2004 QUESTION 8•   (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete)    (specific) level of en...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
•   (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has   ...3 for a    shared pair of electrons ...3Use electro...
WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW     TO ANSWER QUESTION 8•   Bonding: Ionic, covalent, hydrogen and metallic•   Properties of differen...
• Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital.  4×3
• Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital.  4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3
• Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital.  4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• wh...
• Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital.  4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• wh...
• Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital.  4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• wh...
• Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital.  4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• wh...
• Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital.  4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• wh...
• Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital.  4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• wh...
• Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital.  4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• wh...
• Question 8 (b)
• Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.
• Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / fi...
• Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / fi...
• Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / fi...
• Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / fi...
• Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / fi...
• Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / fi...
• Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / fi...
• Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / fi...
• level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation  emitted?
• level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation  emitted?• E2 – E1 …6
• level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation  emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3
• level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation  emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts...
• level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation  emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts...
• level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation  emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts...
• level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation  emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts...
• level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation  emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts...
• level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation  emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts...
• level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation  emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts...
• level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation  emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts...
• level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation  emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts...
Excited state and quantum numbers
Excited state and quantum numbers
Excited state and quantum numbers
Excited state and quantum numbers
Excited state and quantum numbers
Excited state and quantum numbers
Excited state and quantum numbers
Excited state and quantum numbers
Excited state and quantum numbers
Excited state and quantum numbers
Excited state and quantum numbers
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Excited state and quantum numbers

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  • Excited state and quantum numbers

    1. 1. A CLOSER LOOK ATELECTRON CONFIGURATION
    2. 2. THE RULES• Theaufbau principle states that the elctrons occupy the lowest available energy level providing the atom is in the ground state.• Hunds Rule of multiplicity: Electrons occupy sublevels singlely before occuplying them pairs• Pauli Exclusion principle states that no more than 2 e- can occupy an orbital and then only do so if they have an opposite spin
    3. 3. GROUND STATE AND GROUND STATE• Ground state: All electrons in the lowest level• Excited state: An electron in a higher state than the ground state• The relationship between the ground state and excited state is E2 - E1 = hf
    4. 4. NOTES• An electron is promoted to an excited state with heat• Electrons cannot occupy spaces between shells because it would be unstable• Anelectron will not stay in the excited state because it is unstable• When the electron goes from the ground state to the excited state it emits light at a frequency, f.
    5. 5. QUANTUM NUMBERS• Each electron in an atom has four quantum numbers• Principal quantum number, n: main energy level• Subsidiary quantum number, l: gives energy sub-level• Magnetic quantum number, m: gives orbital direction• Spin quantum number, s: gives the spin of the electron
    6. 6. Principal quantum number, n: main energy level• The principal quantum number (n) describes the size of the orbital. Orbitals for which n = 2 are larger than those for which n = 1, for example.
    7. 7. Subsidiary quantum number, l: gives energy sub- level• The subsidiary quantum number (l) describes the shape of the orbital.• s=0• p=1• d=2• f=3•
    8. 8. Magnetic quantum number, m: gives orbital direction• magnetic quantum number (m), to describe the orientation in space of a particular orbital.
    9. 9. FIND THE FOUR QUANTUM NUMBERS OF THE LAST ELECTRON IN THE FOLLOWING• Li• Cl•B•O• Ar
    10. 10. 2006 QUESTION 8
    11. 11. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+
    12. 12. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 (ii) Al 3+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]3+
    13. 13. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 (ii) Al 3+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]3+
    14. 14. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 (ii) Al 3+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]3+(b) Define (i) a covalent bond
    15. 15. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 (ii) Al 3+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]3+(b) Define (i) a covalent bondsharing of electrons
    16. 16. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 (ii) Al 3+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]3+(b) Define (i) a covalent bondsharing of electrons(ii) a polar covalent bond
    17. 17. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 (ii) Al 3+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]3+(b) Define (i) a covalent bondsharing of electrons(ii) a polar covalent bondunequal sharing (distribution) of electrons (charge) // small EN difference / ENdifference < 1.7
    18. 18. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 (ii) Al 3+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]3+(b) Define (i) a covalent bondsharing of electrons(ii) a polar covalent bondunequal sharing (distribution) of electrons (charge) // small EN difference / ENdifference < 1.7(iii) electronegativity.
    19. 19. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 (ii) Al 3+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]3+(b) Define (i) a covalent bondsharing of electrons(ii) a polar covalent bondunequal sharing (distribution) of electrons (charge) // small EN difference / ENdifference < 1.7(iii) electronegativity.attraction an atom (element) has has for a shared pair of electrons
    20. 20. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 (ii) Al 3+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]3+(b) Define (i) a covalent bondsharing of electrons(ii) a polar covalent bondunequal sharing (distribution) of electrons (charge) // small EN difference / ENdifference < 1.7(iii) electronegativity.attraction an atom (element) has has for a shared pair of electronsUse electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in potassiumbromide.
