Aalto UniversitySchool of ScienceDegree Programme of Information NetworksKaroliina HarjanneDeveloping a New Global Idea Cr...
Aalto University                                              ABSTRACT OF THE MASTER’S THESISSchool of ScienceDegree progr...
Aalto-yliopisto                                                DIPLOMITYÖN TIIVISTELMÄPerustieteiden korkeakouluInformaati...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAf...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTable of ContentsP...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace6. SYNTHESIS OF TH...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceList of FiguresFIG...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceList of TablesTABL...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplacePART I: INTRODUCTI...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacemarketing and inte...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceThere will be more...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceFigure 1 Relations...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace1.2 Research quest...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacefeatures that supp...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceNumerous factors i...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplacePART II: LITERATUR...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceIn other words, id...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceStudies yet from t...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace    4. The need fo...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceprocesses of the w...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacestaffed with compa...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacethe future more ac...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacegeneration model r...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace3. Motivation to u...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceThus, extrinsic mo...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceachievement, being...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceamong volunteers (...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceAntikainen et al. ...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceintranet” (Davenpo...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceinstant camera. Bo...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTable 1 Users moti...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacewell as rated by v...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacecertain types of p...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceAs Ribiere & Tuggl...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceinnovation include...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTo conclude, roles...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacemessages contain d...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacesolvers. The name ...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace4.3. Roles of user...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceGroups are organiz...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacecore group. On the...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacecommunities, virtu...
Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacerules, build taxon...
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
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A master's thesis made in 2011 for Aalto University about Nokia's external idea crowdsourcing service, IdeasProject

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  1. 1. Aalto UniversitySchool of ScienceDegree Programme of Information NetworksKaroliina HarjanneDeveloping a New Global Idea Creation Platform– Case Idea MarketplaceMaster’s ThesisEspoo, March 14, 2011Supervisor: Eila JärvenpääInstructor: Minna Takala, Lic.Sc. (Tech.)
  2. 2. Aalto University ABSTRACT OF THE MASTER’S THESISSchool of ScienceDegree programme of InformationNetworksAuthor: Karoliina HarjanneTitle: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceNumber of pages: 115 Date: March 14, 2011 Language: EnglishProfessorship: Work Psychology and Code: TU-53LeadershipSupervisor: Eija Järvenpää, professorInstructor: Minna Takala, Lic.Sc. (Tech.)Abstract:Social media has become an inseparable part of the modern society, and companies arecurrently competing for consumers’ time with their own online communities. Companies usesocial media not only to enhance brand image or attract people to buy products and services,but also to make people innovate, design and concept products and services for themselves.This sub-phenomenon of social media is called crowdsourcing. Despite the vast hype, onlyfew companies know how to actually utilize social media and get the best out of it.This study was made at the Company to support the design and implementation process of anew idea crowdsourcing site that is to be launched in spring 2011. The research question ofthe study is “How to get organizations’ employees, customers and other stakeholders to usethe new idea crowdsourcing site to support the idea creation process?” The objectives of thestudy are as follows: To identify the known motivations, features and roles of online communities from the literature, to validate the identified motivations, features and roles of users in the context of idea crowdsourcing and to complete them with findings from end-user survey, observation and expert interviews, and to provide recommendations on how to build a new idea marketplace that will attract a high variety of consumers globallyThe literature review offered a list of motivators to be validated empirically in idea creationcontext. It appeared that similar factors motivate users to participate in an idea marketplaceas in any other online community. Elements from all motivational themes are recommendedto include in all idea crowdsourcing challenges.Basic features of online communities were covered in the literature review, but interviewsconcretized them and linked them tightly to motivators. Features enable motivations, but onthe other hand, the according motivation motivates using the feature. Some features arelinked to two motivations instead of one. The synthesis presents the recommended features.The literature review specified 55 separate roles, which were cut down into two user roles,normal users and lead users, and a few supporting roles based on the case study. Thebehavior from a normal user to a lead user changes very sharply after only a few posts.Motivational differences between these two groups were also discovered.Keywords: online community, social media, idea crowdsourcing, role, motivation, feature
  3. 3. Aalto-yliopisto DIPLOMITYÖN TIIVISTELMÄPerustieteiden korkeakouluInformaatioverkostojen tutkinto-ohjelmaTekijä: Karoliina HarjanneTyön nimi: Uutta globaalia ideointiympäristöä kehittämässä – Case Idea MarketplaceSivumäärä: 115 Päiväys: 14.3.2011 Julkaisukieli: EnglantiProfessuuri: Työpsykologia ja johtaminen Professuurikoodi: TU-53Työn valvoja: Eija Järvenpää, professoriTyön ohjaaja: Minna Takala, tekniikan lisensiaattiTiivistelmä:Sosiaalisesta mediasta on tullut erottamaton osa nyky-yhteiskuntaa ja tänäpäivänä yrityksetkilpailevat kuluttajien ajasta omilla verkkoyhteisöillään. Yrityskuvan ja markkinoinninlisäksi yritykset käyttävät sosiaalista media nykyään myös saadakseen kuluttajatinnovoimaan, suunnittelemaan ja konseptoimaan tuotteita itselleen. Tätä sosiaalisenmedian alalajia kutsutaan talkouttamiseksi. Sosiaalisen median saamasta suurestahuomiosta huolimatta yritykset eivät vieläkään tiedä kuinka parhaiten hyödyntää sitäliiketoiminnassaan.Tämä tutkimus on tehty Nokia Corporationille uuden ideatalkouttamissivustonsuunnittelun ja toteuttamisen tueksi, joka tullaan avaamaan yleisölle keväällä 2011.Tutkimuksessa pyritään selvittämään kuinka organisaation työntekijät, asiakkaat ja muutsidosryhmät saataisiin käyttämään ideatalkouttamissivustoa ideointiprosessin tukena.Tutkimuksen tavoitteet ovat seuraavat: tunnistaa kirjallisuudesta tiedossa olevat verkkoyhteisöjen motivaatiot, toiminnallisuudet ja roolit validoida tunnistetut motivaatit, toiminnallisuudet ja roolit ideatalkouttamiskontekstissa ja täydentää niitä uusilla tuloksilla loppukäyttäjäkyselystä, havainnoinnista ja asiantuntijahaastatteluista tarjota suosituksia erilaisia kuluttajia ympäri mailmaa houkuttelevan ideatalkouttamissivuston toteuttamiseenKirjallisuuskatsaus tarjosi listan motivaatioita validoitavaksi empiirisestiideointikontekstissa. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että samantyyppiset motivaatiot pätevät niinideointiyhteisöihin kuin muihinkin verkkoyhteisöihin. Kaikkia motivaatioteemojasuositellaan hyödynnettävän kaikissa ideatalkouttamiskilpailuissa.Verkkoyhteisöjen perustoiminnallisuudet selvitettiin kirjallisuuskatsauksessa, muttahaastattelut konkretisoivat toiminnallisuudet ja sitoivat ne eri motivaatioihin.Toiminnallisuudet mahdollistavat motivaatiot, mutta toisaalta myös motivoivat käyttämääntoiminnallisuutta. Jotkut toiminnallisuudet liittyvät useaan motivaatioon. Synteesi esitteleesuositellut toiminnallisuudet.Kirjalllisuuskatsauksessa eriteltiin 55 roolia, jotka lopulta supistettiin kahteen ylätasonrooliin, tavallisiin käyttäjiin ja johtaviin käyttäjiin, sekä tukirooleihin. Käyttäjien roolinhavaittiin muuttuvan nopeasti tavallisista käyttäjistä johtaviksi heti muutaman viestinjälkeen. Myös näiden roolien eroavaisuudet motivaatoissa selvitettiin.Asiasanat: verkkoyhteisö, sosiaalinen media, ideatalkoo, rooli, motivaatio, toiminnallisuus
  4. 4. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAfter 18 years of school, 6 years of university studies and almost a year of a thesisprocess there are certainly a few people to thank.At first, I want to thank my parents for encouraging me all this time and teachingthe importance of working hard.Thank you, Minna Takala, for arranging me this awesome opportunity to make mymaster’s thesis on such an interesting topic for such an interesting company, andthanks for helping all the way. Thank you, Matthew Hanwell, for enabling thisarrangement and being always so patient. I also want to thank Eila Järvenpää forbeing so flexible, warm, helpful and constructive during this whole process. Icouldn’t have gotten better supervisor.Special thanks go to Pia Erkinheimo and her absolutely fantastic team – it has beenpure pleasure to work with all of you guys! In practice, Pia has been my instructoron behalf of Nokia and kindly helping always when needed.Last but not least, I want to thank SK-klubi for making my student life so hilariousand hard times a bit less hard, and of course my dear husband Atte, who has beencooking and cleaning up for the last busy weeks and even printed this thesis. Thankyou.In Austin, 14rd of March, 2011Karoliina Harjanne________________________________________________________________________________________________ iv
