Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace
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A master's thesis made in 2011 for Aalto University about Nokia's external idea crowdsourcing service, IdeasProject

A master's thesis made in 2011 for Aalto University about Nokia's external idea crowdsourcing service, IdeasProject

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Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace Document Transcript

  • Aalto UniversitySchool of ScienceDegree Programme of Information NetworksKaroliina HarjanneDeveloping a New Global Idea Creation Platform– Case Idea MarketplaceMaster’s ThesisEspoo, March 14, 2011Supervisor: Eila JärvenpääInstructor: Minna Takala, Lic.Sc. (Tech.)
  • Aalto University ABSTRACT OF THE MASTER’S THESISSchool of ScienceDegree programme of InformationNetworksAuthor: Karoliina HarjanneTitle: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceNumber of pages: 115 Date: March 14, 2011 Language: EnglishProfessorship: Work Psychology and Code: TU-53LeadershipSupervisor: Eija Järvenpää, professorInstructor: Minna Takala, Lic.Sc. (Tech.)Abstract:Social media has become an inseparable part of the modern society, and companies arecurrently competing for consumers’ time with their own online communities. Companies usesocial media not only to enhance brand image or attract people to buy products and services,but also to make people innovate, design and concept products and services for themselves.This sub-phenomenon of social media is called crowdsourcing. Despite the vast hype, onlyfew companies know how to actually utilize social media and get the best out of it.This study was made at the Company to support the design and implementation process of anew idea crowdsourcing site that is to be launched in spring 2011. The research question ofthe study is “How to get organizations’ employees, customers and other stakeholders to usethe new idea crowdsourcing site to support the idea creation process?” The objectives of thestudy are as follows: To identify the known motivations, features and roles of online communities from the literature, to validate the identified motivations, features and roles of users in the context of idea crowdsourcing and to complete them with findings from end-user survey, observation and expert interviews, and to provide recommendations on how to build a new idea marketplace that will attract a high variety of consumers globallyThe literature review offered a list of motivators to be validated empirically in idea creationcontext. It appeared that similar factors motivate users to participate in an idea marketplaceas in any other online community. Elements from all motivational themes are recommendedto include in all idea crowdsourcing challenges.Basic features of online communities were covered in the literature review, but interviewsconcretized them and linked them tightly to motivators. Features enable motivations, but onthe other hand, the according motivation motivates using the feature. Some features arelinked to two motivations instead of one. The synthesis presents the recommended features.The literature review specified 55 separate roles, which were cut down into two user roles,normal users and lead users, and a few supporting roles based on the case study. Thebehavior from a normal user to a lead user changes very sharply after only a few posts.Motivational differences between these two groups were also discovered.Keywords: online community, social media, idea crowdsourcing, role, motivation, feature
  • Aalto-yliopisto DIPLOMITYÖN TIIVISTELMÄPerustieteiden korkeakouluInformaatioverkostojen tutkinto-ohjelmaTekijä: Karoliina HarjanneTyön nimi: Uutta globaalia ideointiympäristöä kehittämässä – Case Idea MarketplaceSivumäärä: 115 Päiväys: 14.3.2011 Julkaisukieli: EnglantiProfessuuri: Työpsykologia ja johtaminen Professuurikoodi: TU-53Työn valvoja: Eija Järvenpää, professoriTyön ohjaaja: Minna Takala, tekniikan lisensiaattiTiivistelmä:Sosiaalisesta mediasta on tullut erottamaton osa nyky-yhteiskuntaa ja tänäpäivänä yrityksetkilpailevat kuluttajien ajasta omilla verkkoyhteisöillään. Yrityskuvan ja markkinoinninlisäksi yritykset käyttävät sosiaalista media nykyään myös saadakseen kuluttajatinnovoimaan, suunnittelemaan ja konseptoimaan tuotteita itselleen. Tätä sosiaalisenmedian alalajia kutsutaan talkouttamiseksi. Sosiaalisen median saamasta suurestahuomiosta huolimatta yritykset eivät vieläkään tiedä kuinka parhaiten hyödyntää sitäliiketoiminnassaan.Tämä tutkimus on tehty Nokia Corporationille uuden ideatalkouttamissivustonsuunnittelun ja toteuttamisen tueksi, joka tullaan avaamaan yleisölle keväällä 2011.Tutkimuksessa pyritään selvittämään kuinka organisaation työntekijät, asiakkaat ja muutsidosryhmät saataisiin käyttämään ideatalkouttamissivustoa ideointiprosessin tukena.Tutkimuksen tavoitteet ovat seuraavat: tunnistaa kirjallisuudesta tiedossa olevat verkkoyhteisöjen motivaatiot, toiminnallisuudet ja roolit validoida tunnistetut motivaatit, toiminnallisuudet ja roolit ideatalkouttamiskontekstissa ja täydentää niitä uusilla tuloksilla loppukäyttäjäkyselystä, havainnoinnista ja asiantuntijahaastatteluista tarjota suosituksia erilaisia kuluttajia ympäri mailmaa houkuttelevan ideatalkouttamissivuston toteuttamiseenKirjallisuuskatsaus tarjosi listan motivaatioita validoitavaksi empiirisestiideointikontekstissa. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että samantyyppiset motivaatiot pätevät niinideointiyhteisöihin kuin muihinkin verkkoyhteisöihin. Kaikkia motivaatioteemojasuositellaan hyödynnettävän kaikissa ideatalkouttamiskilpailuissa.Verkkoyhteisöjen perustoiminnallisuudet selvitettiin kirjallisuuskatsauksessa, muttahaastattelut konkretisoivat toiminnallisuudet ja sitoivat ne eri motivaatioihin.Toiminnallisuudet mahdollistavat motivaatiot, mutta toisaalta myös motivoivat käyttämääntoiminnallisuutta. Jotkut toiminnallisuudet liittyvät useaan motivaatioon. Synteesi esitteleesuositellut toiminnallisuudet.Kirjalllisuuskatsauksessa eriteltiin 55 roolia, jotka lopulta supistettiin kahteen ylätasonrooliin, tavallisiin käyttäjiin ja johtaviin käyttäjiin, sekä tukirooleihin. Käyttäjien roolinhavaittiin muuttuvan nopeasti tavallisista käyttäjistä johtaviksi heti muutaman viestinjälkeen. Myös näiden roolien eroavaisuudet motivaatoissa selvitettiin.Asiasanat: verkkoyhteisö, sosiaalinen media, ideatalkoo, rooli, motivaatio, toiminnallisuus
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAfter 18 years of school, 6 years of university studies and almost a year of a thesisprocess there are certainly a few people to thank.At first, I want to thank my parents for encouraging me all this time and teachingthe importance of working hard.Thank you, Minna Takala, for arranging me this awesome opportunity to make mymaster’s thesis on such an interesting topic for such an interesting company, andthanks for helping all the way. Thank you, Matthew Hanwell, for enabling thisarrangement and being always so patient. I also want to thank Eila Järvenpää forbeing so flexible, warm, helpful and constructive during this whole process. Icouldn’t have gotten better supervisor.Special thanks go to Pia Erkinheimo and her absolutely fantastic team – it has beenpure pleasure to work with all of you guys! In practice, Pia has been my instructoron behalf of Nokia and kindly helping always when needed.Last but not least, I want to thank SK-klubi for making my student life so hilariousand hard times a bit less hard, and of course my dear husband Atte, who has beencooking and cleaning up for the last busy weeks and even printed this thesis. Thankyou.In Austin, 14rd of March, 2011Karoliina Harjanne________________________________________________________________________________________________ iv
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTable of ContentsPART I: INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................11. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................1 1.1 BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................1 1.2 RESEARCH QUESTION AND OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................5 1.3 SCOPE AND THE STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY ...........................................................................5PART II: LITERATURE REVIEW ..........................................................................................82. IDEA CREATION .............................................................................................................8 2.1 DEFINITIONS .........................................................................................................................8 2.2 INNOVATION PROCESSES........................................................................................................9 2.2.1 Open Innovation Paradigm ....................................................................................... 12 2.3 CROWDSOURCING IN IDEA CREATION .................................................................................. 13 2.4 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ...................................................................................................... 143. MOTIVATION TO USE ONLINE COMMUNITIES ........................................................... 16 3.1 INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION.............................................................................. 16 3.2 TWO FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION ............................................................................... 17 3.3 MOTIVATIONS TO USE ONLINE COMMUNITIES...................................................................... 18 3.3.1 Extrinsic motivations in online communities ........................................................... 18 3.3.2 Intrinsic motivations in online communities ............................................................ 20 3.3.3 Reward and creativity ............................................................................................... 21 3.4 SUMMARY OF MOTIVATIONS ................................................................................................ 224. ROLES OF USERS IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES ............................................................. 25 4.1 ROLES OF USERS IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES AROUND OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE PROJECTS .... 27 4.2 ROLES OF USERS IN ONLINE LEARNING COMMUNITIES ......................................................... 29 4.3. ROLES OF USERS IN ONLINE BRAND COMMUNITIES ............................................................. 31 4.4 ROLES OF USERS IN A GUILD COMMUNITY ........................................................................... 32 4.5 ROLES OF USERS IN ONLINE TECHNOLOGY COMMUNITIES .................................................... 33 4.6 ROLE OF LEADER IN ONLINE GROUPS................................................................................... 35 4.7 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................... 365. IDEA CREATION TOOLS AND FUNCTIONS IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES...................... 40 5.1 COLLABORATION FEATURES IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES ......................................................... 40 5.2 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS .................................................................................. 42 5.2.1 Knowledge-enabled innovation management systems ............................................ 43 5.3 SOCIAL MEDIA TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES .......................................................................... 45 5.4 FUNCTIONS IN DIFFERENT PHASES OF THE IDEA CREATION PROCESS ................................... 46 5.4.1 Idea generation/ identification stage ....................................................................... 47 5.4.2 Concept definition stage ............................................................................................ 49 5.4.3 Concept feasibility and refinement stage ................................................................. 49 5.4.4 Portfolio stage ........................................................................................................... 49 5.4.5 Deployment stage ...................................................................................................... 49 5.5 CASE FACEBOOK ................................................................................................................. 50 5.6 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................... 51________________________________________________________________________________________________ v
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace6. SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................. 54PART III: USE CASE STUDY ............................................................................................. 567. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY .................................................................................. 56 7.1 SURVEY .............................................................................................................................. 58 7.2 OBSERVATION .................................................................................................................... 59 7.3 INTERVIEWS ....................................................................................................................... 608 THE CASE COMPANY ..................................................................................................... 62 8.1 EXISTING IDEA CREATION PLATFORMS ................................................................................ 63 8.1.1 Idea generation in the Company’s innovation funnel .............................................. 63 8.1.2 Conversion and concepting in the Company’s innovation funnel ............................ 64 8.1.3 Diffusion in the Company’s innovation funnel .......................................................... 64 8.2 IDEA MARKETPLACE ............................................................................................................ 65 8.2.1 Features ..................................................................................................................... 65 8.2.2 Roles ........................................................................................................................... 66 8.2.3 Motivations ................................................................................................................ 679 RESULTS ........................................................................................................................ 69 9.1 RESULTS FROM THE OBSERVATION OF DELL’S IDEASTORM .................................................. 69 9.1.1 Normal users .............................................................................................................. 69 9.1.2 Lead users .................................................................................................................. 72 9.1.3 Moderators ................................................................................................................ 74 9.1.4 Summary of the observation results ......................................................................... 75 9.2 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS ...................................................................................... 76 9.2.1 Motivators of lead users versus normal users .......................................................... 80 9.3 INTERVIEW RESULTS ........................................................................................................... 83 9.3.1 Concept of the Idea Marketplace .............................................................................. 83 9.3.2 Motivations ................................................................................................................ 87 9.3.3 Roles ........................................................................................................................... 91 9.3.4 Features of an idea marketplace .............................................................................. 96 9.4 SYNTHESIS OF THE CASE STUDY ....................................................................................... 103PART IV: DISCUSSION ................................................................................................... 10810. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF THE STUDY .................................................... 11211. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH .................................................... 11312. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS .................................................................................. 114REFERENCES................................................................................................................... 116INTERNET SOURCES ...................................................................................................... 127APPENDIX 1: SURVEY FORM .......................................................................................... 131 MOTIVATION SURVEY ABOUT IDEATION ......................................................................................... 131 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ....................................................................................................... 131 MOTIVATIONAL QUESTIONS......................................................................................................... 132APPENDIX 2: INTERVIEWEES ........................................................................................ 140________________________________________________________________________________________________ vi
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceList of FiguresFIGURE 1 RELATIONS OF USED TERMS ................................................................... 4FIGURE 2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND METHODS OF THE STUDY ............................. 6FIGURE 3 CYCLIC INNOVATION MODEL (CIM) (BERKHOUT & HARTMANN, 2006) ..... 11FIGURE 4 OPEN INNOVATION PARADIGM (CHESBROUGH, 2003) ............................. 13FIGURE 5 EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATIONS AS WELL AS MOTIVATORS ANDHYGIENE FACTORS DISPLAYED AS SUBSETS .......................................................... 24FIGURE 6 FRAMEWORK OF A KNOWLEDGE-ENABLED INNOVATION MANAGEMENTSYSTEM (KIMS) SUPPORTED BY KM 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES (RIBIERE AND TUGGLE, 2010)........................................................................................................................... 45FIGURE 7 THE FUGLE INNOVATION PROCESS (PREEZ & LOUW, 2008) [MODIFIED] .. 47FIGURE 8 SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................. 55FIGURE 9 COMPANYS INNOVATION FUNNEL ......................................................... 63FIGURE 10 IDEA CHALLENGE PROCESS IN THE IDEA MARKETPLACE ....................... 66FIGURE 11 MOTIVATORS TO PARTICIPATE IN IDEA CROWDSOURCING CHALLENGES........................................................................................................................... 68FIGURE 12 ROLES IDENTIFIED FROM INTERVIEWS ................................................ 96FIGURE 13A SYNTHESIS OF THE USE CASE STUDY ............................................... 106FIGURE 13B SYNTHESIS OF THE USE CASE STUDY ............................................... 107________________________________________________________________________________________________ vii
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceList of TablesTABLE 1 USERS MOTIVATIONS TO PARTICIPATE IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES(ANTIKAINEN ET AL., 2010) [MODIFIED] ............................................................... 23TABLE 2 OCCURRENCE OF ROLES IN ONLINE LERNING COMMUNITIES (YEH, 2010),[MODIFIED] ......................................................................................................... 30TABLE 3 ROLES OF USERS IN ONLINE COMMUNITIES IDENTIFIED FROM THELITERATURE ........................................................................................................ 37TABLE 4 TOOLS AND METHODS FOR COLLABORATION (ANTIKAINEN ET AL., 2010)[MODIFIED] ......................................................................................................... 42TABLE 5 EXAMPLES OF ACTIONS ENABLING THE INTERACTIVITY BETWEEN THECUSTOMERS AND THE CROWD WITH THE INTERNAL INNOVATION PROCESS (RIBIEREAND TUGGLE, 2010) ............................................................................................. 44TABLE 6 FREQUENCY OF MENTIONS OF REASONS TO USE FACEBOOK (JOINSON,2008) .................................................................................................................. 51TABLE 7 SUMMARY OF TOOLS AND FUNCTIONS OF CHAPTER 5 .............................. 53TABLE 8 MOTIVATIONS TO PARTICIPATE IN THE IDEA MARKETPLACE .................... 79TABLE 9 COMPARING TOP 5 MOTIVATIONS OF LEAD USERS AND NORMAL USERS ... 81TABLE 10 COMPARING MOTIVATORS OF LEAD USERS AND NORMAL USERS ............ 82________________________________________________________________________________________________ viii