    21. 21. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 (ii) Al 3+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]3+(b) Define (i) a covalent bondsharing of electrons(ii) a polar covalent bondunequal sharing (distribution) of electrons (charge) // small EN difference / ENdifference < 1.7(iii) electronegativity.attraction an atom (element) has has for a shared pair of electronsUse electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in potassiumbromide.ionic bonding [KBr / two correct EN values / EN difference = 2.0 ...3]
    22. 22. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 (ii) Al 3+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]3+(b) Define (i) a covalent bondsharing of electrons(ii) a polar covalent bondunequal sharing (distribution) of electrons (charge) // small EN difference / ENdifference < 1.7(iii) electronegativity.attraction an atom (element) has has for a shared pair of electronsUse electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in potassiumbromide.ionic bonding [KBr / two correct EN values / EN difference = 2.0 ...3]What are the general properties of compounds with this type of bonding?
    23. 23. 2006 QUESTION 8• (a) Write the electron configuration of (i) the carbon atom (ii) the aluminium ion, Al 3+(i) C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 (ii) Al 3+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]3+(b) Define (i) a covalent bondsharing of electrons(ii) a polar covalent bondunequal sharing (distribution) of electrons (charge) // small EN difference / ENdifference < 1.7(iii) electronegativity.attraction an atom (element) has has for a shared pair of electronsUse electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in potassiumbromide.ionic bonding [KBr / two correct EN values / EN difference = 2.0 ...3]What are the general properties of compounds with this type of bonding?high melting points, high boiling points, soluble in water, conduct electricity whenmolten or in aqueous solution, fast reactions, solid etc
    24. 24. • (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?
    25. 25. • (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) crystaldiamond: covalent /atomic crystal
    26. 26. • (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) crystaldiamond: covalent /atomic crystalExplain, in terms of bonding, why (i) iodine is insoluble in water
    27. 27. • (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) crystaldiamond: covalent /atomic crystalExplain, in terms of bonding, why (i) iodine is insoluble in wateriodine is non-polar will dissolve in non-polar solvent / water is polarcovalent
    28. 28. • (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) crystaldiamond: covalent /atomic crystalExplain, in terms of bonding, why (i) iodine is insoluble in wateriodine is non-polar will dissolve in non-polar solvent / water is polarcovalent(ii) aluminium is a good conductor of electricity
    29. 29. • (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) crystaldiamond: covalent /atomic crystalExplain, in terms of bonding, why (i) iodine is insoluble in wateriodine is non-polar will dissolve in non-polar solvent / water is polarcovalent(ii) aluminium is a good conductor of electricityfree electrons / cloud of valence electrons [to carry current ...3]
    30. 30. • (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) crystaldiamond: covalent /atomic crystalExplain, in terms of bonding, why (i) iodine is insoluble in wateriodine is non-polar will dissolve in non-polar solvent / water is polarcovalent(ii) aluminium is a good conductor of electricityfree electrons / cloud of valence electrons [to carry current ...3](iii) diamond is difficult to cut.
    31. 31. • (c) What type of crystal exists in each of these substances?iodine: molecular crystalaluminium: metallic (metal) crystaldiamond: covalent /atomic crystalExplain, in terms of bonding, why (i) iodine is insoluble in wateriodine is non-polar will dissolve in non-polar solvent / water is polarcovalent(ii) aluminium is a good conductor of electricityfree electrons / cloud of valence electrons [to carry current ...3](iii) diamond is difficult to cut.atoms held by strong bonds / tetrahedral structure [all valencies satisfied ...3]
    32. 32. 2005 QUESTION 8
    33. 33. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atom
    34. 34. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2
    35. 35. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atom
    36. 36. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomNa=1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1
    37. 37. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomNa=1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1(iii) the sodium ion, Na+
    38. 38. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomNa=1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1(iii) the sodium ion, Na+Na+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]+
    39. 39. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomNa=1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1(iii) the sodium ion, Na+Na+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]+What is the principal quantum number of the outermost electron in a sodium atom?