  5. 5. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTable of ContentsPART I: INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................11. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................1 1.1 BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................1 1.2 RESEARCH QUESTION AND OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................5 1.3 SCOPE AND THE STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY ...........................................................................5PART II: LITERATURE REVIEW ..........................................................................................82. IDEA CREATION .............................................................................................................8 2.1 DEFINITIONS .........................................................................................................................8 2.2 INNOVATION PROCESSES........................................................................................................9 2.2.1 Open Innovation Paradigm ....................................................................................... 12 2.3 CROWDSOURCING IN IDEA CREATION .................................................................................. 13 2.4 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ...................................................................................................... 143. MOTIVATION TO USE ONLINE COMMUNITIES ........................................................... 16 3.1 INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION.............................................................................. 16 3.2 TWO FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION ............................................................................... 17 3.3 MOTIVATIONS TO USE ONLINE COMMUNITIES...................................................................... 18 3.3.1 Extrinsic motivations in online communities ........................................................... 18 3.3.2 Intrinsic motivations in online communities ............................................................ 20 3.3.3 Reward and creativity ............................................................................................... 21 3.4 SUMMARY OF MOTIVATIONS ................................................................................................ 224. ROLES OF USERS IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES ............................................................. 25 4.1 ROLES OF USERS IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES AROUND OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE PROJECTS .... 27 4.2 ROLES OF USERS IN ONLINE LEARNING COMMUNITIES ......................................................... 29 4.3. ROLES OF USERS IN ONLINE BRAND COMMUNITIES ............................................................. 31 4.4 ROLES OF USERS IN A GUILD COMMUNITY ........................................................................... 32 4.5 ROLES OF USERS IN ONLINE TECHNOLOGY COMMUNITIES .................................................... 33 4.6 ROLE OF LEADER IN ONLINE GROUPS................................................................................... 35 4.7 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................... 365. IDEA CREATION TOOLS AND FUNCTIONS IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES...................... 40 5.1 COLLABORATION FEATURES IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES ......................................................... 40 5.2 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS .................................................................................. 42 5.2.1 Knowledge-enabled innovation management systems ............................................ 43 5.3 SOCIAL MEDIA TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES .......................................................................... 45 5.4 FUNCTIONS IN DIFFERENT PHASES OF THE IDEA CREATION PROCESS ................................... 46 5.4.1 Idea generation/ identification stage ....................................................................... 47 5.4.2 Concept definition stage ............................................................................................ 49 5.4.3 Concept feasibility and refinement stage ................................................................. 49 5.4.4 Portfolio stage ........................................................................................................... 49 5.4.5 Deployment stage ...................................................................................................... 49 5.5 CASE FACEBOOK ................................................................................................................. 50 5.6 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................... 51________________________________________________________________________________________________ v
  6. 6. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace6. SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................. 54PART III: USE CASE STUDY ............................................................................................. 567. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY .................................................................................. 56 7.1 SURVEY .............................................................................................................................. 58 7.2 OBSERVATION .................................................................................................................... 59 7.3 INTERVIEWS ....................................................................................................................... 608 THE CASE COMPANY ..................................................................................................... 62 8.1 EXISTING IDEA CREATION PLATFORMS ................................................................................ 63 8.1.1 Idea generation in the Company’s innovation funnel .............................................. 63 8.1.2 Conversion and concepting in the Company’s innovation funnel ............................ 64 8.1.3 Diffusion in the Company’s innovation funnel .......................................................... 64 8.2 IDEA MARKETPLACE ............................................................................................................ 65 8.2.1 Features ..................................................................................................................... 65 8.2.2 Roles ........................................................................................................................... 66 8.2.3 Motivations ................................................................................................................ 679 RESULTS ........................................................................................................................ 69 9.1 RESULTS FROM THE OBSERVATION OF DELL’S IDEASTORM .................................................. 69 9.1.1 Normal users .............................................................................................................. 69 9.1.2 Lead users .................................................................................................................. 72 9.1.3 Moderators ................................................................................................................ 74 9.1.4 Summary of the observation results ......................................................................... 75 9.2 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS ...................................................................................... 76 9.2.1 Motivators of lead users versus normal users .......................................................... 80 9.3 INTERVIEW RESULTS ........................................................................................................... 83 9.3.1 Concept of the Idea Marketplace .............................................................................. 83 9.3.2 Motivations ................................................................................................................ 87 9.3.3 Roles ........................................................................................................................... 91 9.3.4 Features of an idea marketplace .............................................................................. 96 9.4 SYNTHESIS OF THE CASE STUDY ....................................................................................... 103PART IV: DISCUSSION ................................................................................................... 10810. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF THE STUDY .................................................... 11211. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH .................................................... 11312. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS .................................................................................. 114REFERENCES................................................................................................................... 116INTERNET SOURCES ...................................................................................................... 127APPENDIX 1: SURVEY FORM .......................................................................................... 131 MOTIVATION SURVEY ABOUT IDEATION ......................................................................................... 131 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ....................................................................................................... 131 MOTIVATIONAL QUESTIONS......................................................................................................... 132APPENDIX 2: INTERVIEWEES ........................................................................................ 140________________________________________________________________________________________________ vi
  7. 7. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceList of FiguresFIGURE 1 RELATIONS OF USED TERMS ................................................................... 4FIGURE 2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND METHODS OF THE STUDY ............................. 6FIGURE 3 CYCLIC INNOVATION MODEL (CIM) (BERKHOUT & HARTMANN, 2006) ..... 11FIGURE 4 OPEN INNOVATION PARADIGM (CHESBROUGH, 2003) ............................. 13FIGURE 5 EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATIONS AS WELL AS MOTIVATORS ANDHYGIENE FACTORS DISPLAYED AS SUBSETS .......................................................... 24FIGURE 6 FRAMEWORK OF A KNOWLEDGE-ENABLED INNOVATION MANAGEMENTSYSTEM (KIMS) SUPPORTED BY KM 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES (RIBIERE AND TUGGLE, 2010)........................................................................................................................... 45FIGURE 7 THE FUGLE INNOVATION PROCESS (PREEZ & LOUW, 2008) [MODIFIED] .. 47FIGURE 8 SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................. 55FIGURE 9 COMPANYS INNOVATION FUNNEL ......................................................... 63FIGURE 10 IDEA CHALLENGE PROCESS IN THE IDEA MARKETPLACE ....................... 66FIGURE 11 MOTIVATORS TO PARTICIPATE IN IDEA CROWDSOURCING CHALLENGES........................................................................................................................... 68FIGURE 12 ROLES IDENTIFIED FROM INTERVIEWS ................................................ 96FIGURE 13A SYNTHESIS OF THE USE CASE STUDY ............................................... 106FIGURE 13B SYNTHESIS OF THE USE CASE STUDY ............................................... 107________________________________________________________________________________________________ vii