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplacePART I: INTRODUCTION1. Introduction1.1 BackgroundSocial media has become an inseparable part of the modern society. After 2004,when Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook (Facebook, 2010), the world has rapidlybecome a world of social media, online communities and crowdsourcing.Social media refers to "a group of Internet-based applications that build on theideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, which allows the creation andexchange of user-generated content" (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). Currently,consumers are voluntarily using dozens of social media sites. The most popular ofthem include Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, LinkedIn and Ning (eBizMBA, 2010).At the same time, companies are competing for consumers’ time with their ownonline communities in social media. By online community, we refer to “a group ofpeople who use computer networks as their primary mode of interaction” (Cothrel &Williams, 1999a). 79 percent of Fortune Global 100 companies use at least onesocial media channel (Burson-Marsteller, 2010), and social media adoption bysmall companies has even doubled from 2009 to 2010. Two-thirds of the world’s100 largest companies are using Twitter and over a half of them has a Facebookpage. Majority of small companies use social media to identify and attract newcustomers. (Solis, 2010) Furthermore, companies are planning to increase theirmarketing efforts in social media tremendously (Bloch, 2010). 80 percent ofcompanies use social media also for recruiting (Qualman, 2010).Despite the popularity of social media services, only few companies know how toactually utilize social media. Although 69 percent of American companies have aFacebook page, only 32 percent have posts with comments from fans (Axon, 2010)and not more than 59 percent of the Fortune Global 100 firms have hiredemployees to carry out core social media tasks, like customer outreach, PR,________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacemarketing and internal communications (Social Media Influence, 2010). Less thanhalf of companies said they had a strategic plan to guide social media activities, andonly 69 percent of those measured the return on investment of social mediaactivities. And what is more, just 12 percent of companies had defined social mediapolicies for employees. (O’Malley, 2010) It seems that in the middle of the socialmedia hype, companies have just concentrated on establishing a must-have socialmedia site and forgotten that not having customers involved erodes the wholepurpose of social media. Online community is not a community without people.Companies really have to get customers committed to get the benefit. For instance,companies with 100 to 500 Twitter followers make 146 percent more leads thanthose with 21 to 100 followers (eMarketer 2010).Social media has raised a sub-phenomenon called crowdsourcing. The inventor ofthe term, Jeff Howe (2006b), defines crowdsourcing as follows: “Simply defined, crowdsourcing represents the act of a company or institution taking a function once performed by employees and outsourcing it to an undefined (and generally large) network of people in the form of an open call . . . The crucial prerequisite is the use of the open call format and the large network of potential laborers.” (Jeff Howe, 2006b)In other words, companies could use social media not only to enhance brand imageor attract people to buy products, but also to encourage people innovate, designand concept products for companies. Basically, crowdsourcing is already used inevery stage of product development process from marketing (StarbucksCorporation, 2010) to R&D (InnoCentive, 2010). The benefits of includingcustomers are obvious – an end-user point of view will be ensured, which enhancesusability and usefulness of the product.Several companies have already seen the opportunity of crowdsourcing. The mostpopular examples of these companies and their crowdsourcing sites include IBM’sCollaboration Jam (IBM, 2008), Google Ideas (Google, 2009), Starbucks (StarbucksCorporation, 2010), OpenIDEO (Ideo, 2011) and InnoCentive (InnoCentive, 2010).________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceThere will be more of them, since several software suppliers base their businessidea on similar idea market places. The leading suppliers include Accept Ideas(Accept Software 2010), Jive Software (Jive Software, 2010), Imaginatik(Imaginatik plc, n.d.) and Spigit (Spigit, n.d.).Popular social media and crowdsourcing sites confirm that people want toparticipate and they can be committed. However, the dilemma of participationremains. Not all companies have managed to make their online community success.Nokia Corporation (hereafter referred to as “the Company”), the world’s leadingmobile phone manufacturer, has also already developed and taken into use severalsocial media and even crowdsourcing sites, but none of them is used corporate-wide and none of them actually “flies” nor is known by millions of people. However,this is something that the Company has decided to do – to design and implement anew comprehensive crowdsourcing site. The Company even has a particular taskfor the site, to bring more ideas, which will then be developed into innovations andreal products and services. This new site will gather all ideas from consumers,employees and stakeholders in one place and deliver them to developers fordevelopment. From this point on, this kind of idea crowdsourcing sites will becalled idea marketplaces.Figure 1 illustrates further the relation of used terms. The figure implies that anidea marketplace is one kind of online community. An idea marketplace usescrowdsourcing as an idea generation method, and crowdsourcing is one type ofsocial media.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceFigure 1 Relations of used termsThis study is made for the Company1 to find out what would make the Company’sidea marketplace attractive for customers, when the number of similar services israpidly growing and an increasing amount of companies are fighting for the“wisdom of the crowd”. The wisdom of the crowd refers to the process of taking intoaccount the collective opinion of a group of individuals rather than a single expert(Surowiecki, 2004). However, the overall goal of the study is to learn about thephenomenon of idea crowdsourcing in general and use the Company as a case,where the theory is being applied.In particular, open questions include what motivates people to participate in ideacrowdsourcing and what roles, as well as features, an idea marketplace shouldhave. Roles, motivations and features of online communities have already beenstudied but no studies in the context of idea creation were found. Therefore, thisstudy will offer new research results of the branch of idea crowdsourcing andneeded practical implications for the use of the Company at the same time.1 The Company is introduced in chapter 8________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace1.2 Research question and objectivesThe research problem of this thesis is:“How to get organizations’ employees, customers and other stakeholders to use a newidea marketplace to support the idea creation process?”The research question can be divided into following sub-questions, which are ofspecial interest for the Company: - What motivates people to contribute to an idea marketplace? - What features should an idea marketplace have? - What kind of roles do the users of an idea marketplace have?The objectives of the thesis are as follows: - To identify the known motivations, features and roles of online communities from the literature, - to validate the identified motivations, features and roles in the context of idea crowdsourcing and to complete them with findings from end-user survey, observation and expert interviews, and - to provide recommendations on how to build a new idea marketplace that will attract a high variety of consumers globally1.3 Scope and the structure of the studyThis research consists of three parts, the first of which is introduction. Second partconsists of a literature review. The beginning of the literature review presents themajor applicable innovation processes for the context of this study. The thirdchapter concentrates on motivations which would make people come and see anidea marketplace or other online community in the first place but also make themcome back over and over again. The fourth chapter introduces selected studies onroles in online communities, while the fifth proposes an exhaustive list of different________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacefeatures that support idea creation processes as well as the overall functions of ideamarketplaces.The third part consists of the material and methods. At first, the case company isintroduced. Next, the roles of users are studied by observing IdeaStorm by Dell Inc.,an established idea marketplace. Motivations of end users are explored as follows.An Internet based inquiry is done based on the results of the literature review.Features of idea marketplaces are examined further by interviewing selected socialmedia experts and developers of successful idea crowdsourcing sites. Thesedevelopers include people from internal and external innovation communities.The fourth part concludes the study presenting discussion: conclusions, strengthsand weaknesses of the study, recommendations and managerial implications.Figure 2 below illustrates the relations between the research question, sub-questions and research methods.Figure 2 Research questions and methods of the study________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceNumerous factors influence the development of new idea marketplaces anddetermine whether such services really enhance idea creation processes or not. Forinstance, marketing efforts and communication can have an effect on how peopleare planned to get to use an idea marketplace. However, this point of view is out ofthe scope of this study.Instead of innovations, this study concentrates on ideas in particular. Ideas arenothing alone, but if they turn into innovations, they can bring some commercialvalue for the company, which is the final goal of the Company. On the other hand,innovations start from ideas, and that is why they are important and constitute thefocus of this study.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplacePART II: LITERATURE REVIEW2. Idea creation2.1 DefinitionsAn idea-related literature often concerns both ideas and innovations but usuallyrefers only to innovations. This study refers to such sources too (e.g. Antikainen etal., 2010; Barsh et al., 2007; Desouza et al., 2009), but for the sake of consistence,deals with ideas and idea creation. That is why it is important to define both ideacreation and innovation and clarify the difference between them.Several definitions for innovation exist (Luecke & Katz, 2003; Baregheh et al., 2009,Schumpeter, 1934). One of the classical definitions by Luecke & Katz (2003) definesinnovation as follows: “Innovation . . . is generally understood as the successful introduction of a new thing or method . . . Innovation is the embodiment, combination, or synthesis of knowledge in original, relevant, valued new products, processes, or services.“Another, more recent definition by Baregheh et al. (2009) takes the definition tothe context of positioning in the market: “Innovation is the multi-stage process whereby organizations transform ideas into new/improved products, service or processes, in order to advance, compete and differentiate themselves successfully in their marketplace.”However, in this study we are referring especially to the following definition byAmabile et al. (1996), because it defines innovation through ideas: “We define innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization. In this view, creativity by individuals and teams is a starting point for innovation; the first is necessary but not sufficient condition for the second. Successful innovation depends on other factors as well and it can stem not only from creative ideas that originate within an organization but also from ideas that originate elsewhere (as in technology transfer).”________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceIn other words, ideas exist before innovations and are a necessary precondition forthem.Although this study concentrates on ideas, the following chapter introduces theinnovation context. This approach was chosen as idea creation is a necessary partof innovation process, and because academic idea creation processes were notfound. In addition, innovations are the final goal of ideas. In following, thedevelopment of innovation processes is presented, as well as Open Innovationparadigm, which forms an ideological basis for idea marketplaces from theinnovation point of view.2.2 Innovation processesOver the past years, innovations have become the top priority for companies toremain competitive in the knowledge economy. Several studies report theimportance of innovation management initiatives (AMA, 2006; Barsh et al., 2007;Capgemini, 2008; IBM, 2006).Nearly two thirds of the organizational value consists of intellectual capital(O’Donnell et al., 2003). Innovation failure rates can reach even the rate of 86percent (Barbier et al., 2007) primarily because end users do not adopt theinnovations. This, again, is because innovation developers lack the knowledge ofuser’s preferences and requirements. (Ribiere & Tuggle, 2010)Furthermore, the demand for ideas and innovations has rapidly increased, thusforcing companies to look for new sources of ideas from related industries orcollaboration, of which collaboration offers a cost-effective option for companies.Involving customers to the idea creation process may also make it easier for themto adopt the innovation later. (Antikainen et al., 2010) Furthermore, collectivethinking is more effective than innovation of separated user (Hargadon & Bechky,2006). Customers also appreciate that their opinions are listened. In addition,taking users into idea creation process offers valuable insight into customers’thoughts, wishes and preferences. (Antikainen et al., 2010).________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceStudies yet from the 60’s show the significance of external resources in ideacreation processes (Freeman, 1991). Most idea creation happens when barriers ofdifferent knowledge domains are crossed. (Leonard-Barton, 1995; Carlile, 2004)Ideas are more likely to arise in teams that consist of people with differentpersonalities, knowledge, skills and backgrounds (Vyakarnam et al., 1997). Ideacreation marketplaces can act as mediators between mentioned actors (Antikainenet al., 2010).The concept of outside innovation also fits perfectly in this context. According toSeybold (2006), the outside innovation happens when customers “lead the design ofyour business processes, products, services, and business models”. Customers co-design companies’ products and the whole business attracting other customers tobuild a customer-centric ecosystem around company’s products and services.(Seybold, 2006)Rothwell’s (1994) model describes five generations of innovation processes, whichillustrates the evolution of the innovation process over time. The model starts fromTechnology Push in the 1950’s/1960’s that emphasized R&D, continues withMarket Pull in the 1970s, followed by the “Coupling” model of Innovation thatcombines R&D and marketing, again followed by the “Interactive” model in the1980’s/1990’s that combines push and pull, and finally ends with “Network” modelin the 2000’s, which is the most essential here. (Rothwell, 1994)Cyclic Innovation Model (CIM) by Berkhout and Hartmann (2006) is one of thefourth-generation innovation models (4Gs) (Berkhout & Hartmann, 2006;Chesbrough, 2003). In general, 4G models have the following characters (Berkhout& Hartmann, 2006): 1. Innovation is embedded in partnerships: ‘open innovation’. 2. Attention is given to an early interaction between science and business. 3. Hard knowledge of emerging technologies is complemented by soft knowledge of emerging markets.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace 4. The need for new organizational concepts is acknowledged by emphasizing skills for managing networks with specialized suppliers as well as early users. 5. Entrepreneurship plays a central role.CIM also follows this pattern as its four components are technological research,product development, market transitions and scientific exploration. However, whatis special in CIM is that it describes a circle instead of chain as its componentsinfluence each other and are influenced by each other. Figure 3 demonstrates this:Figure 3 Cyclic Innovation Model (CIM) (Berkhout & Hartmann, 2006)Innovation may start anytime, from any point of the circle. New technologies andchanges in the market influence each other continuously turning scientificknowledge into socioeconomic value. (Berkhout & Hartmann, 2006)The main message of CIM is the increased level of interaction of differentstakeholders, which make innovation process more dynamic and enablesorganizations to start quickly, adjust quickly and learn quickly. This modelemphasizes the importance of continuous interaction between the internal sub-________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceprocesses of the whole innovation process but also between these sub-processesand their environment. (Berkhout & Hartmann, 2006)Rothwells’s fifth generation model (5G) (1994) introduces networking and systemintegration model that is focused on becoming a fast innovator by integratingcloser with stakeholders using technology and parallel information processing aswell as being flexible. The first of its main characters is a greater overallorganizational and systems integration that includes external networking withsuppliers and leading-edge users. This practically means a cross-functionaldevelopment process using horizontal technological collaboration. Second, 5G isfeatured by flatter and more flexible organizational structure, which enables rapidand effective decision making. This can be achieved, e.g., by empowering managersat lower levels. Third character of 5G is fully developed internal databases, such asdata sharing systems, product development metrics and 3D-CAD systems. Finally,the last feature of 5G is effective external electronic linkages, which includes co-development with suppliers using linked CAD systems. (Rothwell, 1994) All in all, itcan be said that Rothewell’s model is build on the top of fourth-generationinnovation model, such as CIM, but it additionally includes a strong ICT point ofview in each of its features.Various innovation models have been developed over recent years by severalauthors (Desouza et al., 2009; Dobni, 2006). In the following, the most relevantinnovation process model for this study is presented.2.2.1 Open Innovation ParadigmOpen Innovation is a paradigm by Henry Chesbrough (2003) proposing that, inaddition to internal ideas and paths to market, firms should use externals whenadvancing their technology but internal mechanism to concretize the value.However, internal ideas can be taken to new markets using external channels tocreate additional value. These ideas can even seep out of the firm, often bydeparting employees, external licensing or start-up companies that are partially________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacestaffed with company’s own employees. Naturally ideas can move also outside in(Figure 4). (Chesbrough, 2003)The characteristics of this model include utilizing ideas that are worthless to thecompany, but have value in new markets, outside of the company. This way newideas that don’t have resources to be implemented internally will get a change torealize. Fundamentally, this approach is based on abundant knowledge, whichcompany uncovers in its R&D, and which must be used readily. (Chesbrough, 2003)Figure 4 Open Innovation Paradigm (Chesbrough, 2003)The following chapter introduces one approach on Open Innovation.2.3 Crowdsourcing in idea creationWhen crowdsourcing, the company looks for an idea, a solution to a problem orevaluation from a crowd (Bonabeau, 2009). The best solution will often berewarded. The collective intelligence of the crowd and its background diversitymay offer companies innovative ideas for a low cost. (Ribiere & Tuggle, 2010)Crowdsourcing has successfully been applied in the area of forecasting. Surowiecki(2004) suggests that ordinary people without any special knowledge can predict________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacethe future more accurately than experts due to the diversity of opinions and moreindependent thinking. For example, employees have been proven to forecastproduct demand more correctly than product managers of the same firm (Nocera,2006). A study by Kaufman-Scarborought et al. (2010) argues that consumer inputincreases companies ability to predict the profitability of items sold in stores,which easily and inexpensively enhances retailers performance and profitability.Porta et al. (2008) claims that already 50 percent of large enterprises and 47percent of startups are using network intelligence for value creation. By networkintelligence, they refer to business intelligence of the Internet, i.e., freely availableinformation on customers, markets, competitors and other concerns for a business.Furthermore, 55 percent of large enterprises and 45 percent of startups are usingtheir customers as a source of network intelligence. However, they remind that theright mindset, processes and tools are needed to be able to use the collectivewisdom of masses. For instance, Nintendo has launched a community platform forits customers, where they can give customer insight to products. In return,participators get incentives, such as exclusive game reviews. Nintendo’s approachleads to better product quality and brand experience as well as richer userinterface with lowered costs. (Porta et al., 2008)According to Porta et al (2008), especially large enterprises should forgetperfection and concentrate on speed. This could be done innovating “quick anddirty”, that is based on "failing fast and failing cheap" of "launch and adapt"principles. (Porta et al., 2008)2.4 Summary of findingsChapter 2.2 summarized the recent requirements of companies, including theemphasized meaning of innovations, committing end-users in early phases of theproduct development process, openness and cooperation across different fields.The Cyclic Innovation Model added that innovation may start anytime, anywhere,and it requires continuous interactions as well as entrepreneurship. The fifth-________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacegeneration model reminded about advantages of flat organizations andempowerment of employees as well as horizontal technical collaboration.Sub-chapter 2.2.1 presented one innovation process model that matched with theserequirements, Open Innovation paradigm, which responded to all the needsmentioned in the previous chapter. It emphasized the role of innovations, was openfor sharing ideas and was based on cooperation with both customers andcompanies from other knowledge domains.The combination of these models would be a network of actors, which is highlyinteractive and entrepreneurial and connected via advanced technical solution.Single organizations in the network are flat and employees empowered. Actors arenot jealous for their ideas, but instead sharing them openly and giving ideas for thedirection that best implements them. Innovations may arise from any point of thenetwork, anytime, due to the democratized roles of individuals. R&D and businessare developed hand in hand, utilizing each other’s results and resources.The last chapter, chapter 2.3, proposed one particular approach in idea creation –crowdsourcing, which could be utilized to implement the described ideamarketplace. Crowdsourcing would outsource the idea creation to an undefined ordedicated crowd, which could consist of all mentioned actors from customers todevelopers and partners, using technical platform.