    40. 40. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomNa=1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1(iii) the sodium ion, Na+Na+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]+What is the principal quantum number of the outermost electron in a sodium atom?3
    41. 41. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomNa=1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1(iii) the sodium ion, Na+Na+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]+What is the principal quantum number of the outermost electron in a sodium atom?3Define first ionisation energy of an element
    42. 42. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomNa=1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1(iii) the sodium ion, Na+Na+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]+What is the principal quantum number of the outermost electron in a sodium atom?3Define first ionisation energy of an elementenergy required to remove most loosely bound / first / outermost electron from aneutral / gaseous atom
    43. 43. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomNa=1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1(iii) the sodium ion, Na+Na+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]+What is the principal quantum number of the outermost electron in a sodium atom?3Define first ionisation energy of an elementenergy required to remove most loosely bound / first / outermost electron from aneutral / gaseous atomState and account for the general trend in first ionisation energy values from Li toNe on the periodic table (ionisation energies) increase decreasing / nuclear charge
    44. 44. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomNa=1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1(iii) the sodium ion, Na+Na+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]+What is the principal quantum number of the outermost electron in a sodium atom?3Define first ionisation energy of an elementenergy required to remove most loosely bound / first / outermost electron from aneutral / gaseous atomState and account for the general trend in first ionisation energy values from Li toNe on the periodic table (ionisation energies) increase decreasing / nuclear chargeExplain why the first ionisation energy of beryllium is larger than that of boron
    45. 45. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomNa=1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1(iii) the sodium ion, Na+Na+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]+What is the principal quantum number of the outermost electron in a sodium atom?3Define first ionisation energy of an elementenergy required to remove most loosely bound / first / outermost electron from aneutral / gaseous atomState and account for the general trend in first ionisation energy values from Li toNe on the periodic table (ionisation energies) increase decreasing / nuclear chargeExplain why the first ionisation energy of beryllium is larger than that of boronBe has a full sub-shell // B has one electron in sub-shell // Be has a stable electronconfiguration
    46. 46. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomNa=1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1(iii) the sodium ion, Na+Na+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]+What is the principal quantum number of the outermost electron in a sodium atom?3Define first ionisation energy of an elementenergy required to remove most loosely bound / first / outermost electron from aneutral / gaseous atomState and account for the general trend in first ionisation energy values from Li toNe on the periodic table (ionisation energies) increase decreasing / nuclear chargeExplain why the first ionisation energy of beryllium is larger than that of boronBe has a full sub-shell // B has one electron in sub-shell // Be has a stable electronconfiguration
    47. 47. 2005 QUESTION 8• (a)Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of (i) the beryllium atomBe = 1s2 2s2(ii) the sodium atomNa=1s2 2s2 2p2 3s1(iii) the sodium ion, Na+Na+ = [1s2 2s2 2p6]+What is the principal quantum number of the outermost electron in a sodium atom?3Define first ionisation energy of an elementenergy required to remove most loosely bound / first / outermost electron from aneutral / gaseous atomState and account for the general trend in first ionisation energy values from Li toNe on the periodic table (ionisation energies) increase decreasing / nuclear chargeExplain why the first ionisation energy of beryllium is larger than that of boronBe has a full sub-shell // B has one electron in sub-shell // Be has a stable electronconfiguration
    48. 48. • (b) Define an ionic bond
    49. 49. • (b) Define an ionic bond• attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 [E.N. difference > 1.7 ...3]
    50. 50. • (b) Define an ionic bond• attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 [E.N. difference > 1.7 ...3]Use diagrams to show the formation of a bond between a sodium atom and a chlorine atom.
    51. 51. • (b) Define an ionic bond• attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 [E.N. difference > 1.7 ...3]Use diagrams to show the formation of a bond between a sodium atom and a chlorine atom.one electron in valence shell sodium seven electrons in valence shell chlorine
    52. 52. • (b) Define an ionic bond• attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 [E.N. difference > 1.7 ...3]Use diagrams to show the formation of a bond between a sodium atom and a chlorine atom.one electron in valence shell sodium seven electrons in valence shell chlorineelectron transfer from sodium to chlorine
    53. 53. • (b) Define an ionic bond• attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 [E.N. difference > 1.7 ...3]Use diagrams to show the formation of a bond between a sodium atom and a chlorine atom.one electron in valence shell sodium seven electrons in valence shell chlorineelectron transfer from sodium to chlorine
    54. 54. • (b) Define an ionic bond• attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 [E.N. difference > 1.7 ...3]Use diagrams to show the formation of a bond between a sodium atom and a chlorine atom.one electron in valence shell sodium seven electrons in valence shell chlorineelectron transfer from sodium to chlorineDescribe the crystal structure of sodium chloride
    55. 55. • (b) Define an ionic bond• attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 [E.N. difference > 1.7 ...3]Use diagrams to show the formation of a bond between a sodium atom and a chlorine atom.one electron in valence shell sodium seven electrons in valence shell chlorineelectron transfer from sodium to chlorineDescribe the crystal structure of sodium chlorideions occupy the lattice points, ions occupy alternate positions, unit repeats itself, each sodium ion (Na+)is surrounded by 6 chloride (Cl ̄)ions, each chloride (Cl ̄) ion is surrounded by 6 sodium (Na+) ions,consists of a three dimensional cubic latticeany three
    56. 56. • (b) Define an ionic bond• attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 [E.N. difference > 1.7 ...3]Use diagrams to show the formation of a bond between a sodium atom and a chlorine atom.one electron in valence shell sodium seven electrons in valence shell chlorineelectron transfer from sodium to chlorineDescribe the crystal structure of sodium chlorideions occupy the lattice points, ions occupy alternate positions, unit repeats itself, each sodium ion (Na+)is surrounded by 6 chloride (Cl ̄)ions, each chloride (Cl ̄) ion is surrounded by 6 sodium (Na+) ions,consists of a three dimensional cubic latticeany three
    57. 57. • (b) Define an ionic bond• attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 [E.N. difference > 1.7 ...3]Use diagrams to show the formation of a bond between a sodium atom and a chlorine atom.one electron in valence shell sodium seven electrons in valence shell chlorineelectron transfer from sodium to chlorineDescribe the crystal structure of sodium chlorideions occupy the lattice points, ions occupy alternate positions, unit repeats itself, each sodium ion (Na+)is surrounded by 6 chloride (Cl ̄)ions, each chloride (Cl ̄) ion is surrounded by 6 sodium (Na+) ions,consists of a three dimensional cubic latticeany threeGive two general properties of ionic compounds.