  8. 8. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceList of TablesTABLE 1 USERS MOTIVATIONS TO PARTICIPATE IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES(ANTIKAINEN ET AL., 2010) [MODIFIED] ............................................................... 23TABLE 2 OCCURRENCE OF ROLES IN ONLINE LERNING COMMUNITIES (YEH, 2010),[MODIFIED] ......................................................................................................... 30TABLE 3 ROLES OF USERS IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES IDENTIFIED FROM THELITERATURE ........................................................................................................ 37TABLE 4 TOOLS AND METHODS FOR COLLABORATION (ANTIKAINEN ET AL., 2010)[MODIFIED] ......................................................................................................... 42TABLE 5 EXAMPLES OF ACTIONS ENABLING THE INTERACTIVITY BETWEEN THECUSTOMERS AND THE CROWD WITH THE INTERNAL INNOVATION PROCESS (RIBIEREAND TUGGLE, 2010) ............................................................................................. 44TABLE 6 FREQUENCY OF MENTIONS OF REASONS TO USE FACEBOOK (JOINSON,2008) .................................................................................................................. 51TABLE 7 SUMMARY OF TOOLS AND FUNCTIONS OF CHAPTER 5 .............................. 53TABLE 8 MOTIVATIONS TO PARTICIPATE IN THE IDEA MARKETPLACE .................... 79TABLE 9 COMPARING TOP 5 MOTIVATIONS OF LEAD USERS AND NORMAL USERS ... 81TABLE 10 COMPARING MOTIVATORS OF LEAD USERS AND NORMAL USERS ............ 82________________________________________________________________________________________________ viii
  9. 9. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplacePART I: INTRODUCTION1. Introduction1.1 BackgroundSocial media has become an inseparable part of the modern society. After 2004,when Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook (Facebook, 2010), the world has rapidlybecome a world of social media, online communities and crowdsourcing.Social media refers to "a group of Internet-based applications that build on theideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, which allows the creation andexchange of user-generated content" (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). Currently,consumers are voluntarily using dozens of social media sites. The most popular ofthem include Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, LinkedIn and Ning (eBizMBA, 2010).At the same time, companies are competing for consumers’ time with their ownonline communities in social media. By online community, we refer to “a group ofpeople who use computer networks as their primary mode of interaction” (Cothrel &Williams, 1999a). 79 percent of Fortune Global 100 companies use at least onesocial media channel (Burson-Marsteller, 2010), and social media adoption bysmall companies has even doubled from 2009 to 2010. Two-thirds of the world’s100 largest companies are using Twitter and over a half of them has a Facebookpage. Majority of small companies use social media to identify and attract newcustomers. (Solis, 2010) Furthermore, companies are planning to increase theirmarketing efforts in social media tremendously (Bloch, 2010). 80 percent ofcompanies use social media also for recruiting (Qualman, 2010).Despite the popularity of social media services, only few companies know how toactually utilize social media. Although 69 percent of American companies have aFacebook page, only 32 percent have posts with comments from fans (Axon, 2010)and not more than 59 percent of the Fortune Global 100 firms have hiredemployees to carry out core social media tasks, like customer outreach, PR,________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1
  10. 10. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacemarketing and internal communications (Social Media Influence, 2010). Less thanhalf of companies said they had a strategic plan to guide social media activities, andonly 69 percent of those measured the return on investment of social mediaactivities. And what is more, just 12 percent of companies had defined social mediapolicies for employees. (O’Malley, 2010) It seems that in the middle of the socialmedia hype, companies have just concentrated on establishing a must-have socialmedia site and forgotten that not having customers involved erodes the wholepurpose of social media. Online community is not a community without people.Companies really have to get customers committed to get the benefit. For instance,companies with 100 to 500 Twitter followers make 146 percent more leads thanthose with 21 to 100 followers (eMarketer 2010).Social media has raised a sub-phenomenon called crowdsourcing. The inventor ofthe term, Jeff Howe (2006b), defines crowdsourcing as follows: “Simply defined, crowdsourcing represents the act of a company or institution taking a function once performed by employees and outsourcing it to an undefined (and generally large) network of people in the form of an open call . . . The crucial prerequisite is the use of the open call format and the large network of potential laborers.” (Jeff Howe, 2006b)In other words, companies could use social media not only to enhance brand imageor attract people to buy products, but also to encourage people innovate, designand concept products for companies. Basically, crowdsourcing is already used inevery stage of product development process from marketing (StarbucksCorporation, 2010) to R&D (InnoCentive, 2010). The benefits of includingcustomers are obvious – an end-user point of view will be ensured, which enhancesusability and usefulness of the product.Several companies have already seen the opportunity of crowdsourcing. The mostpopular examples of these companies and their crowdsourcing sites include IBM’sCollaboration Jam (IBM, 2008), Google Ideas (Google, 2009), Starbucks (StarbucksCorporation, 2010), OpenIDEO (Ideo, 2011) and InnoCentive (InnoCentive, 2010).________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2
  11. 11. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceThere will be more of them, since several software suppliers base their businessidea on similar idea market places. The leading suppliers include Accept Ideas(Accept Software 2010), Jive Software (Jive Software, 2010), Imaginatik(Imaginatik plc, n.d.) and Spigit (Spigit, n.d.).Popular social media and crowdsourcing sites confirm that people want toparticipate and they can be committed. However, the dilemma of participationremains. Not all companies have managed to make their online community success.Nokia Corporation (hereafter referred to as “the Company”), the world’s leadingmobile phone manufacturer, has also already developed and taken into use severalsocial media and even crowdsourcing sites, but none of them is used corporate-wide and none of them actually “flies” nor is known by millions of people. However,this is something that the Company has decided to do – to design and implement anew comprehensive crowdsourcing site. The Company even has a particular taskfor the site, to bring more ideas, which will then be developed into innovations andreal products and services. This new site will gather all ideas from consumers,employees and stakeholders in one place and deliver them to developers fordevelopment. From this point on, this kind of idea crowdsourcing sites will becalled idea marketplaces.Figure 1 illustrates further the relation of used terms. The figure implies that anidea marketplace is one kind of online community. An idea marketplace usescrowdsourcing as an idea generation method, and crowdsourcing is one type ofsocial media.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3
  12. 12. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceFigure 1 Relations of used termsThis study is made for the Company1 to find out what would make the Company’sidea marketplace attractive for customers, when the number of similar services israpidly growing and an increasing amount of companies are fighting for the“wisdom of the crowd”. The wisdom of the crowd refers to the process of taking intoaccount the collective opinion of a group of individuals rather than a single expert(Surowiecki, 2004). However, the overall goal of the study is to learn about thephenomenon of idea crowdsourcing in general and use the Company as a case,where the theory is being applied.In particular, open questions include what motivates people to participate in ideacrowdsourcing and what roles, as well as features, an idea marketplace shouldhave. Roles, motivations and features of online communities have already beenstudied but no studies in the context of idea creation were found. Therefore, thisstudy will offer new research results of the branch of idea crowdsourcing andneeded practical implications for the use of the Company at the same time.1 The Company is introduced in chapter 8________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4
  13. 13. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace1.2 Research question and objectivesThe research problem of this thesis is:“How to get organizations’ employees, customers and other stakeholders to use a newidea marketplace to support the idea creation process?”The research question can be divided into following sub-questions, which are ofspecial interest for the Company: - What motivates people to contribute to an idea marketplace? - What features should an idea marketplace have? - What kind of roles do the users of an idea marketplace have?The objectives of the thesis are as follows: - To identify the known motivations, features and roles of online communities from the literature, - to validate the identified motivations, features and roles in the context of idea crowdsourcing and to complete them with findings from end-user survey, observation and expert interviews, and - to provide recommendations on how to build a new idea marketplace that will attract a high variety of consumers globally1.3 Scope and the structure of the studyThis research consists of three parts, the first of which is introduction. Second partconsists of a literature review. The beginning of the literature review presents themajor applicable innovation processes for the context of this study. The thirdchapter concentrates on motivations which would make people come and see anidea marketplace or other online community in the first place but also make themcome back over and over again. The fourth chapter introduces selected studies onroles in online communities, while the fifth proposes an exhaustive list of different________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5
  14. 14. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacefeatures that support idea creation processes as well as the overall functions of ideamarketplaces.The third part consists of the material and methods. At first, the case company isintroduced. Next, the roles of users are studied by observing IdeaStorm by Dell Inc.,an established idea marketplace. Motivations of end users are explored as follows.An Internet based inquiry is done based on the results of the literature review.Features of idea marketplaces are examined further by interviewing selected socialmedia experts and developers of successful idea crowdsourcing sites. Thesedevelopers include people from internal and external innovation communities.The fourth part concludes the study presenting discussion: conclusions, strengthsand weaknesses of the study, recommendations and managerial implications.Figure 2 below illustrates the relations between the research question, sub-questions and research methods.Figure 2 Research questions and methods of the study________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6