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace3. Motivation to use online communitiesComplicated innovation models are useless, if no consumers appear to an ideamarketplace. This can be avoided by understanding what would motivate people touse social media, and finally, create ideas. A common way to discuss motivation isto divide it into intrinsic and extrinsic motivations or motivators and hygienefactors. These motivation theories have traditionally been associated with work(Herzberg et al., 1959; Kressler, 2003), but similar motivations apply to knowledgework as well, as can be seen in chapter 3.3.3.1 Intrinsic and extrinsic motivationBy intrinsic motivation, researchers mean the non-drive-based motivation which“is based in the organismic needs to be competent and self-determining” and where“the energy is intrinsic to the nature of the organism” (Deci & Ryan, 1985). In otherwords, intrinsic motivation refers to “doing something because it is inherentlyinteresting or enjoyable”, whereas extrinsic motivation means “doing somethingbecause it leads to a separable outcome” (Ryan and Deci, 2000). A separableoutcome is something external to the individual, such as financial compensation(van Eeghen, 2008).According to several studies, creativity results from risk-taking, uninhibitedexploration, and combination of old elements into new patterns (Amabile et al.,1986). These studies (Amabile et al., 1986) propose that the intrinsic motivationenhances creativity, whereas extrinsic motivation undermines motivation(Amabile, 1983). McGraw (1978) suggested that extrinsic motivation improvesperformance on algorithmic, simple and straightforward tasks, but inhibitsperformance on heuristic tasks. Creativity tasks are basically heuristic, so theyshould not be motivated extrinsically. A number of experimental studies haveshown the negative effects of extrinsic motivation on creativity. (Amabile et al.,1986) These studies have included expected evaluation (Amabile, 1979) andsurveillance (Amabile et al., 1983).________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceThus, extrinsic motivating should be avoided in creative tasks. There are also wayshow intrinsic motivation can be turned into extrinsic motivation, which should beavoided equally. First, a reward can be offered for a task that is already intrinsicallyinteresting for the person, but which becomes extrinsic and to be accomplishedonly to obtain the reward. Second, the task can be used as a tool to end in someother way than the offer of reward. Third, the task can be presented as workinstead of play. The explanation to the latter is that people react negatively to awork when their behavior is controlled, because they have learned that work isusually something that someone must be persuaded to do. Then again, if no salientexternal constraints are performed on task engagement, they might react positivelyto the same task. (Amabile et al., 1986)In all of these explanations people must perform their tasks primarily as a means toachieve the extrinsic end, that is, a reward. Achievement of the reward mustdepend on doing the task. On the other hand, although task contingent rewards doundermine intrinsic motivation, non-contingent rewards do not. (Amabile et al.,1986) If rewards are presented randomly after task completion or as arbitrarybonuses, they don’t have the negative effect (Ryan, Mims, & Koestner, 1983).3.2 Two factor theory of motivationAnother – even older – way to discuss motivations is to divide them into motivatorsand hygiene factors (Herzberg et al., 1959) where motivations are related tointrinsic motivations whereas hygiene factors are related to extrinsic motivations(Kressler, 2003). The difference here hides in the perspective from whichmotivations are discussed. When intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are discussedaround creativity, motivators and hygiene factors refer to satisfaction: hygienefactors cannot create satisfaction but their absence can cause dissatisfaction. Thenagain, motivators can create satisfaction. (Herzberg et al., 1959)Herzberg et al. (1959) have suggested that motivators include trust, independence,career development, responsibility, sense of making a worthwhile contribution,________________________________________________________________________________________________ 17
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceachievement, being challenged, and recognition by colleagues, peers, superiors, thework itself. The second group, hygiene factors, comprises pay, company policy andadministration, personal relations, status, security and – interestingly – processesof proposing and approving ideas. (Herzberg et al., 1959)What is more, Hertzberg et al. (1959) pointed out an important notion – hygienefactors are also needed. They cannot create satisfaction, but when lacking, theycreate dissatisfaction. Therefore extrinsic motivators are needed to avoiddissatisfaction, but the real satisfaction, and motivations, must be created abovethat with motivators. (Hertzberg et al., 1959) According to Kressler’s (2003)interpretation, a lack of motivators is far more serious than only being dissatisfiedwith some extrinsic factors.3.3 Motivations to use online communitiesSeveral studies have been made on motivation in online communities. Selectedstudies of online communities, which are related to idea marketplaces fromdifferent angles, will be introduced as follows, classified under extrinsic andintrinsic factors.3.3.1 Extrinsic motivations in online communitiesPredictably, reward and recognition in their different forms are mentioned inseveral studies. Classic social studies generally suggest that monetary rewards areharmful to idea creation (Spence, 1956; Amabile et al., 1986; Toubia, 2006) butthey were found to be useful in innovation intermediaries, that is, in vendoroffering innovation platforms, where the strong relation between the company andthe users is lacking (Antikainen and Väätäjä, 2008a, b).However, a study by Lakhani & Wolf (2005) claimed that creativity of programmersdid not suffer from paying, but was equally high than non-paid programmers’creativity in Free/Open Source Software (F/OSS) Projects. The motivation toparticipate was even higher (over two days a week) among paid programmers than________________________________________________________________________________________________ 18
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceamong volunteers (over one day a week) when measured the time spend onprogramming. However, the study found that being paid was not the strongestmotivator, but the feeling of creativity and getting into a flow state. (Lakhani & Wolf2005) Thus, monetary reward perhaps enables spending twice as much time onprogramming, but the source of creativity hides in other motivators, both extrinsicand intrinsic. These intrinsic motivators are discussed in the next chapter, and thereward issue will be studied in more detail in chapter 3.3.3.The same study (Lakhani & Wolf, 2005) mentioned yet two important extrinsicmotivators more that are consciously improving programming skills and “a senseof obligation to give something back to the community in return for the softwaretools it provides”, which belongs under reciprocity in Table 1. Professional statusand developing a program for work-related needs were also important forcontributors who were paid. Volunteers were participating to improve their skillsor they needed the software for non -work purposes. (Lakhani & Wolf 2005)Lerner and Tirole (2002) studied F/OSS communities as well and they found outthat programmers contributed as long as the benefits exceed the costs. Benefitsincluded the already mentioned normal pay and getting access to the softwareunder development (von Hippel 2001). Especially lead users, users who identifygeneral needs months or years before the bulk of a marketplace, were motivated todevelop solutions for their own needs (von Hippel 1988). Delayed benefits ofdeveloping software included career advancement (Holmström, 1999) andimproving programming skills. (Lakhani & Wolf 2005)According to Jeppesen and Frederiksen (2006), members of company-hostedonline communities appreciate company recognition even higher than other peers’recognition, because these innovative, advanced users want to identify themselveswith company developers instead of their peers. They also suggest that recognitionby peers will be achieved as a consequence of firm recognition. (Jeppesen andFrederiksen 2006)________________________________________________________________________________________________ 19
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceAntikainen et al. (2010) added security, as well as open and constructiveatmosphere, to the list of motivations (Table 1). According to them, positiveatmosphere helps “enhancing motivation”, which describes its role as a hygienefactor, instead of motivator or motivation.3.3.2 Intrinsic motivations in online communitiesA study made by Wasko and Faraj (2000) pointed out that the most popular reasonto participate in online communities was to give back to the community in return tohelp. Other motivations were a feeling of having an effect on one’s environment(Bandura, 1995) or other people, getting a support to participators’ self-images asefficient people (Antikainen et al., 2010) and, undoubtedly, reputation (Hargadonand Bechky, 2006; Kollock, 1999): Creating reputation in open source software communities is already a common way to convince employers and to be hired (Antikainen et al., 2010).Antikainen et al. (2010) made their own study on motivations as well. Theydiscovered that, in addition to the mentioned factors, synergy and fusion of ideaswas one reason to use online communities. Furthermore, mentioned motivationswere finding similar people, sharing risk, and simply for fun or fame. The fun can befound in excitement of using the system, its challenging or social interaction.Finally, seeing own ideas developed further motivated users, as did positive andconstructive atmosphere. (Antikainen et al., 2010) According to a study byImaginatik Research (n.d.), idea submitters do not always even want to own theirideas. 90 percent of ideas are not related to the field of the submitters’ ownexpertise, which has lead Imaginatik Research to the conclusion that ideas are notwanted to be owned because submitters do not have a chance to execute their ideasthemselves in any case. (Imaginatik plc, n.d.)Another study (Davenport, 2005) revealed that employees prefer communicationchannels that let them generate visible information instead of fragmented contentin social media. Employees think that they are “paid to produce, not to browse the________________________________________________________________________________________________ 20
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceintranet” (Davenport, 2005), so this kind of behavior makes sense for them. Thus,employees should be trained on advantages of using social media platforms.3.3.3 Reward and creativitySince Skinnerian position (Skinner, 1938), the reinforcement theory has dominatedthe field of behavioral science. According to Skinner, the likelihood of rewardedbehavior will increase. But since the 1970’s, researchers have began to question thebasic assumption of the reinforcement theory. Instead, intrinsic motivationtheorists suggest that reward can weaken certain wanted behavior under someconditions (e.g., Deci, 1971; Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett, 1973; McGraw, 1978). Thesestudies explain the behavior with over-justification effect: If one gets a reward forenjoyable behavior, the behavior will probably not be performed without rewardanymore, no matter how enjoyable it has been (e.g., Deci, 1971; Lepper et al., 1973).Although reinforcement theorists (e.g., Feingold & Mahoney, 1975; Reiss &Sushinsky, 1975) have tried to question these conclusions, the effect of expectedexternal reward on decreased intrinsic motivation has been empirically well-documented. (Amabile et al., 1986)For instance, Duncker’s (1945) famous candle experiment showed that testsubjects who were promised 20 dollars for the fastest solution solved the problemsignificantly slower that those who were not promised a reward. In another study(Kruglanski, Friedman, & Zeevi, 1971), test subjects who were promised a rewardfor participation performed considerably worse than non-rewarded ones. Theywere not as willing to volunteer for further participation either and they did notseem to enjoy of the activity as much as their non-rewarded colleagues. (Amabile etal., 1986)In general, rewarded test subjects focus more narrowly on achieving the extrinsicgoal, they have more difficulties in solving the problem, and their work issubjectively less creative. In Amabile et al. (1986), the rewards were not justmoney but also some other tempting incentives, such as taking pictures with an________________________________________________________________________________________________ 21
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceinstant camera. Both verbal and artistic tasks were tested. (Amabile et al., 1986)Toubia (2006) offers an explanation for this behavior. According to him, rewardsdo increase all response tendencies, but in complex tasks errors are more likely tooccur, and when rewarded, also errors will occur more (Toubia, 2006). Zajonc(1965) proposes that rewards also enhance the performance of dominant, well-learned responses but undermine new responses. Similarly, McCullers (1978)believes in the enhancing effect of incentives when simple, routine, unchangingresponses are in question, but the situation is far more complex when tasks requirecreativity.However, it needs to be noted that in one presented study of Amabile et al. (1986),test objects were from 5 to 10 years old undergraduate women, and hence the testresults cannot necessarily be generalized to the whole population. Study 3 of thesame article (Amabile et al., 1986) tested also adults but showed only weak supportfor the correlations between reward and creativity. In addition, all studies expectToubia’s (2006) research were over 20 years old.3.4 Summary of motivationsThe presented literature has identified some factors that motivate users toparticipate in online communities. These motivations are summarized in Table 1.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 22
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTable 1 Users motivations to participate in online communities (Antikainenet al., 2010) [modified]Motivations to participate in onlinecommunities AuthorsAltruism Zeityln (2003)Care for community and attachment forthe group Kollock (1999)Enjoyment and fun von Hippel and von Krogh (2003), Nov (2007); Torvalds and Diamond (2001); Antikainen et al. (2010)Firm recognition Jeppesen and Frederiksen (2006)Ideology Nov (2007)Influencing and making betterproducts/services Antikainen et al. (2010)Interesting objectives and intellectualstimulations Ridings and Gefen (2004); Wasko and Faraj (2000); Antikainen et al. (2010)Knowledge exchange, personal learning Antikainen (2007), Gruen et al. (2005), von Hippel and von Krogh (2003), Wasko andand social capital Faraj (2000); Wiertz and Ruyter (2007)Needs, software improvements andtechnical reasons Riding and Gefen (2004), Jeppesen and Frederiksen (2006); Kollock (1999)New viewpoints and synergy Antikainen et al. (2010)Peer recognition Lerner and Tirole (2002); Hargadon and Bechky (2006)Recreation Ridings and Gefen (2004)Sense of cooperation Antikainen et al. (2010)Sense of community and similarity Antikainen et al. (2010)Sense of efficacy, influencing Bandura (1995), Constant et al. (1994); Kollock (1999); Antikainen et al. (2010)Winning, competition and rewards fromparticipation Antikainen et al. (2010)Clear purpose and goals Antikainen et al. (2010)Friendships, relationships and socialsupport Hagel and Armstrong (1997), Rheingold (1993); Ridings and Gefen (2004)Monetary rewards Antikainen and Väätäjä (2008a, b); Wasko and Faraj (2000)Open and constructive atmosphere Antikainen et al. (2010)Reciprocity Kollock (1999); Wasko and Faraj (2000)Reputation and enhancement of Bagozzi and Dholakia (2002), Hargadon and Bechky (2006), Lakhani and Wolf (2005),professional status Lerner and Tirole (2002); Wasko and Faraj (2000)Sense of obligation to contribute Bryant et al. (2005); Lakhani and Wolf (2005)Winning, competition and rewards fromparticipation Antikainen et al. (2010)Idea marketplaces need both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as well as hygienicfactors and motivators. An idea creation work itself is obviously creative from itsnature and needs intrinsic factors to be realized. On the other hand, not all workdone in idea marketplaces is creative – a user may get an idea beforehand whenbeing in a creative stage and just needs motivation to share the idea later on in anidea marketplace. Furthermore, simply sharing plain ideas is not enough. Ideasneed to be developed further by making demos, prototypes and business plans, as________________________________________________________________________________________________ 23
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacewell as rated by voting and commenting. These tasks are simple andstraightforward and thus motivated by extrinsic motivations or hygiene factors.The two factor theory of motivation supports dividing motivators into twocategories. E.g. monetary rewards among other hygienic factors are needed toenable certain level of time consumption, or to gain attention, but the realmotivation comes from other factors, like flow state and self-fulfillment. Figure 5illustrates motivations listed in Table 1 categorized under extrinsic and intrinsicmotivations as well as hygiene factors and motivators.Figure 5 Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations as well as motivators and hygienefactors displayed as subsetsHowever, knowing long lists of motivators does not help when specific groups aretargeted. Everything cannot be promised to everyone and anything does notmotivate anyone. Thus, it is important to clarify what kind of motivations motivate________________________________________________________________________________________________ 24
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacecertain types of people who are wanted in an idea marketplace. Moreover,motivations to work and motivations to act in general online communities must betaken to the context of idea creation environment and test if they still apply.At first, however, we need to find out what kind of people, or roles, are needed inonline communities.4. Roles of users in online communitiesParticipation is one of the basic actions of online communities. Engagement in thesocial, technical and cultural practice of the community helps to create expertise asknowledge is generated socially. (Toral et al., 2009)Different roles occur inside of online communities. Users start as newcomers, whocreate their own “learning curriculum” by performing small and easy tasks withothers. Gradually they will gain expertise and undertake more important roles.(Toral et al., 2009)A research by Toral et al. (2009) proposes that the success of online communitiescan be derived from three factors, which are network cohesion, core of thecommunity, and network structure. Roles play critical role in the model of Toral etal. (2009). Network cohesion is related to roles so that cohesive networks facilitatea good reputation, thus attracting new members to join the community. Communitysuccess, in turn, depends on the level of activities, number of developers and teameffectiveness (Preece, 2001; Crowston et al., 2003).Roles are especially important to attract more people to the service, as onlinecommunities need to have a critical mass of users to attract new users. The size ofcritical mass depends on the ratio between active and passive users, of which 45-90percent can expect to be passive users. (Toral et al., 2009) “Successful innovation involves multiple players – a team (not just a person) of idea generators, a team of designers, a team of developers, and a set of prospective users. The tasks involved include assembling teams of like-minded individuals willing to work in team settings.” (Ribiere & Tuggle, 2010)________________________________________________________________________________________________ 25
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceAs Ribiere & Tuggle (2010) puts it, idea creation process requires different kind ofplayers. These players can include several roles, which are often defined as sets ofactivities performed by individuals (Goffman, 1959; Corsini, 2002).Roles can be understood and classified from several angles. In computer sciences,roles are often characterized by access rights, whereas the organization theorycategorizes users into formal roles, such as moderator, or informal roles, such asleader (Cothrel and Williams, 1999b). Roles can also be classified using four“expressive characteristics”, which are position, function/tasks, behavior-expectations and social interaction (Herrmann et al., 2004). In Herrmann’s model,the social system addresses the role to an actor. The role is always linked to aposition, which again implies certain functions and tasks. (Herrmann et al., 2004)In online communities, roles often include some implicit expectations such asinformal agreement and commitment, and roles are usually the result of anegotiation between an actor and other users of the community. However,especially in online communities there are also informal roles. In a virtualenvironment, official roles are usually not assigned in at all, but they are informaland interchangeable. For instance, an actor may play both advisor and advisee rolessimultaneously. (Tang & Yang, 2006)For designers of online communities it is important to understand what kind ofroles are needed to be able to build a working community, but according to Lin etal. (2007), group members should as well recognize their functional roles, and thusbehaviors, to perform well in knowledge-related activities and creation. Therefore,recognizing the online roles and their behaviors should clarify how online learningcommunities work and what kind of online communities best benefit learners.(Tang & Yang, 2006)The following sub-chapters introduce five different ways to categorize roles inonline communities. Introduced communities are not actual online innovationcommunities because such studies were not found. However, it can be interpretedthat innovation communities are related to all of the studied communities, as open________________________________________________________________________________________________ 26