    58. 58. • (b) Define an ionic bond• attraction between oppositely charged ions // transfer of electrons between two atoms...6 [E.N. difference > 1.7 ...3]Use diagrams to show the formation of a bond between a sodium atom and a chlorine atom.one electron in valence shell sodium seven electrons in valence shell chlorineelectron transfer from sodium to chlorineDescribe the crystal structure of sodium chlorideions occupy the lattice points, ions occupy alternate positions, unit repeats itself, each sodium ion (Na+)is surrounded by 6 chloride (Cl ̄)ions, each chloride (Cl ̄) ion is surrounded by 6 sodium (Na+) ions,consists of a three dimensional cubic latticeany threeGive two general properties of ionic compounds.high melting points, high boiling points, soluble in water, conduct electricity when molten or in solution,hard, solid, crystalline etc any two
    59. 59. 2009 QUESTION 8
    60. 60. 2009 QUESTION 8• Explain the term atomic orbital. 2×3 region in space/ around the nucleus / in an atom...3 [area unacceptable] where there is a high probability of finding an electron ...3
    61. 61. 2009 QUESTION 8• Explain the term atomic orbital. 2×3 region in space/ around the nucleus / in an atom...3 [area unacceptable] where there is a high probability of finding an electron ...3Write the electron configuration of (i) carbon atom, 6 a
    62. 62. 2009 QUESTION 8• Explain the term atomic orbital. 2×3 region in space/ around the nucleus / in an atom...3 [area unacceptable] where there is a high probability of finding an electron ...3Write the electron configuration of (i) carbon atom, 6 a1s2 2s2 2px 1 2py1 / 1s2 2s2 2p2 ...6
    63. 63. 2009 QUESTION 8• Explain the term atomic orbital. 2×3 region in space/ around the nucleus / in an atom...3 [area unacceptable] where there is a high probability of finding an electron ...3Write the electron configuration of (i) carbon atom, 6 a1s2 2s2 2px 1 2py1 / 1s2 2s2 2p2 ...6(ii) an iron atom. 2×3
    64. 64. 2009 QUESTION 8• Explain the term atomic orbital. 2×3 region in space/ around the nucleus / in an atom...3 [area unacceptable] where there is a high probability of finding an electron ...3Write the electron configuration of (i) carbon atom, 6 a1s2 2s2 2px 1 2py1 / 1s2 2s2 2p2 ...6(ii) an iron atom. 2×31s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 ...3 4s2 3d6 ...3
    65. 65. • (a) Diamond and graphite are crystalline solids of carbon. Explain in terms of bonding why diamond and graphite differ (i) in their hardness, 2×3
    66. 66. • (a) Diamond and graphite are crystalline solids of carbon. Explain in terms of bonding why diamond and graphite differ (i) in their hardness, 2×3• strong / covalent bonds in diamond ...3 weak van der Waals bonds (hold) graphite (layers together)/each carbon atom forms three strong/covalent bonds and one weak (van der Waals) bond (to another layer of carbon atoms)...3
    67. 67. • (a) Diamond and graphite are crystalline solids of carbon. Explain in terms of bonding why diamond and graphite differ (i) in their hardness, 2×3• strong / covalent bonds in diamond ...3 weak van der Waals bonds (hold) graphite (layers together)/each carbon atom forms three strong/covalent bonds and one weak (van der Waals) bond (to another layer of carbon atoms)...3(ii) in their ability to conduct electricity. 2×3
    68. 68. • (a) Diamond and graphite are crystalline solids of carbon. Explain in terms of bonding why diamond and graphite differ (i) in their hardness, 2×3• strong / covalent bonds in diamond ...3 weak van der Waals bonds (hold) graphite (layers together)/each carbon atom forms three strong/covalent bonds and one weak (van der Waals) bond (to another layer of carbon atoms)...3(ii) in their ability to conduct electricity. 2×3no free electrons in diamond /(valence) electrons in diamond involved incovalent bonding/localised/not free to move/unavailable
    69. 69. • (a) Diamond and graphite are crystalline solids of carbon. Explain in terms of bonding why diamond and graphite differ (i) in their hardness, 2×3• strong / covalent bonds in diamond ...3 weak van der Waals bonds (hold) graphite (layers together)/each carbon atom forms three strong/covalent bonds and one weak (van der Waals) bond (to another layer of carbon atoms)...3(ii) in their ability to conduct electricity. 2×3no free electrons in diamond /(valence) electrons in diamond involved incovalent bonding/localised/not free to move/unavailable(some valence) electrons in graphite involved in delocalised bonding/free tomove/available
    70. 70. • (b) Iron is a transition metal. How is a transition element identified from its electron configuration?