  15. 15. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceNumerous factors influence the development of new idea marketplaces anddetermine whether such services really enhance idea creation processes or not. Forinstance, marketing efforts and communication can have an effect on how peopleare planned to get to use an idea marketplace. However, this point of view is out ofthe scope of this study.Instead of innovations, this study concentrates on ideas in particular. Ideas arenothing alone, but if they turn into innovations, they can bring some commercialvalue for the company, which is the final goal of the Company. On the other hand,innovations start from ideas, and that is why they are important and constitute thefocus of this study.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7
  16. 16. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplacePART II: LITERATURE REVIEW2. Idea creation2.1 DefinitionsAn idea-related literature often concerns both ideas and innovations but usuallyrefers only to innovations. This study refers to such sources too (e.g. Antikainen etal., 2010; Barsh et al., 2007; Desouza et al., 2009), but for the sake of consistence,deals with ideas and idea creation. That is why it is important to define both ideacreation and innovation and clarify the difference between them.Several definitions for innovation exist (Luecke & Katz, 2003; Baregheh et al., 2009,Schumpeter, 1934). One of the classical definitions by Luecke & Katz (2003) definesinnovation as follows: “Innovation . . . is generally understood as the successful introduction of a new thing or method . . . Innovation is the embodiment, combination, or synthesis of knowledge in original, relevant, valued new products, processes, or services.“Another, more recent definition by Baregheh et al. (2009) takes the definition tothe context of positioning in the market: “Innovation is the multi-stage process whereby organizations transform ideas into new/improved products, service or processes, in order to advance, compete and differentiate themselves successfully in their marketplace.”However, in this study we are referring especially to the following definition byAmabile et al. (1996), because it defines innovation through ideas: “We define innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization. In this view, creativity by individuals and teams is a starting point for innovation; the first is necessary but not sufficient condition for the second. Successful innovation depends on other factors as well and it can stem not only from creative ideas that originate within an organization but also from ideas that originate elsewhere (as in technology transfer).”________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8
  17. 17. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceIn other words, ideas exist before innovations and are a necessary precondition forthem.Although this study concentrates on ideas, the following chapter introduces theinnovation context. This approach was chosen as idea creation is a necessary partof innovation process, and because academic idea creation processes were notfound. In addition, innovations are the final goal of ideas. In following, thedevelopment of innovation processes is presented, as well as Open Innovationparadigm, which forms an ideological basis for idea marketplaces from theinnovation point of view.2.2 Innovation processesOver the past years, innovations have become the top priority for companies toremain competitive in the knowledge economy. Several studies report theimportance of innovation management initiatives (AMA, 2006; Barsh et al., 2007;Capgemini, 2008; IBM, 2006).Nearly two thirds of the organizational value consists of intellectual capital(O’Donnell et al., 2003). Innovation failure rates can reach even the rate of 86percent (Barbier et al., 2007) primarily because end users do not adopt theinnovations. This, again, is because innovation developers lack the knowledge ofuser’s preferences and requirements. (Ribiere & Tuggle, 2010)Furthermore, the demand for ideas and innovations has rapidly increased, thusforcing companies to look for new sources of ideas from related industries orcollaboration, of which collaboration offers a cost-effective option for companies.Involving customers to the idea creation process may also make it easier for themto adopt the innovation later. (Antikainen et al., 2010) Furthermore, collectivethinking is more effective than innovation of separated user (Hargadon & Bechky,2006). Customers also appreciate that their opinions are listened. In addition,taking users into idea creation process offers valuable insight into customers’thoughts, wishes and preferences. (Antikainen et al., 2010).________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9
  18. 18. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceStudies yet from the 60’s show the significance of external resources in ideacreation processes (Freeman, 1991). Most idea creation happens when barriers ofdifferent knowledge domains are crossed. (Leonard-Barton, 1995; Carlile, 2004)Ideas are more likely to arise in teams that consist of people with differentpersonalities, knowledge, skills and backgrounds (Vyakarnam et al., 1997). Ideacreation marketplaces can act as mediators between mentioned actors (Antikainenet al., 2010).The concept of outside innovation also fits perfectly in this context. According toSeybold (2006), the outside innovation happens when customers “lead the design ofyour business processes, products, services, and business models”. Customers co-design companies’ products and the whole business attracting other customers tobuild a customer-centric ecosystem around company’s products and services.(Seybold, 2006)Rothwell’s (1994) model describes five generations of innovation processes, whichillustrates the evolution of the innovation process over time. The model starts fromTechnology Push in the 1950’s/1960’s that emphasized R&D, continues withMarket Pull in the 1970s, followed by the “Coupling” model of Innovation thatcombines R&D and marketing, again followed by the “Interactive” model in the1980’s/1990’s that combines push and pull, and finally ends with “Network” modelin the 2000’s, which is the most essential here. (Rothwell, 1994)Cyclic Innovation Model (CIM) by Berkhout and Hartmann (2006) is one of thefourth-generation innovation models (4Gs) (Berkhout & Hartmann, 2006;Chesbrough, 2003). In general, 4G models have the following characters (Berkhout& Hartmann, 2006): 1. Innovation is embedded in partnerships: ‘open innovation’. 2. Attention is given to an early interaction between science and business. 3. Hard knowledge of emerging technologies is complemented by soft knowledge of emerging markets.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10
  19. 19. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace 4. The need for new organizational concepts is acknowledged by emphasizing skills for managing networks with specialized suppliers as well as early users. 5. Entrepreneurship plays a central role.CIM also follows this pattern as its four components are technological research,product development, market transitions and scientific exploration. However, whatis special in CIM is that it describes a circle instead of chain as its componentsinfluence each other and are influenced by each other. Figure 3 demonstrates this:Figure 3 Cyclic Innovation Model (CIM) (Berkhout & Hartmann, 2006)Innovation may start anytime, from any point of the circle. New technologies andchanges in the market influence each other continuously turning scientificknowledge into socioeconomic value. (Berkhout & Hartmann, 2006)The main message of CIM is the increased level of interaction of differentstakeholders, which make innovation process more dynamic and enablesorganizations to start quickly, adjust quickly and learn quickly. This modelemphasizes the importance of continuous interaction between the internal sub-________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11
  20. 20. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceprocesses of the whole innovation process but also between these sub-processesand their environment. (Berkhout & Hartmann, 2006)Rothwells’s fifth generation model (5G) (1994) introduces networking and systemintegration model that is focused on becoming a fast innovator by integratingcloser with stakeholders using technology and parallel information processing aswell as being flexible. The first of its main characters is a greater overallorganizational and systems integration that includes external networking withsuppliers and leading-edge users. This practically means a cross-functionaldevelopment process using horizontal technological collaboration. Second, 5G isfeatured by flatter and more flexible organizational structure, which enables rapidand effective decision making. This can be achieved, e.g., by empowering managersat lower levels. Third character of 5G is fully developed internal databases, such asdata sharing systems, product development metrics and 3D-CAD systems. Finally,the last feature of 5G is effective external electronic linkages, which includes co-development with suppliers using linked CAD systems. (Rothwell, 1994) All in all, itcan be said that Rothewell’s model is build on the top of fourth-generationinnovation model, such as CIM, but it additionally includes a strong ICT point ofview in each of its features.Various innovation models have been developed over recent years by severalauthors (Desouza et al., 2009; Dobni, 2006). In the following, the most relevantinnovation process model for this study is presented.2.2.1 Open Innovation ParadigmOpen Innovation is a paradigm by Henry Chesbrough (2003) proposing that, inaddition to internal ideas and paths to market, firms should use externals whenadvancing their technology but internal mechanism to concretize the value.However, internal ideas can be taken to new markets using external channels tocreate additional value. These ideas can even seep out of the firm, often bydeparting employees, external licensing or start-up companies that are partially________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12
  21. 21. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacestaffed with company’s own employees. Naturally ideas can move also outside in(Figure 4). (Chesbrough, 2003)The characteristics of this model include utilizing ideas that are worthless to thecompany, but have value in new markets, outside of the company. This way newideas that don’t have resources to be implemented internally will get a change torealize. Fundamentally, this approach is based on abundant knowledge, whichcompany uncovers in its R&D, and which must be used readily. (Chesbrough, 2003)Figure 4 Open Innovation Paradigm (Chesbrough, 2003)The following chapter introduces one approach on Open Innovation.2.3 Crowdsourcing in idea creationWhen crowdsourcing, the company looks for an idea, a solution to a problem orevaluation from a crowd (Bonabeau, 2009). The best solution will often berewarded. The collective intelligence of the crowd and its background diversitymay offer companies innovative ideas for a low cost. (Ribiere & Tuggle, 2010)Crowdsourcing has successfully been applied in the area of forecasting. Surowiecki(2004) suggests that ordinary people without any special knowledge can predict________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13