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceinnovation includes characteristics from all of followings: open source, learning,branding, guilds (as teams), and technology. Leaders were also studied, as leaderroles might be relevant too.The last chapter synthesizes roles categorizing them in a new way.4.1 Roles of users in online communities around open sourcesoftware projectsAccording to Barcellini et al. (2008), some participants of open source software(OSS) design communities have formally assigned roles, such as administrators ormanagers. Some studies of design contexts (Sonnenwald, 1996) and onlineinteractions (Cassell et al., 2005) suggest that emerging roles also occur, but theymay be dependent upon user’s formal status. Status defines what is expected froma certain user and can thus have an effect on the behavior (Barcellini et al., 2008).On the other hand, roles are dependent purely on user’s actions in the community,which indicates the emerging behavior of participants (Barcellini et al., 2008). Forinstance, a study on an online community by Cassell et al. (2005) have emphasizedhow users actively construct their positions and roles. These roles reflect thenumber and content of the posted messages. Maloney-Krichnar and Preece (2002)show that users create a mental model of the roles in the community, which formsthe basis of their involvement and participation.In an OSS project, where the collaboration is based on discussion forums, roles alsoemerge from interactions between users in the discussion space (Mahendran,2002), or in other cases, from interaction between users and mailing lists. Forexample, “Bot”, short for robot, is the nickname for one role, which emerges fromreplying quickly in mailing lists. Irrespective of the means of collaboration, rolesemerge and are actively constructed in OSS projects. (Barcellini et al., 2008) Rolescan be changed through a peer-review mechanism by proving value to the projectand thus gaining respect (Ducheneaut, 2005; Mahendran, 2002; Jensen and Scacchi,2005).________________________________________________________________________________________________ 27
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTo conclude, roles in OSS communities are the result of a combination of users’contributions to the online discussions, project’s organizational structure, andtechnical skills and activities exhibited by users (Barcellini et al., 2008). Based onthis, the research by Barcellini et al. (2008) has identified the following roles in OSScommunities: the project leader, the administrators of the project, the developers andthe champion of the PEP. PEP stands for Python Enhancement Proposal, which is aterm for improvements to the Python language used in the researched OSSdiscussion space. (Barcellini et al., 2008)Barcellini et al. (2008) describe a set of behaviors of the defined roles as follows.The project leader and the champion of the PEP are frequent contributors in all thediscussion and their posts lead to multiple branches. The project leader is oftenquoting multiple messages, closing discussions and making decisions. Thechampion writes syntheses of previously posted messages, which is natural for thechampion’s role as the champion is the one who proposed the PEP and is thus incharge of the PEP discussion. The project leader guarantees the project, whichconfirms Mahendran’s suggestion (2002) about the project leader’s authority overthe community. Administrators tend to post in the beginning of the branchingpositions, which leads to quotations in multiple messages; in linear sequences ofexchanges with developers and in closing positions, which ends the conversationwhen the project leader has already stopped participating in the discussion. In theend of the discussion, administrators only participate in meta-theme discussion.Barcellini et al. (2008) suggest that the project leader and the administrators havecomplementary roles that are occupied alternately, and the administrator relies onthe project leader in Python language specific themes. The administrator onlyreplaces the project manager when he does not want or cannot participate in thediscussion anymore. Developers are posting in the beginning of the conversationwith deep quotations and in linear sequences of exchanges with administrators andothers developers. Developers participate especially in the design process as their________________________________________________________________________________________________ 28
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacemessages contain design alternatives and they can start branching structures in thediscussions. (Barcellini et al., 2008)All in all, the project leader and the administrator are on the top of the conversationhierarchy but developers are enhancing the design process by proposing newsolutions and evaluating others’ solutions. However, developers need to participatein the right time to avoid getting punished by the projects leader. (Barcellini et al.,2008)4.2 Roles of users in online learning communitiesLin et al. (2007) studied products and processes of knowledge sharing and creatingin professional online communities and classified them into inferior and superiortypes. Inferior roles of members include information/opinion seekers or givers,encouragers, and followers, whereas superior group roles include initiators,orienters, encouragers, recorders, gatekeepers, information/opinion seekers or givers,coordinators, and clowns. The inferior group consists primarily of idea providerswhereas the superior group consists of task performers, idea providers andintegrators. (Lin et al., 2007)Lin et al. (2007) discovered that only few participants in the inferior grouphabitually cooperated when more than half of participants in the superior groupdid so. They also pointed out that the superior group was more enthusiastic aboutsharing knowledge than the inferior group. Moreover, Lin et al. (2007) found thatgroup members are aware of their functional roles, and each functional rolerequires a set of behaviors to act during the knowledge sharing and creationprocesses.Based on the roles presented above by Lin et al. (2007), Yeh (2010) has identifiedeight roles that occur in online learning communities. The analytical results by Yeh(2010) demonstrate that roles can be composed of multiple behaviors or only onebehavior. The roles are supervisors, information providers, group instructors,atmosphere constructors, opinion providers, reminders, trouble-makers and problem________________________________________________________________________________________________ 29
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacesolvers. The name of the role describes the main functions of the role in questions,and Table 2 shows the occurrence of each role in researched online leaningcommunities. (Yeh, 2010)Table 2 Occurrence of Roles in Online Lerning Communities (Yeh, 2010),[modified] Information Group Atmosphere Opinion Trouble- ProblemRole Supervisors providers instructors constructors providers Reminders makers solversNumber 53 36 17 91 79 80 48 21According to Yeh (2010), the most common roles in online learning communitiesfrom within-group perspective are information providers, opinion providers, andtrouble-makers. The difference between information providers and opinionproviders is, as the name describes, that information providers provide fact-basedobjective information, while opinion providers provide subjective opinions relatedto group work. The trouble-makers cause troubles by being absent fromdiscussions and not doing their part of the work. From an across-groupperspective, the most frequent roles are supervisors, positive atmosphereconstructors, reminders, problem solvers and – unfortunately again - trouble-makers. As opposed to trouble-makers, supervisors are essential to well-workingcommunities since they suggest work-related improvements, take others’ opinionsinto account, set schedules and assign tasks to other participants. Another rolecritical to functioning of knowledge-based communities is group instructor whichis the least common role. Group instructors are able to solve misconceptions andorganize gathered information (Yeh, 2010), which naturally anyone cannot do(Waltonen-Moore et al., 2006).Similarly, Agre (1998) studied designers and noted the importance of oneadditional role, that is, thought leader. Thought leaders are needed for buildingtrust within a community, foreseeing issues, gathering positions and arguments,networking with relevant people, and articulating the issue to other community toprovoke thinking. (Agre, 1998)________________________________________________________________________________________________ 30
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace4.3. Roles of users in online brand communitiesFournier & Lee (2009) also note the importance of opinion leaders – or thoughtleaders as named in chapter 4.2 – in social networks, but emphasize giving a chanceto everyone to play an equally valuable role. Fournier & Lee (2009) researchedbrand communities including Red Hat Society, Trekkies, and MGB car blub. A brandcommunity refers to “a group of ardent consumers organized around the lifestyle,activities, and ethos of the brand” (Fournier & Lee, 2009). Nowadays thesecommunities get together specifically online. (Fournier & Lee, 2009)As a result of their study, Fournier & Lee (2009) identified 18 social and culturalroles that are critical to brand community’s function, preservation and evolution.These roles include, to name a few, greeters who welcome new members to thecommunity; celebrities who represent the community; storytellers who spread thestory of the community throughout the group; and heroes who act as role modelswithin the community. (Fournier & Lee, 2009) Opinion leaders and evangelists alsoplay important roles, since, according to Fournier & Lee (2009), they are the oneswho spread information, influence decisions, and help new ideas gain traction insocial networks.Interestingly, Fournier & Lee (2009) claim that companies hosting onlinecommunities are able not only to evaluate the existing roles and behaviors but alsoto fill in the missing roles to improve community function. According to them,community designers can create role structures and support systems to a widerange of roles. Previous studies (e.g. Sonnenwald, 1996) have already noted thatroles can change and emerge, but being able to control roles is something new.According to Fournier and Lee (2009), this can be done by giving “membersopportunities to take on new roles, alternate between roles, and negotiate tensionsacross roles in conflict – without ever leaving the fold”. They provide a successfulexample of such action from Saddleback Church of Orange County, which maintainsa cohesive community of more than 20,000 members by regularly monitoringparticipants’ needs, and “creating subgroups and roles to keep people engaged”.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 31
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceGroups are organized for instance by age, gender, and interests, as well as byshared challenges, social commitments, and family situations. People are offeredseveral different roles simultaneously, and they can participate via differentchannels. (Fournier & Lee, 2009)4.4 Roles of users in a guild communityAng & Zaphiris (2010) identified three social roles of a guild community, an onlinecommunity with explicitly pronounced role-play element, in a popular computergame, World of Warcraft (WoW). The roles were densely connected core members,loosely connected semi-periphery members, and an outer ring of disconnectedperiphery players. These three blocks illustrated distinct levels of participation aswell as sense of belongingness to the community. (Ang & Zaphiris, 2010)Ang & Zaphiris (2010) described core members as being highly connected withintheir own block and moderately connected to other blocks. Presumably they hadbeen a part of the guild for a long time and knew each other well. They were activein the game chat, managed the group and gave help, but, interestingly, did not askfor help. (Ang & Zaphiris 2010) Like core members, semi-periphery members werealso giving help, but getting help as well. Apart from that, they were active in thegame chat and managing the group. Therefore, they were not in the core of theguild but trying to get involved in the community. Members of periphery blockwere instead merely seeking help from the guild but not involved in the communityotherwise. They had access to a lot of other players, and thus a great chance ofgetting help, but they did not contribute to the community or give anything back.(Ang & Zaphiris, 2010)Ang & Zaphiris (2010) have found that interacting with other players encouragesplayers to move from the periphery to the core of the community, and especially,giving help is a key action positioning a player in the network. However, not allplayers have the ability to give help, but it depends on the player’s knowledge andskills. Therefore, experienced players are the most likely ones to take the role in the________________________________________________________________________________________________ 32
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacecore group. On the other hand, less-skilled players can make themselves moreknowledgeable by being active in the game chat, which does not always requirethat advanced skills or knowledge. According to the study, some lower level playerswere even categorized as core members due to their high activity in tasks such asthe game chat. Thus, Ang & Zaphiris (2010) classified the core members into twogroups, knowledge players and social players. Knowledge players provide help andassist other players, which perhaps attracts more members into the guild. Thenagain, social players nurture a friendly and welcoming atmosphere and thus attractmore members to join the guild. On the other hand, the analysis showed that somehigher level players were located also in the periphery, because their participationmainly consisted of asking for help. These players are called freeloaders as theyonly use the guild “as an instrumental tool for their task interaction”. In addition,the periphery consists of newbies, who are new to the community in general. Theyneed help in basic community-related issues. What differentiates newbies fromfreeloaders is that they might gradually move towards the core group of the guildcommunity as they gain more experience and skills and they also start giving helpto others. However, some of the newbies have been proved to turn into freeloaders,which is an alternative path. (Ang & Zaphiris, 2010)4.5 Roles of users in online technology communitiesRheingold (1993) has studied virtual communities which he defines as follows: “social aggregations that emerge from the [Internet] when enough people carry on those public discussions long enough, with sufficient human feeling, to form webs of personal relationships in cyberspace.“When this definition is compared to the definition of online communities in chapter1.1, online communities and virtual communities can be seen referring to the samephenomenon. Thus, also a study by Madanmohan & Navelkar (2004) can also beincluded in this research. They have studied one special part of online________________________________________________________________________________________________ 33
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacecommunities, virtual technology communities, which Tushman and Rosenkopf(1992) define as “virtual communities that share a common interest in a particular technology and develop not only technological routines, but language and mannerisms.”Madanmohan & Navelkar (2004) have studied roles in technology communitiesthrough a life cycle, which starts from a newbie stage, when the person is new tosystem and its workings. Newbie is followed by intermediate, which already has“sufficient know-how to use a system and learn more”. The next phase is advanceduser, who is “capable of solving others’ problems” and “involved in propagation of thevirtues of system”. The final stage is an expert who says the last word in systemrelated issues and has “deep knowledge about the functioning as well as itsadvocacy”.Moreover, Madanmohan & Navelkar (2004) have identified formalized roles withinevolved technology community where newbies have turned to experts and foundtheir own styles to participate and interact with each other. These roles includecore organizers who acquire funding, heighten visibility and ensure participation ofkey members for the success of the community. These users have also motivatedand encouraged other users as well as elicited involvement from them in earlierstages. Thus they know everyone, and the role emerges among participants. Theorganizer might also be responsible for the technology infrastructure, which makesthe organizer the dominant actor of the community (Butler, et al., 2002). Inaddition, core organizers promote the community to others. (Madanmohan &Navelkar, 2004)Other identified roles include experts, who represent the knowledge of thecommunity, as they share tacit knowledge and arbitrate technical decisions whenthe consensus is not found otherwise. Problem posers identify technical problemsfor discussions and seek solutions. Implementers implement new suggestions andvalidate them through experiments, which makes their role very critical for thedevelopment of the community. Integrators organize existing information, codify________________________________________________________________________________________________ 34
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacerules, build taxonomies and perhaps take into use new tools and methodologies.Philosophers preach about standards and they are helping to get the message out.They might not be experts in technology but they understand how to use it.(Madanmohan & Navelkar, 2004)According to Madanmohan & Navelkar (2004), the most essential point to notehere is the openness of technology communities and the flexibility of roles.4.6 Role of leader in online groupsMost online groups have a person who has taken a formal role of a leader, such asowner, administrator, host, or wizard. The role can be needed for the high-leveladministrator privileges on a server, or the online group misses a formal position ofadministration as it is distributed from its nature. As in traditional organizations,also the leader of an online group is formally named and has certain rights andresponsibilities. (Butler et al., 2002)The role of the leader in online communities has different kind of tasks andresponsibilities as well as privileges. They might include adding and removingmembers from the community or items from the archive. In moderated groups,leaders might allow or reject posting, or rule these rights. They might also beresponsible for infrastructure management. The role identity should engageleaders to be more active and provide more content than other members, limitundesirable behavior as well as promote the community externally. All in all,leaders should do more community building work than others. (Butler et al., 2002)According to Butler (2002) the formal leader role in online communities hasoriginally been defined with special access privileges to technical tools andnetwork infrastructure, but recently technical responsibility has been going hand inhand with social responsibility. Social responsibility includes activities such aspromoting the group, encouraging other members, moderating their behavior, andposting messages. (Butler et al., 2002)________________________________________________________________________________________________ 35
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceLeaders are differentiated from other members exactly in technical and socialtasks, or in the level of activity in these tasks, to be precise. Leaders spend moretime on creating content and posting messages than reading messages. But alsoother members spend time on community building work, not only formal leaders.(Butler et al., 2002)4.7 SummaryRecognizing roles of participants and their behaviors clarifies how onlinecommunities work and what kind of online roles benefit communities best.Therefore, chapter 4 presented five set of roles in different kind of onlinecommunities.Chapter 4.1 presented the roles of open source design communities and onepossible way to categorize roles in general. Roles in this chapter were categorizedusing hierarchical positions in the community. One important point to be notedhere is that this chapter claimed roles being able to emerge but to be partiallydependent on users formal status.Chapter 4.2 studied roles in online learning communities. This chapter describedwhat kind of roles and behaviors differentiate superior communities from inferiorones.Chapter 4.3 identified 18 social and cultural roles in online brand communities,which were more specific and human than the roles presented in other sub-chapters of chapter 4. One particularly interesting notion in this chapter was thatcompanies hosting online communities are able to add missing roles to improve thefunctionality of the community.Chapter 4.4 divided roles in guild communities into three layers based on userslevel of participation and sense of belonginess. This division was actually adescription of users life cycle from a newbie to a core player, but it also suggesteda division to knowledge players and social players.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 36
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceChapter 4.5 presented a life cycle model of roles similar to chapter 4.4. According tothis model, openness and flexibility of roles are the most important features tomake an online technology community work effectively.Finally, chapter 4.6 analyzed the various roles of a leader in online groups. Inaddition to a formal status, leaders are differentiated from other members by thetime they spend on technical and social tasks.Table 3 summarizes the identified roles grouped by their type instead of author.Identified roles from chapters 4.1, 4.5 and 4.6 were hierarchical and chronologicalfrom their nature. Chapters 4.2, 4.3 and 4.5 included information processingrelated roles. Chapter 4.4 concentrated almost entirely on building an atmosphere.Roles in chapters 4.2 consisted mainly of administrative roles, but also chapters 4.4and 4.6 had some of them. Trouble makers from chapter 4.3 formed their owncategory, which is of negative nature. And finally, chapter 4.4 mentioned one rolethat most online communities most likely have, but which is often not brought up:the passive audience.Table 3 Roles of users in online communities identified from the literature Role Description Project manager Makes decisions; closes discussions; guarantees the community; on the top of the hierarchy Administrator Maintains meta-level discussion; starts new branches; next in the hierarchy Champion Opens new discussions; writes syntheseshierarchical Developer Proposes new solutions; evaluates other solutions; on the bottom of the hierarchy Intermediate Has sufficient know-how to use a system and learn more Advanced user Is capable of solving problems and involved in propagation of the virtues of system Core Organizer Organizes the community, initiates talks and groups formations Leader Technical administrator; formal administration: addsand removes users and data; rules posting rights; infrastructure management; promotes community; encourages other members Core member, knowledge Long-term member, highly connected, moderates, gives help, and assists; does not ask help player Core member, social player Long-term member, highly connected, moderates; active in chat; creates atmospherechronological Semi-periphery member Seeks and gives help; active in chat; manages group; Periphery member; Gets help but does not want to be involved in the community; is just using the resources of freeloader the community Periphery member; Newbie Gets help and wants to be involved in the community; is progressing and later helps others New to system and its workings________________________________________________________________________________________________ 37