    71. 71. • (b) Iron is a transition metal. How is a transition element identified from its electron configuration?• incomplete d-subshell/ d-orbitals/ form an ion with outer electron(s) in a d -sublevel ...3
    72. 72. • (b) Iron is a transition metal. How is a transition element identified from its electron configuration?• incomplete d-subshell/ d-orbitals/ form an ion with outer electron(s) in a d -sublevel ...3State two characteristic properties of transition metals. 2×3
    73. 73. • (b) Iron is a transition metal. How is a transition element identified from its electron configuration?• incomplete d-subshell/ d-orbitals/ form an ion with outer electron(s) in a d -sublevel ...3State two characteristic properties of transition metals. 2×3variable valency, form coloured compounds, are good catalystsany two...2×3
    74. 74. • (b) Iron is a transition metal. How is a transition element identified from its electron configuration?• incomplete d-subshell/ d-orbitals/ form an ion with outer electron(s) in a d -sublevel ...3State two characteristic properties of transition metals. 2×3variable valency, form coloured compounds, are good catalystsany two...2×3The metallic crystalline structure of iron is shown in Figure 12.Describe the bonding in a metallic crystal.
    75. 75. • (b) Iron is a transition metal. How is a transition element identified from its electron configuration?• incomplete d-subshell/ d-orbitals/ form an ion with outer electron(s) in a d -sublevel ...3State two characteristic properties of transition metals. 2×3variable valency, form coloured compounds, are good catalystsany two...2×3The metallic crystalline structure of iron is shown in Figure 12.Describe the bonding in a metallic crystal.positive ions in a sea of electrons/(valence) electrons involved indelocalised bonding / free to move / released
    76. 76. • (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule? polar (covalent bond) ...3
    77. 77. • (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule? polar (covalent bond) ...3State the shape of a water molecule and explain, using theelectron pair repulsion theory, how this shape arises.4×3
    78. 78. • (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule? polar (covalent bond) ...3State the shape of a water molecule and explain, using theelectron pair repulsion theory, how this shape arises.4×3v-shaped (planar) stated or shown in a diagram ...3two lone pairs and two bond pairs stated or shown in cleardiagram ... bond angle reduced to 104.5olp lp > lp bp > bp bp
    79. 79. • (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule? polar (covalent bond) ...3State the shape of a water molecule and explain, using theelectron pair repulsion theory, how this shape arises.4×3v-shaped (planar) stated or shown in a diagram ...3two lone pairs and two bond pairs stated or shown in cleardiagram ... bond angle reduced to 104.5olp lp > lp bp > bp bpWhat forces hold the water molecules together in an ice crystal?
    80. 80. • (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule? polar (covalent bond) ...3State the shape of a water molecule and explain, using theelectron pair repulsion theory, how this shape arises.4×3v-shaped (planar) stated or shown in a diagram ...3two lone pairs and two bond pairs stated or shown in cleardiagram ... bond angle reduced to 104.5olp lp > lp bp > bp bpWhat forces hold the water molecules together in an ice crystal?hydrogen bonds
    81. 81. • (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule? polar (covalent bond) ...3State the shape of a water molecule and explain, using theelectron pair repulsion theory, how this shape arises.4×3v-shaped (planar) stated or shown in a diagram ...3two lone pairs and two bond pairs stated or shown in cleardiagram ... bond angle reduced to 104.5olp lp > lp bp > bp bpWhat forces hold the water molecules together in an ice crystal?hydrogen bondsWhat type of crystal lattice is formed in ice?
    82. 82. • (c) What type of bond exists in a water molecule? polar (covalent bond) ...3State the shape of a water molecule and explain, using theelectron pair repulsion theory, how this shape arises.4×3v-shaped (planar) stated or shown in a diagram ...3two lone pairs and two bond pairs stated or shown in cleardiagram ... bond angle reduced to 104.5olp lp > lp bp > bp bpWhat forces hold the water molecules together in an ice crystal?hydrogen bondsWhat type of crystal lattice is formed in ice?molecular crystal
    83. 83. 2004 QUESTION 8
    84. 84. 2004 QUESTION 8• (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy ...3 possessed by an electron in an atom ...3
    85. 85. 2004 QUESTION 8• (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy ...3 possessed by an electron in an atom ...3(ii) region in space around the nucleus ...3 where there is a high probability offinding an electron ...3
    86. 86. 2004 QUESTION 8• (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy ...3 possessed by an electron in an atom ...3(ii) region in space around the nucleus ...3 where there is a high probability offinding an electron ...3What information about an electron in an atom is given by the principal(first) quantum number and by the subsidiary (second) quantum number?shell/main energy level / orbit (to which the electron belongs) ...3 type ofsubshell / sublevel (to which an electron belongs) ...3
    87. 87. 2004 QUESTION 8• (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy ...3 possessed by an electron in an atom ...3(ii) region in space around the nucleus ...3 where there is a high probability offinding an electron ...3What information about an electron in an atom is given by the principal(first) quantum number and by the subsidiary (second) quantum number?shell/main energy level / orbit (to which the electron belongs) ...3 type ofsubshell / sublevel (to which an electron belongs) ...3In the relationship E2 – E1 = hf, which applies to atomic emission spectra,what do E1 , E2 and f represent?