  22. 22. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacethe future more accurately than experts due to the diversity of opinions and moreindependent thinking. For example, employees have been proven to forecastproduct demand more correctly than product managers of the same firm (Nocera,2006). A study by Kaufman-Scarborought et al. (2010) argues that consumer inputincreases companies ability to predict the profitability of items sold in stores,which easily and inexpensively enhances retailers performance and profitability.Porta et al. (2008) claims that already 50 percent of large enterprises and 47percent of startups are using network intelligence for value creation. By networkintelligence, they refer to business intelligence of the Internet, i.e., freely availableinformation on customers, markets, competitors and other concerns for a business.Furthermore, 55 percent of large enterprises and 45 percent of startups are usingtheir customers as a source of network intelligence. However, they remind that theright mindset, processes and tools are needed to be able to use the collectivewisdom of masses. For instance, Nintendo has launched a community platform forits customers, where they can give customer insight to products. In return,participators get incentives, such as exclusive game reviews. Nintendo’s approachleads to better product quality and brand experience as well as richer userinterface with lowered costs. (Porta et al., 2008)According to Porta et al (2008), especially large enterprises should forgetperfection and concentrate on speed. This could be done innovating “quick anddirty”, that is based on "failing fast and failing cheap" of "launch and adapt"principles. (Porta et al., 2008)2.4 Summary of findingsChapter 2.2 summarized the recent requirements of companies, including theemphasized meaning of innovations, committing end-users in early phases of theproduct development process, openness and cooperation across different fields.The Cyclic Innovation Model added that innovation may start anytime, anywhere,and it requires continuous interactions as well as entrepreneurship. The fifth-________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14
  23. 23. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacegeneration model reminded about advantages of flat organizations andempowerment of employees as well as horizontal technical collaboration.Sub-chapter 2.2.1 presented one innovation process model that matched with theserequirements, Open Innovation paradigm, which responded to all the needsmentioned in the previous chapter. It emphasized the role of innovations, was openfor sharing ideas and was based on cooperation with both customers andcompanies from other knowledge domains.The combination of these models would be a network of actors, which is highlyinteractive and entrepreneurial and connected via advanced technical solution.Single organizations in the network are flat and employees empowered. Actors arenot jealous for their ideas, but instead sharing them openly and giving ideas for thedirection that best implements them. Innovations may arise from any point of thenetwork, anytime, due to the democratized roles of individuals. R&D and businessare developed hand in hand, utilizing each other’s results and resources.The last chapter, chapter 2.3, proposed one particular approach in idea creation –crowdsourcing, which could be utilized to implement the described ideamarketplace. Crowdsourcing would outsource the idea creation to an undefined ordedicated crowd, which could consist of all mentioned actors from customers todevelopers and partners, using technical platform.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15
  24. 24. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace3. Motivation to use online communitiesComplicated innovation models are useless, if no consumers appear to an ideamarketplace. This can be avoided by understanding what would motivate people touse social media, and finally, create ideas. A common way to discuss motivation isto divide it into intrinsic and extrinsic motivations or motivators and hygienefactors. These motivation theories have traditionally been associated with work(Herzberg et al., 1959; Kressler, 2003), but similar motivations apply to knowledgework as well, as can be seen in chapter 3.3.3.1 Intrinsic and extrinsic motivationBy intrinsic motivation, researchers mean the non-drive-based motivation which“is based in the organismic needs to be competent and self-determining” and where“the energy is intrinsic to the nature of the organism” (Deci & Ryan, 1985). In otherwords, intrinsic motivation refers to “doing something because it is inherentlyinteresting or enjoyable”, whereas extrinsic motivation means “doing somethingbecause it leads to a separable outcome” (Ryan and Deci, 2000). A separableoutcome is something external to the individual, such as financial compensation(van Eeghen, 2008).According to several studies, creativity results from risk-taking, uninhibitedexploration, and combination of old elements into new patterns (Amabile et al.,1986). These studies (Amabile et al., 1986) propose that the intrinsic motivationenhances creativity, whereas extrinsic motivation undermines motivation(Amabile, 1983). McGraw (1978) suggested that extrinsic motivation improvesperformance on algorithmic, simple and straightforward tasks, but inhibitsperformance on heuristic tasks. Creativity tasks are basically heuristic, so theyshould not be motivated extrinsically. A number of experimental studies haveshown the negative effects of extrinsic motivation on creativity. (Amabile et al.,1986) These studies have included expected evaluation (Amabile, 1979) andsurveillance (Amabile et al., 1983).________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16
  25. 25. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceThus, extrinsic motivating should be avoided in creative tasks. There are also wayshow intrinsic motivation can be turned into extrinsic motivation, which should beavoided equally. First, a reward can be offered for a task that is already intrinsicallyinteresting for the person, but which becomes extrinsic and to be accomplishedonly to obtain the reward. Second, the task can be used as a tool to end in someother way than the offer of reward. Third, the task can be presented as workinstead of play. The explanation to the latter is that people react negatively to awork when their behavior is controlled, because they have learned that work isusually something that someone must be persuaded to do. Then again, if no salientexternal constraints are performed on task engagement, they might react positivelyto the same task. (Amabile et al., 1986)In all of these explanations people must perform their tasks primarily as a means toachieve the extrinsic end, that is, a reward. Achievement of the reward mustdepend on doing the task. On the other hand, although task contingent rewards doundermine intrinsic motivation, non-contingent rewards do not. (Amabile et al.,1986) If rewards are presented randomly after task completion or as arbitrarybonuses, they don’t have the negative effect (Ryan, Mims, & Koestner, 1983).3.2 Two factor theory of motivationAnother – even older – way to discuss motivations is to divide them into motivatorsand hygiene factors (Herzberg et al., 1959) where motivations are related tointrinsic motivations whereas hygiene factors are related to extrinsic motivations(Kressler, 2003). The difference here hides in the perspective from whichmotivations are discussed. When intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are discussedaround creativity, motivators and hygiene factors refer to satisfaction: hygienefactors cannot create satisfaction but their absence can cause dissatisfaction. Thenagain, motivators can create satisfaction. (Herzberg et al., 1959)Herzberg et al. (1959) have suggested that motivators include trust, independence,career development, responsibility, sense of making a worthwhile contribution,________________________________________________________________________________________________ 17
  26. 26. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceachievement, being challenged, and recognition by colleagues, peers, superiors, thework itself. The second group, hygiene factors, comprises pay, company policy andadministration, personal relations, status, security and – interestingly – processesof proposing and approving ideas. (Herzberg et al., 1959)What is more, Hertzberg et al. (1959) pointed out an important notion – hygienefactors are also needed. They cannot create satisfaction, but when lacking, theycreate dissatisfaction. Therefore extrinsic motivators are needed to avoiddissatisfaction, but the real satisfaction, and motivations, must be created abovethat with motivators. (Hertzberg et al., 1959) According to Kressler’s (2003)interpretation, a lack of motivators is far more serious than only being dissatisfiedwith some extrinsic factors.3.3 Motivations to use online communitiesSeveral studies have been made on motivation in online communities. Selectedstudies of online communities, which are related to idea marketplaces fromdifferent angles, will be introduced as follows, classified under extrinsic andintrinsic factors.3.3.1 Extrinsic motivations in online communitiesPredictably, reward and recognition in their different forms are mentioned inseveral studies. Classic social studies generally suggest that monetary rewards areharmful to idea creation (Spence, 1956; Amabile et al., 1986; Toubia, 2006) butthey were found to be useful in innovation intermediaries, that is, in vendoroffering innovation platforms, where the strong relation between the company andthe users is lacking (Antikainen and Väätäjä, 2008a, b).However, a study by Lakhani & Wolf (2005) claimed that creativity of programmersdid not suffer from paying, but was equally high than non-paid programmers’creativity in Free/Open Source Software (F/OSS) Projects. The motivation toparticipate was even higher (over two days a week) among paid programmers than________________________________________________________________________________________________ 18
  27. 27. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceamong volunteers (over one day a week) when measured the time spend onprogramming. However, the study found that being paid was not the strongestmotivator, but the feeling of creativity and getting into a flow state. (Lakhani & Wolf2005) Thus, monetary reward perhaps enables spending twice as much time onprogramming, but the source of creativity hides in other motivators, both extrinsicand intrinsic. These intrinsic motivators are discussed in the next chapter, and thereward issue will be studied in more detail in chapter 3.3.3.The same study (Lakhani & Wolf, 2005) mentioned yet two important extrinsicmotivators more that are consciously improving programming skills and “a senseof obligation to give something back to the community in return for the softwaretools it provides”, which belongs under reciprocity in Table 1. Professional statusand developing a program for work-related needs were also important forcontributors who were paid. Volunteers were participating to improve their skillsor they needed the software for non -work purposes. (Lakhani & Wolf 2005)Lerner and Tirole (2002) studied F/OSS communities as well and they found outthat programmers contributed as long as the benefits exceed the costs. Benefitsincluded the already mentioned normal pay and getting access to the softwareunder development (von Hippel 2001). Especially lead users, users who identifygeneral needs months or years before the bulk of a marketplace, were motivated todevelop solutions for their own needs (von Hippel 1988). Delayed benefits ofdeveloping software included career advancement (Holmström, 1999) andimproving programming skills. (Lakhani & Wolf 2005)According to Jeppesen and Frederiksen (2006), members of company-hostedonline communities appreciate company recognition even higher than other peers’recognition, because these innovative, advanced users want to identify themselveswith company developers instead of their peers. They also suggest that recognitionby peers will be achieved as a consequence of firm recognition. (Jeppesen andFrederiksen 2006)________________________________________________________________________________________________ 19