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace Enjoys learning and seeks self-improvement Reminder Reminds others about the details for completing the work information seeker Seeks information Opinion seeker Seeks information or opinion from the group for individuals to make judgmentsinformation processing Mentor Teaches others and shares expertise Expert Tacit knowledge, knowledge sharing Information provider Provides and shares information Problem solver Answers questions; corrects and explains problems by others Group instructor Clarifies misconceptions Opinion provider Provides opinions Initiators Stimulates the group, and provides new ideas or thoughts Problem poser Brings problems to the platform, poses queries Implementer Establishes empirical validity to the suggestions made, Informs limitations and bugs Encourager Accepts members’ options by praising, agreeing, or stimulating Atmosphere constructor Constructs positive atmosphere Partner Encourages, shares, and motivates Clown Promotes free and easy atmosphere by something funny Greeter Welcomes new members into the community Catalyst Introduces members to new people and ideasatmosphere Back-Up Acts as a safety net for others when they try new things Storyteller Spreads the community’s story throughout the group Historian Preserves community memory; codifies rituals and rites Hero Acts as a role model within the community Celebrity Serves as a figurehead or icon of what the community represents Provider Hosts and takes care of other members Guide Helps new members navigate the culture Performer Takes the spotlight Follower Follows instructions to perform tasks when the group needs Orienter Instructs the group correct goals and direction Recorder Recording resolutions and plans Gatekeeper Oversees and establishes the group norm, usually demonstrate themselves Coordinator Integrates ideal and practicality, and avoid meanderingadministrative Supervisor Suggests work-related improvements; Requests others opinions; sets discussion schedules and tasks to others Ambassador Promotes the community to outsiders Accountant Keeps track of people’s participation Talent Scout Recruits new members Decision Maker Makes choices affecting the community’s structure and function Integrator Collates several rules/suggestions, builds taxonomy, builds manual Philosopher Pushes for standardization, regulatory support________________________________________________________________________________________________ 38
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace Trouble maker Causes problems by absenting from discussions and not finishing their workaudience negative Supporter Participates passively as an audience for othersThere is some overlapping of roles between models. Both Ang & Zaphiris (2010)and Madanmohan & Navelkar (2004) propose “newbie” as one role. The enormousnumber of different roles may be due to various natures of the studied onlinecommunities. As the studied roles have not occurred in online idea creationcommunities, it is still necessary to study if all these roles are really needed in ideacreation communities.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 39
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace5. Idea creation tools and functions in online communitiesNumerous commercial idea crowdsourcing websites already exists, the most well-known of which include IdeaStorm (Dell, 2010) by Dell, My Starbucks Idea(Starbucks Corporation, 2010) by Starbucks, Refresh Everything (Pepsi Co, 2010)by Pepsi, Designbyme (The LEGO Group, 2010) by Lego, Connect + Develop(Procter & Gamble, 2010) by P&G and InnoCentive (InnoCentive, Inc., 2010).In this study, idea crowdsourcing web sites refer to web sites that are concentratedon idea crowdsourcing. Not much academic research has been done on ideacrowdsourcing websites. Instead, collaboration plays an important role in ideacrowdsourcing, as it basically means creating ideas in cooperation, andcollaboration tools have been studied broadly. Thus, this study presents selectedcollaboration features in online communities in the first chapter. The followingchapter concerns knowledge-management systems. It is well-known thatknowledge catalyzes innovations, and therefore, knowledge management systemscan bring a great value to innovation processes. Sub-chapter 5.2.1 discusses brieflyknowledge-enabled innovation management systems (KIMS), which are relevant inthe context of this kind of idea crowdsourcing services, but, unfortunately, only afew studies on KIMS were found. Chapter 5.3, in turn, identifies three alternativeapproaches to open innovation. Chapter 5.4 concerns idea creation functions fromthe innovation process point of view, while the last chapter, 5.5, briefly benchmarksone interesting social media platform, Facebook.5.1 Collaboration features in online communities “To invoke user interest and collaboration, companies utilize certain design tools and toolkits. Users interested in designing their own products want to do so efficiently. Manufacturers can therefore attract them with kits of design tools that ease their product-development tasks and with products that can serve as “platforms” upon which to develop and realize user-developed modifications” (von Hippel, 2005, p. 128).________________________________________________________________________________________________ 40
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceAccording to different researches, certain tools are identified. Antikainen et al.(2010) highlighted Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that provideenthusiastic users an opportunity to realize themselves and develop communityfurther. Adaptation of tools, transparency of the status, and user profiles arerequired features as well. Users should be able to see who is online doing what andkeep up-to-date on news. Some online communities offer particular tools even forinnovation. Functionalities, such as rating, refining of ideas, promoting,commenting, suggesting and discussion are also relevant. (Antikainen et al., 2010).However, Antikainen et al. (2010) remind that creating collaboration betweenstrangers is not easy. For example, scheduling, managing time, creating the sense ofreal cooperation and people getting to know each other are challenges identified bythe research (Antikainen et al., 2010). Another challenge is rewarding. It is difficultto reward groups instead of individuals. Moreover, some rewarding systems seemto increase participation but not collaboration. Instead, ability to comment others’ideas may be more motivating. (Antikainen et al., 2010)As Antikainen et al. (2010) put it: “Users should be able to feel like they are sitting around the same virtual table and working together as a group.”Search is also one fundamental feature in any information platform: users must beable to find what they are looking for. This might sound obvious, but in the surveymade by Forrester, less than 50 percent of the respondents told that findinginformation from intranets has been easy. On the other hand, 87 percent of therespondents of another study by Pew Internet & American Life Project reportusually having successful search results. (McAfee, 2006)Another search-kind-of mechanism that experienced users advocate is tags. Theyhelp to categorize the content using users’ intelligence. Tags also tell otheremployees which sites to visit. Recommendation algorithms are the next step tothis and suggest people similar pages (or ideas) they already like. (McAfee, 2006)________________________________________________________________________________________________ 41
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceAccording to McAfee (2006), people have a need to create and tell stories, that is, towrite for a broad audience. This partially explains the popularity of wikis and blogs.And the most professional people should have something, such as insight,knowledge or experience, to contribute. (McAfee, 2006)Some social media ground rules include that all tools should be easy to use andrequire no HTML skills or downloading additional software. Few clicks and a webbrowser should be enough. On the other hand, the ground rules do not define howthe tools should be used or structured but the user should be able to use one’s owncreativity. (McAfee, 2006)Table 4 Tools and methods for collaboration (Antikainen et al., 2010)[modified]Tools and methods for collaborationActive participation of maintainers and good usabilityActive participation of maintainers, rules, maintainers personal informationInfluencing others opinions motivates to collaborateTools for idea generation, refining, commenting and ratingTools for idea generation and time managementUsability of servicesRewarding equitably groups not individualsProfiles and status information, scheduling and time management5.2 Knowledge management systemsKnowledge management does not have any established definition (Alavi & Leidner,2001), but it can be viewed as “a state of mind, as an object, as a process, a situationof having access to information or even as a capacity” (Alavi & Leidner, 2001, p.109). Knowledge management is becoming less top-down, centric and command-and-control driven, and turning into more open, participative and social. NowadaysKM includes even Web 2.0 tools, such as blogs, wikis, podcasts, videocasting, socialnetworks, RSS feed, IM and tagging. (Ribiere & Tuggle, 2010)Compared to physical communities, online communication considerably decreasesthe costs of interaction between users as well as firms and users (Jeppesen &________________________________________________________________________________________________ 42
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceFrederiksen, 2006). Online communities help firms to build brands (Muniz andOGuinn 2001), support use of firm’s products (Moon and Sproull, 2001), get ideasand feedback (Williams and Cothrel, 2000), and to charge customers for accessingto communities (Armstrong and Hagel, 1996). An especially important outcome ofthem is more flexible production processes, which enable firms to respond to newinformation throughout the development cycle resulting in products that bettermeet customer need and thus perform better (Iansiti and MacCormack 1997,MacCormack et al., 2001).Ribiere and Tuggle (2010) are imaging a two-way flow of knowledge, whereinnovators give prototypes in the hands of end users, who will give feedback aboutthem and even refine them. This can be brought even further by giving customers awhole toolkit that they can use to build prototypes themselves thus becomingInnovators as well. (Ribiere & Tuggle, 2010)KM tools should allow end users to offer their opinions, suggest for improvementsand observations. (Ribiere & Tuggle, 2010)5.2.1 Knowledge-enabled innovation management systemsRibiere and Tuggle (2010) represent their vision of knowledge-enabled innovationmanagement system (KIMS), which integrates customers, communities, the crowd,as well as optionally outsourcing companies and spin-off ventures to the oneinnovation ecosystem. Outside the ecosystem layer, there is an innovation zonethat is acting as space for actors of ecosystem to cooperatively develop ideas(Figure 6). This zone is often supported with a technological system that includesseveral elements to enable the interaction. Ribiere and Tuggle (2010) have listedsome of them, as presented in Table 5.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 43
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTable 5 Examples of actions enabling the interactivity between the customersand the crowd with the internal innovation process (Ribiere and Tuggle,2010)Submit idea (new product, new feature, new process, problem solving,...)Comment on idea, products, features, strategy...Evaluate, rank, assess, judge, testExperience (simulation, virtual reality) and experimentShare (multimedia documents)Communicate, discuss and interact with others (internal and external actors of the innovation process)CompareLearn and share knowledge and expertiseEntertain themselves and playMake money and get recognitionAdvise/recommendDesign, build, test their own prototypesAsk for assistanceComplainThe third layer of KIMS turns chaotic environment of raw ideas and multiple actorsto a “learning and fruitful creativity environment”. KM system is heavily helpingdoing that by capturing, organizing, storing and sharing all the knowledge frominnovation zone. It is also acting as a marketplace for selling and buying ideas, andsatisfying the need of society. (Ribiere and Tuggle, 2010)________________________________________________________________________________________________ 44
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceFigure 6 Framework of a knowledge-enabled innovation management system(KIMS) supported by KM 2.0 technologies (Ribiere and Tuggle, 2010)5.3 Social media tools and technologiesA few studies review the tools that are used to manage open innovation. Elmquistet al. (2009) classify these tools into aggregating, liberating and allowing types.The first type, aggregating, refers to aggregating information from different sourcesto meet the needs of the company. Procter & Gamble uses this approach in theiridea creation website called “Connect & Develop”. It is used to adapt the initiativesthat come from outside the home department or entirely outside the company.(Elmquist et al., 2009) The website is based on a general technique also called“Connect and develop”, which leverages the distributed innovative capacity usingthe interfaces of large organizations towards their multinational stakeholders tofind ideas (Dodgson et al., 2006; Huston and Sakkab, 2006, 2007). Tao andMagnotta (2006) provide a similar example called “Identify and accelerate”.Accordingly, this process identifies the needs of the organization and utilizes the________________________________________________________________________________________________ 45
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceinterface towards the external stakeholders to find solutions to those needs (Tao &Magnotta 2006). These processes are based on standard open source methods aswell as tools commonly used for innovation (Piller and Walcher, 2006).The second type, liberating, by Piller and Walcher (2006), claims that customershave “sticky knowledge” which can be released in idea competitions but not instandard market research.The third type, allowing, proposes extreme programming (XP) to open theinnovation process to external sources (Gassmann et al., 2006), which are often notutilized in the possible extent. Extreme programming would help to changebehavior and culture, which need to be changed at first to change anything else.Implementation of XP process needs the support of the leadership and seniorexecutives, and the roles, responsibilities and relationships of the people andprocesses must be aligned. (Elmquist et al., 2009) The involvement of theleadership is also crucial.Enkel et al. (2005) provides a new angle to the topic by suggesting five negativesides of customer involvement in the idea creation process. The main risks includeloosing the know-how, the dependence on customers’ views and customers’personality, the potential limitations to mere incremental, limiting only to a nichemarket and potentially misunderstanding customers. (Enkel et al., 2005)5.4 Functions in different phases of the idea creation processPreez & Louw (2008) have generated a new innovation model called the Fugle,which was developed within an insurance company but generalized to beapplicable for product and service companies as well. The stages of the Fugle modelare familiar from many previous innovation process models (e.g. Rothwell, 1994;Chesbrough, 2003), but Preez & Louw (2008) have described the functions of eachstage in details, which is something new. The authors of this study have not foundany other sources related to this matter.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 46
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceIt needs to be kept in mind that, although the Fugle model seems to be a linearstaged process, there are many iterative loops and many of these steps (e.g. ideageneration and idea capturing) also occur simultaneously. In addition, portfoliomanagement stage actually occurs throughout the process. (Preez & Louw, 2008)Figure 7 The Fugle Innovation Process (Preez & Louw, 2008) [modified]5.4.1 Idea generation/ identification stageIn the Fugle Innovation Process model, the idea generation / identification stage isthe first one in the process and creative from its nature. As the name tells, this is astage for generating new ideas and identifying new business opportunities. Thesources of new ideas include both internal and external sources and they can be aresult of accidents or focused workshops and brainstorming sessions. Preez &Louw (2008) illustrate this stage using an agricultural metaphor, “provide the seeds________________________________________________________________________________________________ 47
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceand fertiliser for new ideas to grow”. Later stages include harvesting, filtering andstoring these ideas for further development. (Preez & Louw, 2008)According to Preez & Louw (2008), information can be used to fertilize ideas. Thefollowing kind of information can be provided to stimulate the generation of newideas: • information about current problems or problem areas in the business, • information about competitors, • information about clients and markets, • information about technologies, • information about company strategies and objectives. (Preez & Louw, 2008)Although many ideas may arise accidentally, they need hard thinking to determinetheir significance. This can be facilitated by providing the right information toideators. In addition, the whole idea needs to be documented to communicate it toothers and develop it further (Gaynor, 2002). Preez & Louw (2008) points out thatthis is important especially because many ideas can become more feasible in thefuture even if they are first rejected due to current circumstances. Whendocumenting, an ideator also needs to take into account the development life cycle,the relevant team members and the external factors. (Preez & Louw, 2008)Finally, ideas need to be filtered to allocate scarce resources to the development ofthe most current, promising and feasible ideas, even if the risk to reject some goodideas occurs. A company’s strategy provides a natural guide to filtering. Ideaswhich are not in line with company strategies can be rejected – for now. However,rejected ideas should be documented with the reasons for their rejection to betterevaluate them in the future. (Preez & Louw, 2008)________________________________________________________________________________________________ 48
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace5.4.2 Concept definition stageThe concept definition stage focuses on transforming the idea, or a group ofdifferent ideas, into a one functional concept. According to Preez & Louw (2008),the documented concept should then be shared with different people in order forthe concept to develop and to be evaluated. New ideas can still be added to theconcept. Ideas are filtered again after this stage to select the most promising into afeasibility evaluation phase. (Preez & Louw, 2008)5.4.3 Concept feasibility and refinement stageAt the concept definition stage, the concept is investigated further against newinformation about the market situation and a prototype of it is made. The approachto be used here is “quick and dirty”, or like Wycoff (2003) says, “fail fast and smart”.It is cheaper and better to fail earlier at this stage than during any later stages. Thisstage should be considered as a learning experience. Typically, concept still refinesduring this stage, but at the end, a funding of the concept should be decided andthus the outcome of this stage is a list of potential innovation projects. (Preez &Louw, 2008)5.4.4 Portfolio stageIn the portfolio stage, all the innovation initiatives that have passed the previousfiltering stages should be placed in a portfolio, which should be managedholistically. Other stages will also help to prioritize, schedule and align theinitiatives. In addition, resources should be allocated, responsibilities assigned,initiatives continuously monitored in portfolio stage as well as to ensure that thestrategic alignment remains. (Preez & Louw, 2008)5.4.5 Deployment stageThe deployment stage includes the design, implementation, and testing of the ideaconcept. It also involves the project plan in more detail and management of theprojects. The next step is the actual roll-out the product, followed by refinement &________________________________________________________________________________________________ 49
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceformalization stage, which concentrates on monitoring, measuring, evaluating andrefining the product that most likely does not yet work perfectly – until it does, atleast, satisfactorily. (Preez & Louw, 2008)Finally, the product can be taken to exploitation stage, where the future businesspotential of it is exploited through new business models and markets. To reach thisstage, an idea needs to pass one more filter, “exploitation gate”. (Preez & Louw,2008)5.5 Case FacebookAn interesting example of online communities that are voluntarily used in a hugeextent, without incentives, is Facebook. Facebook has over 400 million users and itsusers spend over 500 billion minutes per month on Facebook (Facebook, 2010). Alot of academic research has also been made around Facebook. Why is it sopopular? We will now go through some of these studies to see if there are someout-of-the-box functions we could utilize in idea marketplaces, although they areprimarily not social networking sites.According to Wellman & Gulia (1999), some of the most important functions ofonline communities in general are familiar from offline life: providing informationresources, social and emotional support and ties to other people. Social capital isalso one important advantage online communities can offer (Ellison et al., 2006).However, the main reason to use specifically Facebook is “social searching”, whichsimply refers to using Facebook to find out more about people who have been metoffline (Lampe et al., 2006). The second most important reason is to keep in touchwith old friends. (Lampe et al., 2006). An interesting detail is that 41,6 percent ofthe messages are sent outside of one’s local network (Table 6), which suggests thatFacebook is also used to build social ties and social capital across distances (Golderet al., 2007). Instead, users are not interested in “social browsing”, that is, findingpeople online to meet them offline later. (Joinson, 2008)________________________________________________________________________________________________ 50