    88. 88. 2004 QUESTION 8• (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy ...3 possessed by an electron in an atom ...3(ii) region in space around the nucleus ...3 where there is a high probability offinding an electron ...3What information about an electron in an atom is given by the principal(first) quantum number and by the subsidiary (second) quantum number?shell/main energy level / orbit (to which the electron belongs) ...3 type ofsubshell / sublevel (to which an electron belongs) ...3In the relationship E2 – E1 = hf, which applies to atomic emission spectra,what do E1 , E2 and f represent?E1 energy of electron in lower / inner energy level ...3 E2 energy of excitedstate/energy of electron in outer/ higher energy level ...3 f, frequency(of photon) ...3
    89. 89. 2004 QUESTION 8• (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy ...3 possessed by an electron in an atom ...3(ii) region in space around the nucleus ...3 where there is a high probability offinding an electron ...3What information about an electron in an atom is given by the principal(first) quantum number and by the subsidiary (second) quantum number?shell/main energy level / orbit (to which the electron belongs) ...3 type ofsubshell / sublevel (to which an electron belongs) ...3In the relationship E2 – E1 = hf, which applies to atomic emission spectra,what do E1 , E2 and f represent?E1 energy of electron in lower / inner energy level ...3 E2 energy of excitedstate/energy of electron in outer/ higher energy level ...3 f, frequency(of photon) ...3Name one metallic element whose salts give a lilac colour to a Bunsen burnerflame.
    90. 90. 2004 QUESTION 8• (a) Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) orbital. (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy ...3 possessed by an electron in an atom ...3(ii) region in space around the nucleus ...3 where there is a high probability offinding an electron ...3What information about an electron in an atom is given by the principal(first) quantum number and by the subsidiary (second) quantum number?shell/main energy level / orbit (to which the electron belongs) ...3 type ofsubshell / sublevel (to which an electron belongs) ...3In the relationship E2 – E1 = hf, which applies to atomic emission spectra,what do E1 , E2 and f represent?E1 energy of electron in lower / inner energy level ...3 E2 energy of excitedstate/energy of electron in outer/ higher energy level ...3 f, frequency(of photon) ...3Name one metallic element whose salts give a lilac colour to a Bunsen burnerflame.potassium
    91. 91. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3
    92. 92. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3
    93. 93. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3
    94. 94. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3
    95. 95. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3Is ammonia soluble in water? Explain your answer in terms of bonding.
    96. 96. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3Is ammonia soluble in water? Explain your answer in terms of bonding.yes ...3 water is polar / there is an attraction between the water molecules andthe ammonia molecules / hydrogen bonds form between the water and the
    97. 97. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3Is ammonia soluble in water? Explain your answer in terms of bonding.yes ...3 water is polar / there is an attraction between the water molecules andthe ammonia molecules / hydrogen bonds form between the water and theammonia molecules [like dissolves like unacceptable]
    98. 98. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3Is ammonia soluble in water? Explain your answer in terms of bonding.yes ...3 water is polar / there is an attraction between the water molecules andthe ammonia molecules / hydrogen bonds form between the water and theammonia molecules [like dissolves like unacceptable]
    99. 99. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3Is ammonia soluble in water? Explain your answer in terms of bonding.yes ...3 water is polar / there is an attraction between the water molecules andthe ammonia molecules / hydrogen bonds form between the water and theammonia molecules [like dissolves like unacceptable]Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the nitrogen atom
    100. 100. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3Is ammonia soluble in water? Explain your answer in terms of bonding.yes ...3 water is polar / there is an attraction between the water molecules andthe ammonia molecules / hydrogen bonds form between the water and theammonia molecules [like dissolves like unacceptable]Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the nitrogen atomN = 1s2 2s2 2p3
    101. 101. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3Is ammonia soluble in water? Explain your answer in terms of bonding.yes ...3 water is polar / there is an attraction between the water molecules andthe ammonia molecules / hydrogen bonds form between the water and theammonia molecules [like dissolves like unacceptable]Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the nitrogen atomN = 1s2 2s2 2p3
    102. 102. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3Is ammonia soluble in water? Explain your answer in terms of bonding.yes ...3 water is polar / there is an attraction between the water molecules andthe ammonia molecules / hydrogen bonds form between the water and theammonia molecules [like dissolves like unacceptable]Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the nitrogen atomN = 1s2 2s2 2p3Draw a diagram to show the valence electrons and the bonding in ammonia(NH3). three single bonds ...3 one lone pair ...3 correct arrangement of atoms