  28. 28. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceAntikainen et al. (2010) added security, as well as open and constructiveatmosphere, to the list of motivations (Table 1). According to them, positiveatmosphere helps “enhancing motivation”, which describes its role as a hygienefactor, instead of motivator or motivation.3.3.2 Intrinsic motivations in online communitiesA study made by Wasko and Faraj (2000) pointed out that the most popular reasonto participate in online communities was to give back to the community in return tohelp. Other motivations were a feeling of having an effect on one’s environment(Bandura, 1995) or other people, getting a support to participators’ self-images asefficient people (Antikainen et al., 2010) and, undoubtedly, reputation (Hargadonand Bechky, 2006; Kollock, 1999): Creating reputation in open source software communities is already a common way to convince employers and to be hired (Antikainen et al., 2010).Antikainen et al. (2010) made their own study on motivations as well. Theydiscovered that, in addition to the mentioned factors, synergy and fusion of ideaswas one reason to use online communities. Furthermore, mentioned motivationswere finding similar people, sharing risk, and simply for fun or fame. The fun can befound in excitement of using the system, its challenging or social interaction.Finally, seeing own ideas developed further motivated users, as did positive andconstructive atmosphere. (Antikainen et al., 2010) According to a study byImaginatik Research (n.d.), idea submitters do not always even want to own theirideas. 90 percent of ideas are not related to the field of the submitters’ ownexpertise, which has lead Imaginatik Research to the conclusion that ideas are notwanted to be owned because submitters do not have a chance to execute their ideasthemselves in any case. (Imaginatik plc, n.d.)Another study (Davenport, 2005) revealed that employees prefer communicationchannels that let them generate visible information instead of fragmented contentin social media. Employees think that they are “paid to produce, not to browse the________________________________________________________________________________________________ 20
  29. 29. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceintranet” (Davenport, 2005), so this kind of behavior makes sense for them. Thus,employees should be trained on advantages of using social media platforms.3.3.3 Reward and creativitySince Skinnerian position (Skinner, 1938), the reinforcement theory has dominatedthe field of behavioral science. According to Skinner, the likelihood of rewardedbehavior will increase. But since the 1970’s, researchers have began to question thebasic assumption of the reinforcement theory. Instead, intrinsic motivationtheorists suggest that reward can weaken certain wanted behavior under someconditions (e.g., Deci, 1971; Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett, 1973; McGraw, 1978). Thesestudies explain the behavior with over-justification effect: If one gets a reward forenjoyable behavior, the behavior will probably not be performed without rewardanymore, no matter how enjoyable it has been (e.g., Deci, 1971; Lepper et al., 1973).Although reinforcement theorists (e.g., Feingold & Mahoney, 1975; Reiss &Sushinsky, 1975) have tried to question these conclusions, the effect of expectedexternal reward on decreased intrinsic motivation has been empirically well-documented. (Amabile et al., 1986)For instance, Duncker’s (1945) famous candle experiment showed that testsubjects who were promised 20 dollars for the fastest solution solved the problemsignificantly slower that those who were not promised a reward. In another study(Kruglanski, Friedman, & Zeevi, 1971), test subjects who were promised a rewardfor participation performed considerably worse than non-rewarded ones. Theywere not as willing to volunteer for further participation either and they did notseem to enjoy of the activity as much as their non-rewarded colleagues. (Amabile etal., 1986)In general, rewarded test subjects focus more narrowly on achieving the extrinsicgoal, they have more difficulties in solving the problem, and their work issubjectively less creative. In Amabile et al. (1986), the rewards were not justmoney but also some other tempting incentives, such as taking pictures with an________________________________________________________________________________________________ 21
  30. 30. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceinstant camera. Both verbal and artistic tasks were tested. (Amabile et al., 1986)Toubia (2006) offers an explanation for this behavior. According to him, rewardsdo increase all response tendencies, but in complex tasks errors are more likely tooccur, and when rewarded, also errors will occur more (Toubia, 2006). Zajonc(1965) proposes that rewards also enhance the performance of dominant, well-learned responses but undermine new responses. Similarly, McCullers (1978)believes in the enhancing effect of incentives when simple, routine, unchangingresponses are in question, but the situation is far more complex when tasks requirecreativity.However, it needs to be noted that in one presented study of Amabile et al. (1986),test objects were from 5 to 10 years old undergraduate women, and hence the testresults cannot necessarily be generalized to the whole population. Study 3 of thesame article (Amabile et al., 1986) tested also adults but showed only weak supportfor the correlations between reward and creativity. In addition, all studies expectToubia’s (2006) research were over 20 years old.3.4 Summary of motivationsThe presented literature has identified some factors that motivate users toparticipate in online communities. These motivations are summarized in Table 1.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 22
  31. 31. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTable 1 Users motivations to participate in online communities (Antikainenet al., 2010) [modified]Motivations to participate in onlinecommunities AuthorsAltruism Zeityln (2003)Care for community and attachment forthe group Kollock (1999)Enjoyment and fun von Hippel and von Krogh (2003), Nov (2007); Torvalds and Diamond (2001); Antikainen et al. (2010)Firm recognition Jeppesen and Frederiksen (2006)Ideology Nov (2007)Influencing and making betterproducts/services Antikainen et al. (2010)Interesting objectives and intellectualstimulations Ridings and Gefen (2004); Wasko and Faraj (2000); Antikainen et al. (2010)Knowledge exchange, personal learning Antikainen (2007), Gruen et al. (2005), von Hippel and von Krogh (2003), Wasko andand social capital Faraj (2000); Wiertz and Ruyter (2007)Needs, software improvements andtechnical reasons Riding and Gefen (2004), Jeppesen and Frederiksen (2006); Kollock (1999)New viewpoints and synergy Antikainen et al. (2010)Peer recognition Lerner and Tirole (2002); Hargadon and Bechky (2006)Recreation Ridings and Gefen (2004)Sense of cooperation Antikainen et al. (2010)Sense of community and similarity Antikainen et al. (2010)Sense of efficacy, influencing Bandura (1995), Constant et al. (1994); Kollock (1999); Antikainen et al. (2010)Winning, competition and rewards fromparticipation Antikainen et al. (2010)Clear purpose and goals Antikainen et al. (2010)Friendships, relationships and socialsupport Hagel and Armstrong (1997), Rheingold (1993); Ridings and Gefen (2004)Monetary rewards Antikainen and Väätäjä (2008a, b); Wasko and Faraj (2000)Open and constructive atmosphere Antikainen et al. (2010)Reciprocity Kollock (1999); Wasko and Faraj (2000)Reputation and enhancement of Bagozzi and Dholakia (2002), Hargadon and Bechky (2006), Lakhani and Wolf (2005),professional status Lerner and Tirole (2002); Wasko and Faraj (2000)Sense of obligation to contribute Bryant et al. (2005); Lakhani and Wolf (2005)Winning, competition and rewards fromparticipation Antikainen et al. (2010)Idea marketplaces need both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as well as hygienicfactors and motivators. An idea creation work itself is obviously creative from itsnature and needs intrinsic factors to be realized. On the other hand, not all workdone in idea marketplaces is creative – a user may get an idea beforehand whenbeing in a creative stage and just needs motivation to share the idea later on in anidea marketplace. Furthermore, simply sharing plain ideas is not enough. Ideasneed to be developed further by making demos, prototypes and business plans, as________________________________________________________________________________________________ 23
  32. 32. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacewell as rated by voting and commenting. These tasks are simple andstraightforward and thus motivated by extrinsic motivations or hygiene factors.The two factor theory of motivation supports dividing motivators into twocategories. E.g. monetary rewards among other hygienic factors are needed toenable certain level of time consumption, or to gain attention, but the realmotivation comes from other factors, like flow state and self-fulfillment. Figure 5illustrates motivations listed in Table 1 categorized under extrinsic and intrinsicmotivations as well as hygiene factors and motivators.Figure 5 Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations as well as motivators and hygienefactors displayed as subsetsHowever, knowing long lists of motivators does not help when specific groups aretargeted. Everything cannot be promised to everyone and anything does notmotivate anyone. Thus, it is important to clarify what kind of motivations motivate________________________________________________________________________________________________ 24
  33. 33. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacecertain types of people who are wanted in an idea marketplace. Moreover,motivations to work and motivations to act in general online communities must betaken to the context of idea creation environment and test if they still apply.At first, however, we need to find out what kind of people, or roles, are needed inonline communities.4. Roles of users in online communitiesParticipation is one of the basic actions of online communities. Engagement in thesocial, technical and cultural practice of the community helps to create expertise asknowledge is generated socially. (Toral et al., 2009)Different roles occur inside of online communities. Users start as newcomers, whocreate their own “learning curriculum” by performing small and easy tasks withothers. Gradually they will gain expertise and undertake more important roles.(Toral et al., 2009)A research by Toral et al. (2009) proposes that the success of online communitiescan be derived from three factors, which are network cohesion, core of thecommunity, and network structure. Roles play critical role in the model of Toral etal. (2009). Network cohesion is related to roles so that cohesive networks facilitatea good reputation, thus attracting new members to join the community. Communitysuccess, in turn, depends on the level of activities, number of developers and teameffectiveness (Preece, 2001; Crowston et al., 2003).Roles are especially important to attract more people to the service, as onlinecommunities need to have a critical mass of users to attract new users. The size ofcritical mass depends on the ratio between active and passive users, of which 45-90percent can expect to be passive users. (Toral et al., 2009) “Successful innovation involves multiple players – a team (not just a person) of idea generators, a team of designers, a team of developers, and a set of prospective users. The tasks involved include assembling teams of like-minded individuals willing to work in team settings.” (Ribiere & Tuggle, 2010)________________________________________________________________________________________________ 25