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTable 6 Frequency of mentions of reasons to use Facebook (Joinson, 2008) Number of Theme (sample user generated items) mentions "Keeping in touch" Contacting friends who are away from home, 52 chatting to people I otherwise would have lost contact with 19 Passive contact, social surveillance Virtual people-watching "Re-acquiring lost contacts" Reconnecting with people Ive lost contact 15 with, finding people you havent seen for a while 15 "Communication" Being poked, private messages, writing on walls 11 Photographs Tagged in picture, posting pictures, sharing pictures 4 Design related Ease of use Perpetual contact Seeing what people have put as their "status", the 4 continuous updates, seeing what my friends have been up today "Making new contacts" Talking to singles, getting new friends, joining 5 groups5.6 SummaryChapter 5 introduced a few studies made on innovation management tools andfunctions, as well as related areas, collaboration and knowledge management tools,which can be utilized when designing an idea marketplace.Table 7 below summarizes tools and functions mentioned in this chapter. Tools andfunctions have been grouped according to their use. The division to tools andfunctions is perhaps ambiguous in some cases, but however necessary, as not allitems in the table can be converted into tools (e.g. rewarding), neither functions(e.g. user profile). Table 7 follows the structure of this chapter otherwise, but “Ideacreation” group and under it idea creation related tools and functions from allchapters have been added. In addition, duplicates have been removed. If somefeature is mentioned in several contexts, in Table 7 it is placed according to the firstmention. Some features have been moved from their original group to the groupthat better describes the features. For instance, “Advice” and “Ask for help” havebeen moved from idea creation to knowledge management. Basically, features fromKIMS were moved under Idea creation as they were all about it, while KIMS itselfwas removed.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 51
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceAll in all, most features are rather abstract functions than clear sets of tools. That is,existing articles do not describe how to implement these functions, they onlydescribe, what one should be able to do in an idea marketplace. Moreover, the fewidentified tools do not actually tell what to do with them, but they can be creativelyused to implement the identified functions.________________________________________________________________________________________________ 52
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTable 7 Summary of tools and functions of chapter 5 Collaboration Idea creation Knowledge Enabling functions Idea creation process Facebook managementFunctions Seeing whos Rating Offering opinions Aggregating information from internal and Fertilizing ideas with Providing information online external sources information resources Seeing what Refining ideas Suggesting Identifying needs of the company Harvesting ideas Providing social and others do improvements emotional support Hearing news Promoting Observing Harnessing external stakeholders to meet the Filtering ideas against Providing ties to other need strategy people Rewarding Commenting Learning and sharing Having idea competitions to release the Storing ideas Offering social capital knowledge "sticky knowledge" Searching Suggesting Asking for help Management support Documenting an idea Keeping in touch with and a reason for possible people rejection Telling stories Submitting idea Advicing Extreme programming Concepting ideas Browsing people Complaining Testing ideas Aligned roles, responsibilities and Evaluating concepts Reconnecting with people relationships Discussing Experiencing Change culture and behavior Evaluating idea feasibility Adding pictures Sharing multimedia Designing, building and testing prototypes Comparing Placing ideas to portfolio Entertaining oneself Managing time and resources Making money and getting recognition "Selling" ideas "Buying" ideasTools Design tools Blog Social search APIs Wiki Status Podcast User profile Videocast Tags Social networks Recommendation RSS feed algorithms Time IM management 53
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace6. Synthesis of the literature reviewThe literature offered plenty of material on the research question, i.e., how to getorganizations’ employees, customers and other stakeholders to use the new ideamarketplace to support the idea creation process. The research question wasdivided into three sub-questions about motivations, features and roles that shouldbe in place in an idea marketplace. The objective of the literature review was toidentify the issues related to motivations, features and roles from the literature andstructuring a synthesis based on them.A variety of issues were identified. First, innovation process models wereintroduced to explain the context and essential target of idea creation. Thepresented innovation process model studies confirmed that the concept of an ideamarketplace is on the right track – end users, cooperation across knowledgedomains and openness are needed to meet the needs of the rapidly evolving andmore and more competitive environment as well as more demanding customers.The role of chapters 3, 4 and 5 was to find out how to implement such an ideamarketplace which would appeal to customers, employees and other stakeholders,the emphasis being on end-users. Three factors were chosen: motivations, rolesand features, which are strongly tied together and affect each other. At first,features are needed to motivate people to participate in an idea marketplace.People will have different roles already when first visiting an idea marketplace, anddifferent roles are motivated by different motivators. Roles seem to change overtime, for instance from a newbie to a core member. The literature does not tell itdirectly, but different roles are most likely motivated by different motivators andsimilarly different features motivate different roles.The literature review has found out what are the separate motivators, roles andfeatures. Chapter 3 discussed motivations and suggested that extrinsic and intrinsicmotivations as well as motivators and hygiene factors are needed, but the impact ofmonetary reward remained unclear. Chapter 4 reviewed six different kinds of 54
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceonline communities and identified even 55 different roles that occur in onlinecommunities. Finally, 55 functions and 15 online community tools were found inthe literature. However, no studies have been made on the relations between theseissues. Thus, it will be the objective of the next part, Use case study. Other objectivewill be to evaluate the identified motivators, roles and features in idea creationcontext, as most of them were found in studies concerned online communities ingeneral, instead of idea creation environments. Different roles are interested in different features 55 roles Features 55 functions, 15 tools IDEA MARKETPLACE openess, end users, cooperation Different roles are Features motivate motivated from different Motivations to participate factors 8 extrinsic, 13 intrinsicFigure 8 Synthesis of the literature review 55
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplacePART III: USE CASE STUDY7. Methodology of the studyThis case study is made by using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Threedifferent kinds of research methods were used. They are a survey for end-users,expert interviews and observation in idea creation site. This kind of researchmethod, which combines methodologies of the same phenomenon in the samestudy, is called triangulation. It is been used for cross validation when multipledifferent methods are found to be congruent and yield comparable data and tostrengthen statistical results using qualitative methods. Triangulation can capture amore complete, holistic, and contextual picture of the matters being studied asdifferent methods compensate the weaknesses of each other. (Jick, 1979)Qualitative approach is holistic from its nature and is gathered in a real-life contextusing qualitative methods, such as theme interviews and observations (Hirsjärvi etal., 2007). This study is as well made in natural environment by interviewingpeople and observing an idea creation website. Qualitative methods are often aninstrument to gather information straight from people (Hirsjärvi et al., 2007), ashas been done in this study – interviews are opinions, experiences and perceptionsof experts. Results of a qualitative study are inductive, not tested theories orhypotheses. Unlike quantitative methods, qualitative methods support selectingdata practically, not for example using random sampling. (Hirsjärvi et al., 2007) Inthis study, the interviewees and observed users have also been selectedconsciously to find answers to questions which have been currently acute for theproject. According to the qualitative approach, all cases are unique and the materialshould be considered as such (Hirsjärvi et al., 2007).In addition to qualitative methods, quantitative survey questionnaire was made.Quantitative studies are often based on conclusions of former studies and theories(Hirsjärvi et al., 2007), like in this study survey questionnaire is based onmotivations identified in the literature. Also hypotheses are typical for qualitative 56
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacemethods (Hirsjärvi et al., 2007) but actual hypotheses are not presented in thisstudy. However, for instance based on literature it was expected that moneywouldn’t necessarily motivate to be creative and that’s being tested. Other qualitiesof quantitative studies include setting variables to a table and transforming thedata into a form which can be analyzed statistically, for instance by describingresults in percentages, (Hirsjärvi et al., 2007) which is done also for surveyquestionnaire of this study.The objective of the case study was to find some new and differentiatingmotivations, features and roles for an idea marketplace. Based on the literaturereview, a survey questionnaire regarding end-users’ motivations was constructed.The objective of the survey was to find out what motivates different kinds of usersto use idea crowdsourcing websites in general, but also specifically, if money doesnot motivate to ideate but is only a hygiene factor. It was not possible to find outexactly what roles the respondents represent, but this theme was approached byasking some background information and interests. The survey questionnaire is inAppendix 1.Observation was used to study roles in a well-functioning idea creation community,Dell’s IdeaStorm. In the literature review, 55 roles were identified and finally,grouped into 7 categories. However, roles were identified from online communitieswhich were not concentrated on idea creation. Therefore, observation was neededto validate that identified roles are relevant, and that, after all, the nature of the siteis not so crucial, but the same roles are needed in every community. Occurringconversations were compared with the identified roles to see which roles actuallyexist in an idea marketplace.Finally, interviews were used to collect data about open questions that arouse fromthe literature review and other data. Particularly, interviews were used to identifynew features that are not yet used in idea marketplaces. 17 experts from the fieldsof innovation, idea creation, R&D and IT were interviewed. 16 interviews wereconducted at first, and one more after the first interviews had been analyzed. The 57
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacelast interview was used to validate conclusions and complete the results byanswering questions that arouse from the results. Because the meaning of differentinterviews was to find out different issues, interviews were theme interviews fromtheir nature, and thus, an exact question form cannot be presented. Interviewswere transcribed and similar comments grouped according to themes.All three research methods, survey, observation and interviews are described inmore detail in following chapters.7.1 SurveyThe survey questionnaire is in Appendix 1. A link to the survey was sent viadifferent social media – Facebook, Twitter and the Company’s internalmicroblogging tool, as well as by e-mail to get answers from people who are notthat active in social media. The number of recipients of the survey is unknownbecause of the nature of the used channel, social media.Answers were gathered in two stages – at first, to test the survey and makeaccording changes, and then, to gather final answers. Unfortunately, the last stagegained less answers than the first one, and therefore, the responses of the formerhad to be included in the final results, although some changes were made after thefirst stage. One question about the income of the respondents was added after thetest round to search if money motivates more people from the lower income levels.Some options to motivations were also added.93 respondents answered to the survey. Most of them were from 20 to 29 yearsold, but there were respondents in other age categories as well, except in thecategory “15-19 years old”. The distribution between female and male respondentswas almost the same, 51 percent females and 49 percent male. The great majorityof the respondents lived in urban Europe. 58
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace7.2 ObservationIdeaStorm by Dell is one of the oldest and best known idea crowdsourcing website.It was established in February 2007, and by December 2010, 14,994 ideas had beenshared, 90 764 comments posted and 426 ideas implemented (Dell, 2010).The objective of IdeaStorm is similar to the objective of the idea marketplace of theCompany. Dell also writes in the site that IdeaStorm was created to hear the voiceof customers and allow them to share ideas in cooperation with each other andDell. In addition, Dell has idea crowdsourcing challenges, which they call “StormSession”.The objective of the observation was to validate the findings from the literaturereview by observing a real idea crowdsourcing website. Many roles were found inthe literature, but they were identified from online communities outside of an ideacreation context. Therefore, it was needed to confirm what kinds of roles wereneeded in an idea marketplace.The research method used was observation. Observation provides directinformation about behavior and actions of individuals, groups or organizations. Itgives the researcher an access to the natural environment and a possibility to studythe real world. In many cases, the presence of the researcher may disturb theobserved target and even have an effect on its behavior (Hirsjärvi et al., 1997), butin this case, the researcher was invisible for users as the idea crowdsourcingwebsite did not even require signing in. Most conversations had even been hadbefore this study started. The researcher did not participate in conversations orcontact ideators.In practice, data was first collected by observing the conversations of the mostactive users of the site, called “jervis961”, “dhart”, “badblood”, “phubert” and“jmxz”, as well as moderators called “jackie_c”, “william_l” and “dawn_l”. Theseusers were chosen because of their activity rates, which included thousands ofcomments and votes and hundreds of ideas. Thus, they could perhaps representsome behaviors which do not occur on random visitors. However, comments of 59
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacethese users were analyzed as a part of conversations with any users. Therefore,comments of other interesting users were also collected, if they represented somebehavior that had not occurred before.The number of occurrences was not counted. This was decided because a fewbehaviors represented almost all of the comments, while others occurred only onceor twice or not at all. Collecting data was finished when the data saturated, that is,no new roles were found anymore. However, it must be kept in mind thatIdeaStorm includes over 90,000 comments, most of which were not read. Thus, it isvery likely that some rare behaviors were missed. On the other hand, in a study ofthis scale, there is no possibility to review such a huge amount of data. Instead, datawas looked from the most obvious places as described.7.3 InterviewsAltogether 17 interviews were conducted during the research process. Theinterviews were conducted in face-to-face meetings, but some interviews had to beconducted via teleconference. All of the interviews were recorded and transcribed,a part of them by the researcher herself and the rest by an external serviceprovider. In addition, three interview tapes were lost because of a technical issueand, consequently, these interviews could not be utilized.Interviewees were chosen from all around the Company to represent the mostimportant internal stakeholders as well as some external experts from the field ofinnovation and social media. Internal stakeholders included Betalabs, Backstage,Nokia Care, Nokia Digital Marketing, Forum Nokia, Consumer Analytics andInsights and Mobile Solutions, which are basically all parties in the Company withsome experience of social media. A traditional division into business units wasirrelevant for this study, as the Company does not have social mediarepresentatives in all units. External experts either came from YLE, IBM, Dicole,Zipipop and Überkuul or were independent consultants.All the interviewees had personal experience in online communities and most ofthem were running a community or social media service in some role. Thus, they 60
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacewere asked broadly about motivations, features and roles. Since the interviewswere conducted in different stages of the research process, themes varied a lotdepending on the issue currently studied. Therefore, there are no certain questionsto be presented here, but Appendix 2 lists each interviewee and the discussedthemes.Once the interviews had been transcribed, the data was grouped into themes andcolor coded according to the interviewees. The root themes were the same as thethemes of this study, roles, motivations and features. In addition, however, theconcept of an idea marketplace itself raised some concerns and thoughts. 61
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace8 The case companyThe Company is a Finnish multinational communications corporation. TheCompany manufactures mobile devices with over 61,000 employees (includingNAVTEQ), having sales in more than 160 countries. The Company’s global annualrevenue equaled EUR 41 billion and operating profit was €1.2 billion in 2009. TheCompany is the worlds leading manufacturer of mobile telephones: its globaldevice market share was 30 percent in the third quarter 2010. (Nokia, 2010)In the background of this study is the Companys need to create a new corporatelevel idea crowdsourcing website for its employees and interest groups from allaround the world. The Companys whole business is based on ideas andinnovations. Ideas can come from any employee, customer or supplier and can beimplemented by any employee of the Company. Since the Company is amultinational company, the ecosystem is huge and needs an effective tool tocoordinate this idea creation process. Besides own employees, the Company’scurrent ecosystem includes 1.2 billion consumers, over four million registeredapplication developers, and content providers, operators and other industrypartners around the Company’s devices and services (Nokia, 2010). To becompetitive, ideas need to be invented, found, evaluated and implemented fast,before rivals.At the moment, the Company already has multiple tools in use as idea creationplatforms. According to one interviewee, 58 different idea creation tools have beenused. The problem is that none of them is used corporate-wide, but only locally. Tobe effective, the idea marketplace of the Company should cover the wholeecosystem. Therefore, the Company has to create a new idea marketplace and takeit into use. 62
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace8.1 Existing idea creation platformsThe Company’s idea crowdsourcing websites form a funnel, which consists of threestages. Stages are Idea generation, Conversion and Concepting and Diffusion.(Nokia intranet, 2010)Figure 9 Companys innovation funnel8.1.1 Idea generation in the Company’s innovation funnelAccording to an interview of the Company’s head of innovation crowdsourcing, on21st of December 2010, the first stage means simply generating ideas usingdifferent kind of brainstorming techniques and platforms. Most of the Company’sidea crowdsourcing websites are designed exactly for this purpose. Ideas are alsostored into these systems, and most of them are actually dead-ends – ideas aregoing nowhere from the system. But this is to be changed with the future solution.All ideas will be moved in one way or another to the new one-and-only ideacrowdsourcing website. (the Company’s head of innovation crowdsourcing)The internal platforms include Sphere, IdeaCentral and several wikis. Wikis hasmostly been places for taking notes and store non-finalized, but perhaps somereally valuable ideas. Sphere is an internal version of the future idea marketplace,which has already been running since 2008. IdeaCentral is a competing platformwith good harvesting capabilities but weak social capabilities. (the Company’s headof innovation crowdsourcing) 63
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceExternal web-sites include a website which targets on finding ideas that mattermost to the future of communications; a global developer competition designed tocreate applications and services for Company’s mobile devices around, e.g.,entertainment and life improvement; competition to connect the best consumergenerated application ideas with top developers from all over the world anddevelop the best of them; African idea crowdsourcing site around topics likeEcosystem for Innovation and Sustainability Models for Base of Pyramid. (NokiaIntranet, 2010)8.1.2 Conversion and concepting in the Company’s innovationfunnelIn the second stage, ideas are developed into concepts and the first versions of theproducts. For this stage, the Company offers four platforms, which are Betalabs,Backstage, Forum the Company and Nokia Pilots.The objective of Betalabs is to share some of the exciting new applications andservices that the Company has been working on, and to collect feedback about howthey work in real-life situations. Backstage is an internal version of Betalabs (Nokiaintranet, 2011).Forum Nokia is a community of 4,000,000 developers, for which Forum Nokiaoffers technical information, software, applications and interfaces to develop newapplications to Ovi Store, the Company’s web store. (Forum the Company, 2011)Nokia Pilots is a program for anyone who wants to test the Company’s newproducts. Consumers may borrow products that are now yet available in stores andgive some feedback about them. (Nokia Pilots, 2011)8.1.3 Diffusion in the Company’s innovation funnelIn the third stage, ideas have already been realized as services and products. Thepurpose of this stage is to collect the feedback from consumers, partners andvendors and deliver it back to the beginning of the loop to be taken into accountwhen designing new products. The Company’s partners, such as operators, are 64