    103. 103. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3Is ammonia soluble in water? Explain your answer in terms of bonding.yes ...3 water is polar / there is an attraction between the water molecules andthe ammonia molecules / hydrogen bonds form between the water and theammonia molecules [like dissolves like unacceptable]Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the nitrogen atomN = 1s2 2s2 2p3Draw a diagram to show the valence electrons and the bonding in ammonia(NH3). three single bonds ...3 one lone pair ...3 correct arrangement of atoms
    104. 104. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3Is ammonia soluble in water? Explain your answer in terms of bonding.yes ...3 water is polar / there is an attraction between the water molecules andthe ammonia molecules / hydrogen bonds form between the water and theammonia molecules [like dissolves like unacceptable]Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the nitrogen atomN = 1s2 2s2 2p3Draw a diagram to show the valence electrons and the bonding in ammonia(NH3). three single bonds ...3 one lone pair ...3 correct arrangement of atomsUse electron pair repulsion theory to predict the shape of and the bond anglein the ammonia molecule. pyramidal 107° (107.5°)
    105. 105. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3Is ammonia soluble in water? Explain your answer in terms of bonding.yes ...3 water is polar / there is an attraction between the water molecules andthe ammonia molecules / hydrogen bonds form between the water and theammonia molecules [like dissolves like unacceptable]Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the nitrogen atomN = 1s2 2s2 2p3Draw a diagram to show the valence electrons and the bonding in ammonia(NH3). three single bonds ...3 one lone pair ...3 correct arrangement of atomsUse electron pair repulsion theory to predict the shape of and the bond anglein the ammonia molecule. pyramidal 107° (107.5°)bond pairs and 1 lone pair of electrons / lp:lp > lp:bp > bp:bp
    106. 106. • (b) Define electronegativity attraction an atom (element) has ...3 for a shared pair of electrons ...3Use electronegativity values to predict the type of bonding in ammonia. 3polar covalent (bonding) ...3Is ammonia soluble in water? Explain your answer in terms of bonding.yes ...3 water is polar / there is an attraction between the water molecules andthe ammonia molecules / hydrogen bonds form between the water and theammonia molecules [like dissolves like unacceptable]Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the nitrogen atomN = 1s2 2s2 2p3Draw a diagram to show the valence electrons and the bonding in ammonia(NH3). three single bonds ...3 one lone pair ...3 correct arrangement of atomsUse electron pair repulsion theory to predict the shape of and the bond anglein the ammonia molecule. pyramidal 107° (107.5°)bond pairs and 1 lone pair of electrons / lp:lp > lp:bp > bp:bp
    107. 107. WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW TO ANSWER QUESTION 8• Bonding: Ionic, covalent, hydrogen and metallic• Properties of different bonding types & Allotropes• Electronegativity• First ionisation energy• Electron configuration• E2-E1 = hf and quantum numbers• VSEPR theory• Transition metal properties
    108. 108. • Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital. 4×3
    109. 109. • Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital. 4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3
    110. 110. • Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital. 4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• which an electron has (in an atom) …3
    111. 111. • Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital. 4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• which an electron has (in an atom) …3• (ii) region in space / around the nucleus / in an atom …3
    112. 112. • Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital. 4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• which an electron has (in an atom) …3• (ii) region in space / around the nucleus / in an atom …3• where there is a high probability of finding an electron …3
    113. 113. • Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital. 4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• which an electron has (in an atom) …3• (ii) region in space / around the nucleus / in an atom …3• where there is a high probability of finding an electron …3• (i) How does an electron in an atom become excited? 3
    114. 114. • Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital. 4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• which an electron has (in an atom) …3• (ii) region in space / around the nucleus / in an atom …3• where there is a high probability of finding an electron …3• (i) How does an electron in an atom become excited? 3• it gains energy / heat / place in a discharge tube …3
    115. 115. • Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital. 4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• which an electron has (in an atom) …3• (ii) region in space / around the nucleus / in an atom …3• where there is a high probability of finding an electron …3• (i) How does an electron in an atom become excited? 3• it gains energy / heat / place in a discharge tube …3• (ii) Why does the electron not remain in the excited state? 3
    116. 116. • Explain the terms (i) energy level, (ii) atomic orbital. 4×3• (i) definite (discrete) (specific) level of energy …3• which an electron has (in an atom) …3• (ii) region in space / around the nucleus / in an atom …3• where there is a high probability of finding an electron …3• (i) How does an electron in an atom become excited? 3• it gains energy / heat / place in a discharge tube …3• (ii) Why does the electron not remain in the excited state? 3• it is unstable / temporary / loses energy …3
    117. 117. • Question 8 (b)
    118. 118. • Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.