  34. 34. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceAs Ribiere & Tuggle (2010) puts it, idea creation process requires different kind ofplayers. These players can include several roles, which are often defined as sets ofactivities performed by individuals (Goffman, 1959; Corsini, 2002).Roles can be understood and classified from several angles. In computer sciences,roles are often characterized by access rights, whereas the organization theorycategorizes users into formal roles, such as moderator, or informal roles, such asleader (Cothrel and Williams, 1999b). Roles can also be classified using four“expressive characteristics”, which are position, function/tasks, behavior-expectations and social interaction (Herrmann et al., 2004). In Herrmann’s model,the social system addresses the role to an actor. The role is always linked to aposition, which again implies certain functions and tasks. (Herrmann et al., 2004)In online communities, roles often include some implicit expectations such asinformal agreement and commitment, and roles are usually the result of anegotiation between an actor and other users of the community. However,especially in online communities there are also informal roles. In a virtualenvironment, official roles are usually not assigned in at all, but they are informaland interchangeable. For instance, an actor may play both advisor and advisee rolessimultaneously. (Tang & Yang, 2006)For designers of online communities it is important to understand what kind ofroles are needed to be able to build a working community, but according to Lin etal. (2007), group members should as well recognize their functional roles, and thusbehaviors, to perform well in knowledge-related activities and creation. Therefore,recognizing the online roles and their behaviors should clarify how online learningcommunities work and what kind of online communities best benefit learners.(Tang & Yang, 2006)The following sub-chapters introduce five different ways to categorize roles inonline communities. Introduced communities are not actual online innovationcommunities because such studies were not found. However, it can be interpretedthat innovation communities are related to all of the studied communities, as open________________________________________________________________________________________________ 26
  35. 35. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceinnovation includes characteristics from all of followings: open source, learning,branding, guilds (as teams), and technology. Leaders were also studied, as leaderroles might be relevant too.The last chapter synthesizes roles categorizing them in a new way.4.1 Roles of users in online communities around open sourcesoftware projectsAccording to Barcellini et al. (2008), some participants of open source software(OSS) design communities have formally assigned roles, such as administrators ormanagers. Some studies of design contexts (Sonnenwald, 1996) and onlineinteractions (Cassell et al., 2005) suggest that emerging roles also occur, but theymay be dependent upon user’s formal status. Status defines what is expected froma certain user and can thus have an effect on the behavior (Barcellini et al., 2008).On the other hand, roles are dependent purely on user’s actions in the community,which indicates the emerging behavior of participants (Barcellini et al., 2008). Forinstance, a study on an online community by Cassell et al. (2005) have emphasizedhow users actively construct their positions and roles. These roles reflect thenumber and content of the posted messages. Maloney-Krichnar and Preece (2002)show that users create a mental model of the roles in the community, which formsthe basis of their involvement and participation.In an OSS project, where the collaboration is based on discussion forums, roles alsoemerge from interactions between users in the discussion space (Mahendran,2002), or in other cases, from interaction between users and mailing lists. Forexample, “Bot”, short for robot, is the nickname for one role, which emerges fromreplying quickly in mailing lists. Irrespective of the means of collaboration, rolesemerge and are actively constructed in OSS projects. (Barcellini et al., 2008) Rolescan be changed through a peer-review mechanism by proving value to the projectand thus gaining respect (Ducheneaut, 2005; Mahendran, 2002; Jensen and Scacchi,2005).________________________________________________________________________________________________ 27
  36. 36. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTo conclude, roles in OSS communities are the result of a combination of users’contributions to the online discussions, project’s organizational structure, andtechnical skills and activities exhibited by users (Barcellini et al., 2008). Based onthis, the research by Barcellini et al. (2008) has identified the following roles in OSScommunities: the project leader, the administrators of the project, the developers andthe champion of the PEP. PEP stands for Python Enhancement Proposal, which is aterm for improvements to the Python language used in the researched OSSdiscussion space. (Barcellini et al., 2008)Barcellini et al. (2008) describe a set of behaviors of the defined roles as follows.The project leader and the champion of the PEP are frequent contributors in all thediscussion and their posts lead to multiple branches. The project leader is oftenquoting multiple messages, closing discussions and making decisions. Thechampion writes syntheses of previously posted messages, which is natural for thechampion’s role as the champion is the one who proposed the PEP and is thus incharge of the PEP discussion. The project leader guarantees the project, whichconfirms Mahendran’s suggestion (2002) about the project leader’s authority overthe community. Administrators tend to post in the beginning of the branchingpositions, which leads to quotations in multiple messages; in linear sequences ofexchanges with developers and in closing positions, which ends the conversationwhen the project leader has already stopped participating in the discussion. In theend of the discussion, administrators only participate in meta-theme discussion.Barcellini et al. (2008) suggest that the project leader and the administrators havecomplementary roles that are occupied alternately, and the administrator relies onthe project leader in Python language specific themes. The administrator onlyreplaces the project manager when he does not want or cannot participate in thediscussion anymore. Developers are posting in the beginning of the conversationwith deep quotations and in linear sequences of exchanges with administrators andothers developers. Developers participate especially in the design process as their________________________________________________________________________________________________ 28
  37. 37. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacemessages contain design alternatives and they can start branching structures in thediscussions. (Barcellini et al., 2008)All in all, the project leader and the administrator are on the top of the conversationhierarchy but developers are enhancing the design process by proposing newsolutions and evaluating others’ solutions. However, developers need to participatein the right time to avoid getting punished by the projects leader. (Barcellini et al.,2008)4.2 Roles of users in online learning communitiesLin et al. (2007) studied products and processes of knowledge sharing and creatingin professional online communities and classified them into inferior and superiortypes. Inferior roles of members include information/opinion seekers or givers,encouragers, and followers, whereas superior group roles include initiators,orienters, encouragers, recorders, gatekeepers, information/opinion seekers or givers,coordinators, and clowns. The inferior group consists primarily of idea providerswhereas the superior group consists of task performers, idea providers andintegrators. (Lin et al., 2007)Lin et al. (2007) discovered that only few participants in the inferior grouphabitually cooperated when more than half of participants in the superior groupdid so. They also pointed out that the superior group was more enthusiastic aboutsharing knowledge than the inferior group. Moreover, Lin et al. (2007) found thatgroup members are aware of their functional roles, and each functional rolerequires a set of behaviors to act during the knowledge sharing and creationprocesses.Based on the roles presented above by Lin et al. (2007), Yeh (2010) has identifiedeight roles that occur in online learning communities. The analytical results by Yeh(2010) demonstrate that roles can be composed of multiple behaviors or only onebehavior. The roles are supervisors, information providers, group instructors,atmosphere constructors, opinion providers, reminders, trouble-makers and problem________________________________________________________________________________________________ 29
  38. 38. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacesolvers. The name of the role describes the main functions of the role in questions,and Table 2 shows the occurrence of each role in researched online leaningcommunities. (Yeh, 2010)Table 2 Occurrence of Roles in Online Lerning Communities (Yeh, 2010),[modified] Information Group Atmosphere Opinion Trouble- ProblemRole Supervisors providers instructors constructors providers Reminders makers solversNumber 53 36 17 91 79 80 48 21According to Yeh (2010), the most common roles in online learning communitiesfrom within-group perspective are information providers, opinion providers, andtrouble-makers. The difference between information providers and opinionproviders is, as the name describes, that information providers provide fact-basedobjective information, while opinion providers provide subjective opinions relatedto group work. The trouble-makers cause troubles by being absent fromdiscussions and not doing their part of the work. From an across-groupperspective, the most frequent roles are supervisors, positive atmosphereconstructors, reminders, problem solvers and – unfortunately again - trouble-makers. As opposed to trouble-makers, supervisors are essential to well-workingcommunities since they suggest work-related improvements, take others’ opinionsinto account, set schedules and assign tasks to other participants. Another rolecritical to functioning of knowledge-based communities is group instructor whichis the least common role. Group instructors are able to solve misconceptions andorganize gathered information (Yeh, 2010), which naturally anyone cannot do(Waltonen-Moore et al., 2006).Similarly, Agre (1998) studied designers and noted the importance of oneadditional role, that is, thought leader. Thought leaders are needed for buildingtrust within a community, foreseeing issues, gathering positions and arguments,networking with relevant people, and articulating the issue to other community toprovoke thinking. (Agre, 1998)________________________________________________________________________________________________ 30