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceinnovative and willing to cooperate. Unfortunately, this does not yet fully happen,as there is no consolidated place for this feedback, neither an established process todeliver the feedback. The only established piece of it is the Company Care, a placefor consumer feedback, which, however, is not fully utilized yet.8.2 Idea MarketplaceThe Idea Marketplace, a planned idea marketplace of the Company, has beendesigned to solve most of the described problems. It will unite the fragmentedinnovation and idea creation platforms and speed up the product developmentprocess. Consumers’ voice will be better heard and developer community engaged.Product backlog will be partially generated by the crowd, but also rated by thecrowd. As a result, the Company will get better products faster.The project is run by a group of the Company’s employees and external consultants.The number of members of the project team varied during the project, but thedivision to “business” and “IT” streams has remained. Currently, seven people havebeen assigned for the project full-time and a few people are helping the IT steampart-time. The business stream has been concepting requirements for the IdeaMarketplace, planning how to use it in practice and making according preparations,such as finding partners for idea challenges. Also the researcher herself has beenpart of this steam. After the launch of the Idea Marketplace, the business streamwill be running challenges in the Idea Marketplace and continue finding properpartners. The IT stream has been implementing the requirements and it will takecare of new requirements, IT support and needed modifications in the future. Theteam has been simultaneously developing further the internal idea crowdsourcingcapability.8.2.1 FeaturesFigure 10 illustrates the planned concept and its features on a high level. The modeldescribes one idea challenge in the Idea Marketplace from the beginning to the end. 65
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceA challenge refers to outsourcing a certain task to the crowd through an open call.Challenges are organized in cooperation with partners and other interestingstakeholders. Some possible challenges could be, for example, creating ideas agreen phone in cooperation with WWF or concepting a kids’ phone with UNICEF.The idea challenge includes five stages. In the first stage, ideas are shared and ratedby the crowd. In the second stage, similar, promising ideas are combined to groups,which will get through to next stages. Other ideas will get a kind feedback aboutrejection. In the third stage, groups will develop their common idea further, forinstance, by creating a demo and a business plan of it. Each group will also get a“guardian”, an experienced expert from the field, to give feedback. In the fourthstage, ideas are promoted to the Company “sponsors” who have the power and theresources to make ideas happen. They also have the best knowledge about what isneeded from the Company’s perspective. They choose one or several winners andcommit in making the winning idea or ideas real. Winners get rewarded. If thewinning idea is a local application, it will be delivered to developers in ForumNokia or other stakeholder to implement. “Core” applications and mobile phonefeatures are implemented by the Company.Figure 10 Idea challenge process in the Idea Marketplace8.2.2 RolesNot that much attention has been paid to roles in the community. The noted rolesinclude ideators, contributors, facilitators, harvesters and guardians. Ideators areusers who submit ideas. Contributors vote and comment and can volunteer to helpbringing ideas further. Ideators and contributors can be the same people. 66
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceHarvesters are the Company’s employees or representatives from the partnerorganization of the challenge who know the theme of the challenge very well. Theywill read all the ideas and select the most promising ones as well as group similarideas together. Usually, a workshop is organized to do this face to face. Harvestersalso ensure that all the participants will receive feedback. In this context,facilitators refer to people who organize the workshop and take care of thecommunication towards finalists as well as rejected ideators. They inform ideatorsof groupings and next steps. Guardians is a new concept, which has not yet beenexperimented in the real life, but in practice, guardians would guide the groups, asthey know the field and existing products and are thus able to identify actual newideas.8.2.3 MotivationsFigure 11 presents motivators which have been identified and grouped by thebusiness stream: 67
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceFigure 11 Motivators to participate in idea crowdsourcing challengesThe motivators in Figure 11 are to be used as a reward for winning or participatingin challenges. This far, prizes in internal challenges have included mobile phones,headsets, money to make the idea real, and Kudos, a recognition combined with asmall monetary reward by the winner’s line manager. In the first externalchallenge, Open Innovation Africa Summit (OIAS), all finalists got a free trip toNaivasha, Kenya, where the winner was chosen. In the Make My App N8 challenge,eight best ideas were implemented and the winning ideas were rewarded with100,000 dollars. “Passing time” and “having fun” as well as “making a change” hasbeen covered alike. In the OIAS challenge, the reward was unique; finalists wouldotherwise not have had access to the summit. 68
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace9 Results9.1 Results from the observation of Dell’s IdeaStormAn established idea crowdsourcing site, IdeaStorm by Dell, was observed tovalidate if the roles identified in the literature review apply to an idea creationcommunity in addition to general online communities.The observation was made by reading conversations of most active users,moderators and random users and identifying which roles of those found in theliterature review occurred in this real website. Examples of matching messages ofconversations were gathered in an excel sheet and will be presented in followingsub-chapters. Occurrences were counted up to five and after that the occurrence ofthe role in questions was considered as a common role, for instance dozens ofmessages were from opinion providers or initiators.The users have been grouped into two groups according to their activity. Thegroups are active lead users, and normal users who only visit the site once. Inaddition, moderators were observed.9.1.1 Normal usersA great majority of latest ideas were posted by users, who had not otherwisecontributed to the site. They had posted only one idea and voted for it. Thus, thenumber of different roles identified from the literature within normal users waslow – in sum, they were information seekers, opinion providers, initiators orproblem posers. One expert was also found, but, based on his only comment, it wasevident that he had been reading the site for quite some time.The most common role was an initiator. People came to the site to post an idea,which often seemed to arise from their everyday-life experiences. These ideasincluded the following: “Pink Laptops with customized casings (fashion branded a la sx and the city)” (labrat1) “We need to come out with a Dell compatible DJ controller maybe add extra keys like 69
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace the touch pad for DJ mixing and have a better sound card with better bass and treble output. I am glad to see that my Inspiron had a very good output for the mixer to connect to the netbook. Maybe include DJ mixing software and make work faster for music mixing. Come out with a netbook just for DJs.” (gccradioscience)The former is a really stereotyped “idea”, which anyone could imagine. These oftenoccur, but it is hard to imagine any business value for them. The latter, instead, isan example of an idea that seems to arise from a real need of some niche, musicmakers, in this case. This idea got immediate attention from the other user group,lead users, and moreover, the attention was conflicting, which, based on theinterviews, is often a signal of innovation. An administrator of Dell, “bill_b” and themost active user of the service, “jervis961”, were interested in the idea. Anotherlead user, “sugarbear”, claimed instead that the Internet is already full of free musicsoftware.Another common role was a problem poser. Users tend to complain aboutsomething they have bought but are not happy with. “In November of 2010, I purchased a Dell PC along with an external dial up modem and speakers for my mother as a Christmas present. --- When I got home for Christmas (December 23) I found out that mom had decided to cancel her dial up internet service and had subscribed to DSL service. --- I finally was told by a Dell customer service representative that it was past the 21 day return policy and that "return was not an option". --- With Dells refusal to accept back a $50.00 item, purchased as a Christmas gift, rest assured, I will not purchase Dell products again in the future.” (LGS) “So my question is: how come, after so many years since the first notebook came into existence, no one has invented a notebook with a monitor that can be pulled up so it stays at the same level as ones eyes? --- Maybe the result isnt the most esthetic one, but it would be a very comfortable solution that would allow the user to put the notebook on his lap and pull the monitor up to the same level of his eyes (thus not having to bend over and adopt horrible positions)”. (Ney) 70
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceThe first story is really common, but it is hard to imagine what kind of value itprovides to the site. Instead of an idea, it is more like feedback. However, in thenext complaint, there is actually also a usability improvement suggested.The following quotation illustrates opinion provider: “I am VERY VERY interested in purchasing your Inspiron duo laptop, but not until a few things happen. 1) It needs to be a REAL COMPUTER! none of this ATOM junk, a real i3, i5, or i7, with at least 4gigs of memory and a substantial amount of memory too. 2)The screen size isnt TERRIBLY small, but perhaps a 15 or 16 inch would be nicer. “(casador)In addition, there was one example of an information seeker: “I bought a vostro 3500 from dells online two weeks ago. The notebook delivered this monday. When took the notebook from the package box, I found the keyboard function bad. some middlo keys bulge and blank key has not function. I dont know why the new one has this problem. Could you tell me a good solution.” (casador)In the same message, the same user took also a role of an atmosphere constructor: “I would LOVE to be the first of my friends to have this new and improved Duo, for I think you have an incredible idea going here and a profitable one at that.” (casador)Finally, there was one exceptional comment, which showed some expertise andrevealed that the user had been reading the site for a longer time, but not beenposting anything before. “Dell monitors for Optplex PCs are not malfunctioning : My first post for feed back to all Dell Optiplex users, I have a home network with 2 pcs and 4 monitors each recieving independant data a Dell360 with service tag under warrenty, A reaccurring technical difficulty arises with improper, incomplete or poor programming on the web which would inevaitably lead to what a ppears a Dell monitor failure and or motherboard, Dell has provided relaiable and stable aftermarket service travelling 500 kilometres to isolated rural where I live.In fact Dells motherboars or monitors have not failed. What happens is ---. In any event if the reader does come across this technical difficulty where Dells monitor powers up but not turn on after rebooting and will not display, the solution is to ---“ (matross) 71
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace9.1.2 Lead usersLead users were divided into two groups: active users who had voted orcommented dozens of times and the most active users who had contributedhundreds or thousands of times.Both groups include a wide range of roles identified in the literature review and theroles are basically the same for both groups. Their communication is mostly relatedto information processing, and especially, offering information. Most commonbehaviors include reminders, experts, information providers, opinion providersand, as a contrast, atmosphere constructors. Most often, activists provideinformation. Typical comments are as follows: "OpenOffice 3.0 distribution has begun; official release announcement on Monday. Downloads available from http://distribution.openoffice.org/mirrors/#extmirrors At any archive, browse to stable then browse to 3.0.0 and look for the binary for your platform: Win32Intel, MacOSXIntel, LinuxIntel (slightly larger files with the tag wJRE include Java6)." (dhart)Similarly, activists’ expertise was shown in numerous comments, such as: "Just for fun I tried pricing equivalent configurations of E1505 and E1505Ns. I tried making the config as similar as possible - the only difference (except the OS of course) Im aware of being that the same graphics card was not available on both. E1505N has a "256MB NVIDIA GeForce Go 7300 Turbocache" and the E1505 has a "256MB ATI MOBILITY RADEON X1400 HyperMemory”. Both came in at $1133." (jmxz)In addition to objective information, activists often provide subjective opinions.Some typical comments include: “Dell you have to strike while the iron is hot and release these because by Q4 they will be outdated." (jervis961)Naturally, they are active initiators as they have all sent hundreds of ideas, except“dhart”, who has sent the two most voted ideas of IdeaStorm, and only a few otherideas. However, not all submitted ideas “stimulate the group, and provide new ideasor thought”, as the description of this role goes. Actually, most ideas are not new as 72
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacesuch. For instance, the implemented ideas include ideas like "offer an attractivegreen trade-in program", "On FaceBook Dell Spot add something to denote it`s aCanadian site", "Dell Inspiron 17 should also get personalization with the designstudio like with Inspiron 15, Studio 15, and Studio 17", "Dell Ink and Printers - Sellthem at Best Buy and other stores", "Ubuntu on Studio Notebooks" and "ChildrensPC". In other words, these ideas are just incremental instead of radical innovations.The most popular ideas included likewise ideas. On the other hand, it is impossibleto say which ideas are innovative from Dell’s perspective – maybe they had notthought about offering Ubuntu on Studio Notebooks before someone mentioned itand it got voted well.Lead users were also actively reminding administrators about missing butpromised or expected updates on the site or products: “The Streak has been out for a while now, still no update.” (jervis961)Although the Activists seemed to be extremely loyal to Dell, they were occasionallyalso criticizing Dell: “--- The site is finally becoming exactly what Dell had envisioned. Its an online suggestion box and not much more. The site had so much potential but was doomed from the start. Buggy beta software, lack of moderation and lack of interaction have all improved since the launch but never reached the levels that I think Michael Dell envisioned. He spoke of customers having access like they were "walking the halls" at Dell and creating products with the customers but I dont see much openness.” (jervis961)As a contrast to the information related content, lead users were also maintainingthe atmosphere, encouraging others and partnering: "Thank You Dell!!!!!!!!!!!!!! You did it right!!!!!!!!!!!! Just turned on and am posting from my new E1505N Ubuntu Dell Laptop." (jmxz) "@penguinsa good analysis!" (dhart)In addition, lead users seemed to form their own “inner circle”, which was alsoconnected outside of IdeaStorm site: 73
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace “Hey jervis. How ya doin? :) Yes, I stop by from time to time to see how the old regulars are doing. Even though there arent many left. As for there being no way to edit anymore. --- Too bad youve given up on you own web site. I see you havent posted anything in months. Aikiwolfie is still posting to his. I add something to mine occasionally. But I have been spending more time with phuberts site. They tend to discuss just about anything. So I can enter when they hit something of interest. Posted some of my own ides. You should stop by there sometime. Not a bad bunch.” (gmat)There were also some signs about hero, jmxz. Comments regarding him included: "m just waiting for jmxz to start his own ideas site." (zmjjmz) "Maybe we could get cosh back to help him. He was awesome at building a site." (jervis961)In addition, jervis961 was once noted to greet and catalyst members, as well as tohost members, which refers to the role of provider: “Welcome to the site werriot and matthias1e. You two should exchange email addresses since you both joined today and the only activity you have is voting on the same 4 ideas. You have a lot in common. :)” (jervis961) "would go with thwo smaller side screens to cut down on the bulk. Have you seen the new Lenovo W700?" (posts a picture demonstrating the idea) (jervis961)Once jervis961 even acted like recorder by reminding someone about formersolution: "How could you miss the Dell Streak? In December of 2008 Aikiwolfie posted an idea to make an Android based phone/PDA/MP3 player/all around device. Im sure hed like a little recognition for his idea." (jervis961)9.1.3 ModeratorsThree moderators, “jackie_c”, “william_l” and “dawn_l” were examined accordingly.The role of the moderators seemed to be quite monotonic when acting in a service– they mainly provided information, clarified misconceptions, and in some extend,sought information. Highly typical comments of each role included: 74
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace "Thanks, well take your comment into consideration. Typically consumers have not been willing to pay extra for the Computrace-style feature set." (william_l) "@sporitus: There is not a "next step." The business will review the idea and if Dell would like to act upon your suggestion, we will. Thank you!" (jackie_c) "cheese3915, would you please elaborate? I dont know what you mean by an "internal battery" or by "battery-docking mechanisms" -- I would have thought all our batteries are internal already. " (william_l)Interestingly, dawn_l showed some signs of roles of clowns and greeters. The clowncan be seen in the following comments: "Ethereak1- Thanks so much for bringing this to our attention. Since this case is over and It did not involve Dell, we cant really comment on it. Jervis- Silly man... you know we read them all! Dawn" (dawn_l) "Doh- Of course I meant that we will NOT have as many bugs. Perhaps I should wait until after my first dose of caffeine before posting! LOL. Doh Dawn" (dawn_l)She was also noted to greet one user, but not all: "We are happy to have you join the Ideastorm crew and hope you stick around and participate on other ideas as well! Dawn" (dawn_l)From a hierarchical dimension, the moderators were respected, and they oftenclosed conversations as well as proposed new solutions and evaluated othersolutions. It is impossible to know about the technical administration which is notvisible for end-users, but in any case, these features do not correspond with anyhierarchical roles as such, but they are more like a combination of them. However,they give an impression of being somewhat under activists in the hierarchy,although they are not fully comparable. This is because they repeatedly ask helpfrom activists, take their feedback really seriously and give up when debating.9.1.4 Summary of the observation resultsIt emerged that there are two different kinds of sets of roles in IdeaStorm. The firstgroup includes people who have visited the site only once and come there for some 75
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacecertain purpose, to post something they have in mind. The other group consists ofactive users, who have visited the site more often and mostly comment and vote forother ideas. This indicates that people do not come to the site with some specificagenda, but rather to spend some time, perhaps to learn or network.The difference between these two groups and their roles is clear. The set of rolesbecomes more versatile immediately after the number of votes and commentsincreases over one. There does not seem to be many users who have commented orvoted a couple of times – either you just submit your idea and do not contribute toothers, or you comment and vote dozens of times. Furthermore, the set of roles ofthe active and the most active is almost the same. Only the catalyst and theremainder are roles that were not found in the role set of activists, but they wereincluded in the roles of the most active users, but also in that group only once. Inaddition, inside jokes and referrals to others from the same groups in commentsare missing from the role of active users.All this indicates that there are actually only two different roles – the randomvisitors who come to the site to say something they want to say to Dell, and the leadusers who come there for some other reason, which could be just spending time,learning or networking.The role of moderator was really basic and did not include any signs of communityfacilitator role, which was raised a lot in the interviews and will be introduced inchapter 9.3.3.3.9.2 Survey questionnaire resultsThe survey questionnaire was sent via different social media to an undefined groupof social media users to validate if traditional motivations to work and use generalonline communities applied to idea creation.Two groups of respondents were identified in the data and they were compared.The first group was lead users, which equaled respondents who rated theircomputer skills as 10 on a scale from 1 to 10. These respondents formed 22%(n=20) of the total sample, 93 respondents. As a contrast, the respondents who 76