    119. 119. • Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / first / outermost electron …3
    120. 120. • Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / first / outermost electron …3• from a neutral / gaseous / isolated atom …3
    121. 121. • Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / first / outermost electron …3• from a neutral / gaseous / isolated atom …3• State and explain the general trend in first ionisation energy values down any group in the periodic table.
    122. 122. • Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / first / outermost electron …3• from a neutral / gaseous / isolated atom …3• State and explain the general trend in first ionisation energy values down any group in the periodic table.• values decrease down a group …6
    123. 123. • Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / first / outermost electron …3• from a neutral / gaseous / isolated atom …3• State and explain the general trend in first ionisation energy values down any group in the periodic table.• values decrease down a group …6• due to increasing atomic radius /screening effect of inner electrons …3
    124. 124. • Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / first / outermost electron …3• from a neutral / gaseous / isolated atom …3• State and explain the general trend in first ionisation energy values down any group in the periodic table.• values decrease down a group …6• due to increasing atomic radius /screening effect of inner electrons …3• Explain why the second ionisation energy of potassium (3070 kJ mol–1) is significantly greater than its first ionisation energy value (418 kJ mol–1).
    125. 125. • Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / first / outermost electron …3• from a neutral / gaseous / isolated atom …3• State and explain the general trend in first ionisation energy values down any group in the periodic table.• values decrease down a group …6• due to increasing atomic radius /screening effect of inner electrons …3• Explain why the second ionisation energy of potassium (3070 kJ mol–1) is significantly greater than its first ionisation energy value (418 kJ mol–1).• second electron is taken from a full 3rd shell / energy level / inner shell …6
    126. 126. • Question 8 (b)• Define the first ionisation energy of an element.• energy required to remove the most loosely bound / first / outermost electron …3• from a neutral / gaseous / isolated atom …3• State and explain the general trend in first ionisation energy values down any group in the periodic table.• values decrease down a group …6• due to increasing atomic radius /screening effect of inner electrons …3• Explain why the second ionisation energy of potassium (3070 kJ mol–1) is significantly greater than its first ionisation energy value (418 kJ mol–1).• second electron is taken from a full 3rd shell / energy level / inner shell …6• [second electron removed from full p-orbital / more stable configuration, one correct (s,p) configuration …3]
    127. 127. • level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted?
    128. 128. • level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted?• E2 – E1 …6
    129. 129. • level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3
    130. 130. • level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts are based on electron transitions within atoms.What colour do potassium salts give to a Bunsen flame?
    131. 131. • level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts are based on electron transitions within atoms.What colour do potassium salts give to a Bunsen flame?• lilac / purple …3
    132. 132. • level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts are based on electron transitions within atoms.What colour do potassium salts give to a Bunsen flame?• lilac / purple …3• (v) Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the potassium ion, K+.
    133. 133. • level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts are based on electron transitions within atoms.What colour do potassium salts give to a Bunsen flame?• lilac / purple …3• (v) Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the potassium ion, K+.• 1s2 2s2 2p6 …3
    134. 134. • level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts are based on electron transitions within atoms.What colour do potassium salts give to a Bunsen flame?• lilac / purple …3• (v) Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the potassium ion, K+.• 1s2 2s2 2p6 …3• 3s2 3p6 …3
    135. 135. • level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts are based on electron transitions within atoms.What colour do potassium salts give to a Bunsen flame?• lilac / purple …3• (v) Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the potassium ion, K+.• 1s2 2s2 2p6 …3• 3s2 3p6 …3• [ ]+ …3
    136. 136. • level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts are based on electron transitions within atoms.What colour do potassium salts give to a Bunsen flame?• lilac / purple …3• (v) Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the potassium ion, K+.• 1s2 2s2 2p6 …3• 3s2 3p6 …3• [ ]+ …3• (vi) State the number of energy levels and the number of orbitals occupied by the electrons in the potassium ion, K+.
    137. 137. • level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts are based on electron transitions within atoms.What colour do potassium salts give to a Bunsen flame?• lilac / purple …3• (v) Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the potassium ion, K+.• 1s2 2s2 2p6 …3• 3s2 3p6 …3• [ ]+ …3• (vi) State the number of energy levels and the number of orbitals occupied by the electrons in the potassium ion, K+.• three energy levels …3
    138. 138. • level and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation emitted?• E2 – E1 …6• = hf …3• (iv) Flame tests on metal salts are based on electron transitions within atoms.What colour do potassium salts give to a Bunsen flame?• lilac / purple …3• (v) Write the electronic (s, p) configuration of the potassium ion, K+.• 1s2 2s2 2p6 …3• 3s2 3p6 …3• [ ]+ …3• (vi) State the number of energy levels and the number of orbitals occupied by the electrons in the potassium ion, K+.• three energy levels …3• nine orbitals …3
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