  39. 39. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace4.3. Roles of users in online brand communitiesFournier & Lee (2009) also note the importance of opinion leaders – or thoughtleaders as named in chapter 4.2 – in social networks, but emphasize giving a chanceto everyone to play an equally valuable role. Fournier & Lee (2009) researchedbrand communities including Red Hat Society, Trekkies, and MGB car blub. A brandcommunity refers to “a group of ardent consumers organized around the lifestyle,activities, and ethos of the brand” (Fournier & Lee, 2009). Nowadays thesecommunities get together specifically online. (Fournier & Lee, 2009)As a result of their study, Fournier & Lee (2009) identified 18 social and culturalroles that are critical to brand community’s function, preservation and evolution.These roles include, to name a few, greeters who welcome new members to thecommunity; celebrities who represent the community; storytellers who spread thestory of the community throughout the group; and heroes who act as role modelswithin the community. (Fournier & Lee, 2009) Opinion leaders and evangelists alsoplay important roles, since, according to Fournier & Lee (2009), they are the oneswho spread information, influence decisions, and help new ideas gain traction insocial networks.Interestingly, Fournier & Lee (2009) claim that companies hosting onlinecommunities are able not only to evaluate the existing roles and behaviors but alsoto fill in the missing roles to improve community function. According to them,community designers can create role structures and support systems to a widerange of roles. Previous studies (e.g. Sonnenwald, 1996) have already noted thatroles can change and emerge, but being able to control roles is something new.According to Fournier and Lee (2009), this can be done by giving “membersopportunities to take on new roles, alternate between roles, and negotiate tensionsacross roles in conflict – without ever leaving the fold”. They provide a successfulexample of such action from Saddleback Church of Orange County, which maintainsa cohesive community of more than 20,000 members by regularly monitoringparticipants’ needs, and “creating subgroups and roles to keep people engaged”.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 31
  40. 40. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceGroups are organized for instance by age, gender, and interests, as well as byshared challenges, social commitments, and family situations. People are offeredseveral different roles simultaneously, and they can participate via differentchannels. (Fournier & Lee, 2009)4.4 Roles of users in a guild communityAng & Zaphiris (2010) identified three social roles of a guild community, an onlinecommunity with explicitly pronounced role-play element, in a popular computergame, World of Warcraft (WoW). The roles were densely connected core members,loosely connected semi-periphery members, and an outer ring of disconnectedperiphery players. These three blocks illustrated distinct levels of participation aswell as sense of belongingness to the community. (Ang & Zaphiris, 2010)Ang & Zaphiris (2010) described core members as being highly connected withintheir own block and moderately connected to other blocks. Presumably they hadbeen a part of the guild for a long time and knew each other well. They were activein the game chat, managed the group and gave help, but, interestingly, did not askfor help. (Ang & Zaphiris 2010) Like core members, semi-periphery members werealso giving help, but getting help as well. Apart from that, they were active in thegame chat and managing the group. Therefore, they were not in the core of theguild but trying to get involved in the community. Members of periphery blockwere instead merely seeking help from the guild but not involved in the communityotherwise. They had access to a lot of other players, and thus a great chance ofgetting help, but they did not contribute to the community or give anything back.(Ang & Zaphiris, 2010)Ang & Zaphiris (2010) have found that interacting with other players encouragesplayers to move from the periphery to the core of the community, and especially,giving help is a key action positioning a player in the network. However, not allplayers have the ability to give help, but it depends on the player’s knowledge andskills. Therefore, experienced players are the most likely ones to take the role in the________________________________________________________________________________________________ 32
  41. 41. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacecore group. On the other hand, less-skilled players can make themselves moreknowledgeable by being active in the game chat, which does not always requirethat advanced skills or knowledge. According to the study, some lower level playerswere even categorized as core members due to their high activity in tasks such asthe game chat. Thus, Ang & Zaphiris (2010) classified the core members into twogroups, knowledge players and social players. Knowledge players provide help andassist other players, which perhaps attracts more members into the guild. Thenagain, social players nurture a friendly and welcoming atmosphere and thus attractmore members to join the guild. On the other hand, the analysis showed that somehigher level players were located also in the periphery, because their participationmainly consisted of asking for help. These players are called freeloaders as theyonly use the guild “as an instrumental tool for their task interaction”. In addition,the periphery consists of newbies, who are new to the community in general. Theyneed help in basic community-related issues. What differentiates newbies fromfreeloaders is that they might gradually move towards the core group of the guildcommunity as they gain more experience and skills and they also start giving helpto others. However, some of the newbies have been proved to turn into freeloaders,which is an alternative path. (Ang & Zaphiris, 2010)4.5 Roles of users in online technology communitiesRheingold (1993) has studied virtual communities which he defines as follows: “social aggregations that emerge from the [Internet] when enough people carry on those public discussions long enough, with sufficient human feeling, to form webs of personal relationships in cyberspace.“When this definition is compared to the definition of online communities in chapter1.1, online communities and virtual communities can be seen referring to the samephenomenon. Thus, also a study by Madanmohan & Navelkar (2004) can also beincluded in this research. They have studied one special part of online________________________________________________________________________________________________ 33
  42. 42. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacecommunities, virtual technology communities, which Tushman and Rosenkopf(1992) define as “virtual communities that share a common interest in a particular technology and develop not only technological routines, but language and mannerisms.”Madanmohan & Navelkar (2004) have studied roles in technology communitiesthrough a life cycle, which starts from a newbie stage, when the person is new tosystem and its workings. Newbie is followed by intermediate, which already has“sufficient know-how to use a system and learn more”. The next phase is advanceduser, who is “capable of solving others’ problems” and “involved in propagation of thevirtues of system”. The final stage is an expert who says the last word in systemrelated issues and has “deep knowledge about the functioning as well as itsadvocacy”.Moreover, Madanmohan & Navelkar (2004) have identified formalized roles withinevolved technology community where newbies have turned to experts and foundtheir own styles to participate and interact with each other. These roles includecore organizers who acquire funding, heighten visibility and ensure participation ofkey members for the success of the community. These users have also motivatedand encouraged other users as well as elicited involvement from them in earlierstages. Thus they know everyone, and the role emerges among participants. Theorganizer might also be responsible for the technology infrastructure, which makesthe organizer the dominant actor of the community (Butler, et al., 2002). Inaddition, core organizers promote the community to others. (Madanmohan &Navelkar, 2004)Other identified roles include experts, who represent the knowledge of thecommunity, as they share tacit knowledge and arbitrate technical decisions whenthe consensus is not found otherwise. Problem posers identify technical problemsfor discussions and seek solutions. Implementers implement new suggestions andvalidate them through experiments, which makes their role very critical for thedevelopment of the community. Integrators organize existing information, codify________________________________________________________________________________________________ 34
  43. 43. Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacerules, build taxonomies and perhaps take into use new tools and methodologies.Philosophers preach about standards and they are helping to get the message out.They might not be experts in technology but they understand how to use it.(Madanmohan & Navelkar, 2004)According to Madanmohan & Navelkar (2004), the most essential point to notehere is the openness of technology communities and the flexibility of roles.4.6 Role of leader in online groupsMost online groups have a person who has taken a formal role of a leader, such asowner, administrator, host, or wizard. The role can be needed for the high-leveladministrator privileges on a server, or the online group misses a formal position ofadministration as it is distributed from its nature. As in traditional organizations,also the leader of an online group is formally named and has certain rights andresponsibilities. (Butler et al., 2002)The role of the leader in online communities has different kind of tasks andresponsibilities as well as privileges. They might include adding and removingmembers from the community or items from the archive. In moderated groups,leaders might allow or reject posting, or rule these rights. They might also beresponsible for infrastructure management. The role identity should engageleaders to be more active and provide more content than other members, limitundesirable behavior as well as promote the community externally. All in all,leaders should do more community building work than others. (Butler et al., 2002)According to Butler (2002) the formal leader role in online communities hasoriginally been defined with special access privileges to technical tools andnetwork infrastructure, but recently technical responsibility has been going hand inhand with social responsibility. Social responsibility includes activities such aspromoting the group, encouraging other members, moderating their behavior, andposting messages. (Butler et al., 2002)________________________________________________________________________________________________ 35

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