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacerated their computer skills the lowest, from 4 to 7, represented normal users. Theyequaled 26% (n=24) of the total sample. No respondent rated own skills lower than4. The rest of the respondents, with skills rated as 8 or 9, were left out of thiscomparison, because they would most likely include both normal audience and leadusers, and thus, finding differences would be more difficult. According to the usedsamples, 70 percent (n=14) of the lead users reported using social media in theirwork, whereas only 20 percent (n=5) of the normal audience used them. Also, 80percent (n=16) of the lead users told they would submit their idea to an ideamarketplace when only 38 percent (n=9) of the normal audience said they would.These statistics confirm the assumption that the most skilled computer userswould represent the lead users and the least skilled computer users wouldrepresent the normal users. As a contrast, only one respondent did not use socialmedia on free time, so that question could not be used as a differentiator.In total, 68 percent (n=64) of all the respondents told that they would submit anidea to an idea marketplace if they had an idea. They were asked to describemotivators for the submission in a free text box in order to find some newmotivators that were not asked later on in the survey, but there were not any. Themost often mentioned particular answer was seeing ideas coming real and beingheard.According to the results, the most effective marketing channel was a suggestion bya friend (74%, n=70) and social media (71%, n=67) versus traditional media, asthey got most votes when asking which channel would make one go to see the IdeaMarketplace. Interestingly, Facebook application that shows ideas by your friendswas the most unpopular option (10%, n=9).As it was expected, people were interested in tasks that were least demanding.Reading other ideas was the most popular task (81%, n=76), then voting for otherideas (70%, n=66), followed by commenting other ideas (49%, n=46). 12 percent(n=11) were interested in organizing their own idea challenges or creating demos,prototypes or business plans of ideas. Surprisingly, only 11 percent (n=10) wereinterested in browsing other users, and no more than 7 percent (n=7) wanted to 77
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacebecome friends with other users. When asked why one would not participate in anyof these activities, the responds mentioned the lack of time, incentives and interestfor the topic. Two respondents did not believe that ideas would actually beexecuted.Table 8 summarizes the responses to the last three questions of the survey, whichactually verified the validity of motivations that had been identified in the literaturereview in the idea crowdsourcing context. Respondents were asked which of thelisted motivations would motivate them to participate in the Idea Marketplace forthe first time and regularly and which of them would motivate participants to makedemonstration. The second column (f1) shows the quantity of responses innumbers and the third (f2) in percentages when asking about participating for thefirst time. The fourth (r1) and fifth (r2) columns represent the popularity of eachmotivator when asking about regular participation, and the sixth (d1) and seventh(d2) columns show the willingness for making demonstrations of ideas. Difference1 (D1) describes the difference between motivations to participate for the first timeand regularly per motivator. Difference 2 (D2) calculates the difference betweenparticipating for the first time and making demos for each motivator. The five mostpopular motivators and biggest differences have been highlighted in red. 78
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTable 8 Motivations to participate in the Idea MarketplaceWhich of the following would …for the …regularly ...making Difference 1 Difference 2motivate you to participate... first time demos |r2-f2| |d2-f2| f1 f2 r1 r2 d1 d2 D1 D2Getting a little amount of money 22 23% 35 37% 21 22% 14% 1%from each activityChance of winning a lot of money 26 28% 14 15% 14 15% 13% 13%if my idea/demo winsChance of winning a new mobile 27 29% 12 13% 11 12% 16% 17%phone or other technical deviceChance of winning a free trip to 12 13% 4 4% 3 3% 9% 10%the space museum in MoscowCare for community 8 9% 9 10% 1 1% 1% 8%Getting new friends 8 9% 13 14% 2 2% 5% 7%Sense of community and 3 3% 7 7% 2 2% 4% 1%similaritySense of cooperation 6 6% 7 7% 6 6% 1% 0%Knowledge exchange 30 32% 29 31% 13 14% 1% 18%Personal learning 27 29% 28 30% 21 22% 1% 7%Intellectual stimulations 30 32% 19 20% 19 20% 12% 12%New viewpoints and synergy 22 23% 17 18% 9 10% 5% 13%Firm recognition 6 6% 4 4% 4 4% 2% 2%Peer recognition 8 9% 6 6% 1 1% 3% 8%Enhancement of professional 7 7% 4 4% 8 9% 3% 2%statusWinning and competition 9 10% 2 2% 2 2% 8% 8%Altruism 6 6% 4 4% 1 1% 2% 5%Enjoyment and fun 24 26% 19 20% 8 9% 6% 17%Ideology 5 5% 2 2% 0 0% 3% 5%Reciprocity 4 4% 1 1% 1 1% 3% 3%Interesting objectives 3 3% 5 5% 7 7% 2% 4%Sense of obligation to contribute 2 2% 2 2% 2 2% 0% 0%Chance of winning a lunch with 2 2% 2 2% 1 1% 0% 1%CEOChance of winning a paid day off 4 4% 1 1% 1 1% 3% 3%Making better products/services 35 37% 18 19% 14 15% 18% 22%Seeing own ideas come true 37 39% 26 28% 19 20% 11% 19%Improving living conditions 7 7% 5 5% 3 3% 2% 4%through new productsHaving interfaces to something I 2 2% 2%cant get from anywhere elseGetting cool tools for creating 7 7% 7%demosGetting so simple tools that 5 5% 5%anyone can use themNothing 1 1% 5 5% 10 11% 4% 10%Other 1 1% 1 1% 2 2% 0% 1%Table 8 shows that respondents were most motivated by seeing their ideas cometrue. This made it to the top 5 in each of the alternative ways of participating.Personal learning and intellectual stimulations were also popular in each of them. 79
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceKnowledge exchange was popular in first-time and regular participation, but thepopularity decreased rapidly when creating demonstration. Interestingly, makingbetter products and services was the second most popular motivator in first-timeparticipation but not even close that popular in regular participation. For makingdemonstrations, it was one of the top motivators again. Basically this makes sensein the light of the results of the observation: Normal users come to the site havingsome particular enhancement idea in mind, when lead users come to the site tospend time, although their fundamental goal might still be to make better productsand services.As a contrast for these intrinsic motivators, some monetary rewards were ratedhigh as well. For the first-time participation, winning a mobile phone was one of thetop five motivators having the same score than personal learning. Chance ofwinning a lot of money, if one’s idea wins, was almost as popular, whereas getting alittle amount of money from each activity was not that motivating. However, inregular participation it was the most popular motivator, which is reasonablebecause considering the repeating nature of this activity. Instead, the popularity ofa change of winning a lot of money decreased rapidly in regular participation. Thistype of activity included also enjoyment and fun as one of the main motivators.Enjoyment and fun was obviously not considered as a realistic motivator when itcame to making demos. The mentioned motivators repeated when asking aboutmaking demos.9.2.1 Motivators of lead users versus normal usersTables 9 and 10 presents the results of the survey and compares the popularity ofthe motivators between normal users and lead users. There are both similaritiesand differences. When discussing first-time participation, winning a mobile phoneor other technical device motivated normal users the most, but lead users weremost motivated by intellectual stimulations. Lead users were also motivated bypersonal learning as well as enjoyment and fun, whereas normal users preferredknowledge exchange and making better products and services. It is, to some extent, 80
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacesurprising that these motivators motivated especially normal users. On the otherhand, both scored relatively high among lead users’ preferences as well. On thecontrary, personal learning, intellectual stimulations and enjoyment and fun wereamong the most differently rated motivators. Both groups were motivated byseeing own ideas come true and a change of getting a lot of money if one’s ideawins.Table 9 Comparing top 5 motivations of lead users and normal users Lead users Normal users 1 Intellectual stimulations Chance of getting a new mobile phone or other technical device 2 Personal learning Making better products/services 3 Seeing own ideas come true Chance of getting a lot of money if my idea wins 4 Enjoyment and fun Seeing own ideas come true 5 Chance of getting a lot of Knowledge exchange money if my idea winsIn regular participation, both groups agreed that getting money from each activitywould be motivating. Knowledge exchange, personal learning and finding newviewpoints and synergy were also found among the top motivators of both.However, lead users still rated intellectual stimulations the highest, while they didnot interest normal users. Making better products and services was again includedin the most motivating factors for normal users.Making demos was most motivated by the same motivators than alreadymentioned, but in addition, enhancement of professional status got to the top fivefor lead users, and 29 percent of normal users told that “nothing” would motivatethem to make demos. 81
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceTable 10 Comparing motivators of lead users and normal users Motivator First-time participation Regular participation Making demos Lead users Normal Change Lead Normal Change Lead users Normal Change users users users usersGetting little amount of money from each activity 3 15% 7 29% 14% 6 30% 12 50% 20% 3 15% 7 29% 14%Chance of getting a lot of money if my idea wins 6 30% 9 38% 8% 4 20% 5 21% 1% 6 30% 3 13% 17%Chance of getting a new mobile phone or other technical device 5 25% 12 50% 25% 3 15% 5 21% 6% 2 10% 3 13% 3%Care for community 3 15% 4 17% 2% 4 20% 1 4% 16% 1 5% 0 0% 5%Getting new friends 3 15% 1 4% 11% 5 25% 2 8% 17% 1 5% 0 0% 5%Feeling of togetherness 0 0% 1 4% 4% 0 0% 1 4% 4% 0 0% 1 4% 4%Chance of getting a free trip to the space museum in Moscow 3 15% 3 13% 2% 1 5% 1 4% 1% 0 0% 1 4% 4%Cooperation with others 1 5% 0 0% 5% 3 15% 0 0% 15% 1 5% 1 4% 1%Knowledge exchange 5 25% 8 33% 8% 8 40% 6 25% 15% 2 10% 4 17% 7%Personal learning 9 45% 6 25% 20% 10 50% 6 25% 25% 4 20% 2 8% 12%Intellectual stimulations 10 50% 4 17% 33% 10 50% 3 13% 37% 6 30% 1 4% 26%New viewpoints and synergy 6 30% 4 17% 13% 6 30% 5 21% 9% 2 10% 1 4% 6%Employer recognition 1 5% 0 0% 5% 2 10% 1 4% 6% 2 10% 2 8% 2%Peer recognition 4 20% 1 4% 16% 4 20% 0 0% 20% 1 5% 0 0% 5%Enhancement of professional status 1 5% 2 8% 3% 1 5% 1 4% 1% 4 20% 0 0% 20%Winning and competing 0 0% 2 8% 8% 0 0% 0 0% 0% 1 5% 1 4% 1%Altruism, charity 2 10% 0 0% 10% 1 5% 0 0% 5% 0 0% 0 0% 0%Enjoyment and fun 8 40% 3 13% 27% 5 25% 2 8% 17% 6 30% 1 4% 26%Ideology 1 5% 1 4% 1% 1 5% 1 4% 1% 0 0% 0 0% 0%Reciprocity 1 5% 1 4% 1% 1 5% 0 0% 5% 0 0% 1 4% 4%Interesting challenges 1 5% 1 4% 1% 2 10% 2 8% 2% 2 10% 1 4% 6%Sense of obligation to contribute 0 0% 1 4% 4% 0 0% 1 4% 4% 1 5% 0 0% 5%Chance of winning a paid day off 1 5% 2 8% 3% 0 0% 1 4% 4% 0 0% 0 0% 0%Chance of winning something you would not otherwise get 3 15% 15% 0 0% 0% 0 0% 0%Chance of winning a lunch with CEO 0 0% 1 4% 4% 1 4% 4% 0 0% 0%Making better products/services 4 20% 11 46% 26% 1 5% 5 21% 16% 2 10% 4 17% 7%Seeing own ideas come true 9 45% 9 38% 7% 5 25% 6 25% 0% 5 25% 5 21% 4%Improving your own living conditions through new products 1 5% 1 4% 1% 2 10% 1 4% 6% 0 0% 0 0% 0%Improving others living conditions through new products 0 0% 0 0 0% 1 5% 5% 2 10% 10%Passing time 3 15% 0 0 15% 1 5% 5% 1 5% 5%Having interfaces to something I cant get from anywhere else (e.g. 2 8% 8%location data)Getting cool tools for creating demos 0 0% 0 0% 0%Getting so simple tools that even non-programmer can use them 3 15% 1 4% 11%Nothing 0 0% 1 4% 4% 1 5% 3 13% 8% 2 10% 7 29% 19%Other 0 0% 1 4% 4% 0 0% 0 0% 0% 1 5% 0 0% 5% 82
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace9.3 Interview results17 internal and external experts were interviewed mainly to find out what kind offeatures the Idea Marketplace should have (chapter 9.3.4). However, interviewsalso complemented the results regarding motivations to participate in idea creationin the Idea Marketplace (chapter 9.3.2) and roles of users in the Idea Marketplace(chapter 9.3.3). Interviews also touched the overall concept of the Idea Marketplace(chapter 9.3.1).9.3.1 Concept of the Idea MarketplaceSoon after the first interviews it became clear that there is no consensus on theconcept of the Idea Marketplace, not even on its main purpose. Four competingconcepts were presented. The first one was a place for ideas; the second one wasrelated to the first concept and suggested the Idea Marketplace to act as a channelto test ideas. The third one claimed that the Idea Marketplace is not a realistic wayto get real innovations, but rather a marketing trick. The fourth proposal presentedthat the Idea Marketplace should act as a consolidated change log and a channel tocommunicate the product development decisions for consumers.Several interviews touched also the theme of internal stakeholders that areoperating in the field of innovations and product development.9.3.1.1 The Idea Marketplace as a place for ideasOnly one interviewee actually believed that the Company could get real innovationsout of the Idea Marketplace. He reminded that in this case, the Idea Marketplaceshould become like InnoCentive of the mobile industry, which does not yet exist, asInnoCentive concentrates only on pharmacy and chemistry (InnoCentive, Inc.,2010). In his vision, the Idea Marketplace would be a platform for a professionalnetwork of universities, research centers and experts who could solve, for money,any problem that companies have not been able to solve. Another interviewee wasconsidering this option as well, but found it unrealistic, as to be able to produce real 83
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceinnovations, the Idea Marketplace would need support from the whole company,including CEO. It would also have an effect on the functions of the whole theCompany.9.3.1.2 The Idea Marketplace as a place to test ideasOne interviewee believed that the Idea Marketplace would best serve as a place tovalidate trends, test ideas and prioritize them. It would also offer information aboutpreferences of different segments – it is no use to produce wlan phones for seniorcitizens in Asia even if some people request them.9.3.1.3 The Idea Marketplace as a marketing toolThe most popular approach was that the Idea Marketplace would be only a tool formarketing to show customers that The Company’s employees are listening.According to this view, this kind of service is more related to My Starbucks Idea(Starbucks Corporation, 2010) or Idea Storm (Dell, 2010), which are fullymarketing or PR activities, than InnoCentive. In general, these places do notproduce feasible innovations, but rather only little bits of ideas. One intervieweegave an example of Starbucks, where only one idea out of thousands has actuallyreached R&D. Two interviewees had heard the same story about IdeaStorm,according to which a popular idea about booklet was implemented, but withdrawnjust a month later because no one bought it. Another interviewee concluded thatnormal consumers are not as innovative as professionals and they do notnecessarily know what they want. And if they had a really good idea, they wouldprobably not tell it in a public forum.One interviewee reminded that not even 400 implemented ideas out of 10,000necessary satisfy consumers. They will find it ridiculous that 9,600 ideas areconsidered to be rubbish. That’s why, according to him, it would be better toconcentrate on listening and marketing than trying to get real innovations. Onechallenge would be to communicate to audience what is to be expected and what isrealistic. 84
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace9.3.1.4 The Idea Marketplace as a communication channelThe last concept suggested remarkably differs from the others, but it is rather partof the solution, not the whole concept: According to one interviewee, the IdeaMarketplace should be a place to communicate decisions and thus, end longconversations about missing features. According to him, these conversations arebeing had in discussions forums, where bug reports, decisions and promises arenot structured. The Idea Marketplace could instead collect these issues to atransparent change log, which would communicate what the Company will fix forthe next release. Many traditional IT companies have this kind of public logs forbugs and releases where the bug will be fixed, but the Company does not. Thatleads to endless conversations as the Company’s employees do not dare to publiclypromise anything. On the other hand, the Idea Marketplace would also serve as asource of information. Decision makers could partially base their decisions on thenumber of votes. For instance, if the sales unit has generally believed thatproducing maps for N900 is not profitable, they could re-estimate this based on thenumber of votes the idea gets. Another problem has been the amount of data.According to the interviewee, there has been so much feedback that it has beenimpossible to prioritize it. Voting system would offer a solution for that.A related theme that arouse from interviews was the nature of ideas. Intervieweesfelt that complains, requests and feedback in general are a good source of ideas,and they can even be innovations as such. In some cases, the Company has just notthought of bringing some existing service to its own context. Thus, old ideas canbecome innovations.9.3.1.5 Cooperation with internal stakeholders of the Idea MarketplaceThe second sub-theme was cooperation with the most important internalstakeholders and the Company’s related platforms, Backstage, Betalabs,IdeasProject, Nokia Care, Comms, Forum the Company, Digital Marketing, anddiscussion forums. 85
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceOne interviewee thought that the Company should not build another community,when Backstage and Betalabs already exist, but it should rather concentrate onremoving existing barriers and developing Betalabs further, for instance, byproviding appealing mobile interfaces for developers. He also reminded that even ifa new platform is built, Betalabs should not be forgotten, as it represents a morechallenging stage in the innovation process compared to submitting “raw” ideas.Another interviewee claimed that IdeasProject, the Company’s existing externalidea crowdsourcing site with external experts, should definitely be a part of thefuture the Idea Marketplace and one source for ideas. Ideas by IdeasProject couldbe tested in the Idea Marketplace, while it would also provide some valuable futurescenarios and trend for others to use in the Idea Marketplace.Three interviewees pointed out the cooperation with Forum Nokia, the Company’swebsite for developers. One saw that the Company could this way bring developersand consumers together. Another one claimed that the Company has failed increating a developer community, which is desperately needed to implement all theapplication related ideas. The Company is basically not a services provider butenabler, so a third party is needed. Otherwise, users of the Idea Marketplace getfrustrated, if for instance Foursquare application for the Company’s phone will get500 votes. According to the same interviewee, votes in the Idea Marketplace canmotivate developers to develop some application they would otherwise notbothered to implement for the Company. The third interviewee brought up thatmost ideators do not most likely know how to implement their application ideas,and therefore, it would be beneficial to work in cooperation with a developeralready from the beginning. Furthermore, developers do not want to be treated as“brainless machines” who just program what others tell them to. They have to feelthey do it freely. On the other hand, ideas should already be rather feasible whenincluding a developer to the process, but then take it further together.Nokia Care is basically responsible for online support for customers in technicalproblems, but Nokia Care is also doing customer satisfaction surveys and analyses.It is partially providing support via discussion forums, but mainly this is done 86
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacethrough contact centers and physical service points, where agents solve problemsand report all of them. A product quality team analyzes the reports of problems.Sometimes problems include also ideas or suggestions, but they are not utilizedbecause there has not been a channel for these ideas. The interviewee believes thatthe Idea Marketplace would be a natural place for these ideas. Another intervieweehad heard that only some part of this information is going somewhere, when itcould give valuable knowledge about trends and even innovations when utilizedproperly.According to one interviewee, ideas are also submitted to Facebook. Consumers areeven sketching visuals of phones, but they are not used. Same applies with ideacampaigns by Comms, the Company’s communication unit. The intervieweeclaimed that these ideas could be collected to the Idea Marketplace accordingly.An interviewee thought that the Idea Marketplace is mainly a marketing site forbranding purposes but felt that a new site as such is not needed at all, becauseFacebook is already harnessed for that.One interviewee was worried that the Idea Marketplace will get poisoned by thenegative feedback that is submitted besides ideas. He says that discussion forumsare already a place for that kind of collaboration and they have even a round-the-clock moderation to calm down the most furious feedback givers.To conclude, making the Idea Marketplace really a source of innovation will bechallenging, but simple marketing trick wouldn’t answer to the Company’s need ofuser-originated ideas. However, positive image is an advantage, which should beutilized even if the main focus is on ideas. Also the idea of using the IdeaMarketplace to communicate decisions regarding new products should beconsidered, as it’s a part of feedback, which has really important role.9.3.2 MotivationsThe following motivations were identified in the interviews, the number ofrespondents suggesting the theme indicated in parentheses. “Employees” refers tomotivations of the Company’s employees when using the Idea Marketplace, and 87
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace“Developers” stands for motivations of developers to developing applications forthe Company:Financial motivators (11) Money for implementation (1)Money (9) Pride for the idea (1)Job opportunities (2) Helping the Company (5)Social reasons (11) Desire to help (3)Networking (4) Being a fan (2)Collaboration (3)Getting feedback (2) Uniqueness (2)Reciprocity in general (1) Access to unique interfaces (2)Controlling the community (1) Employees (7)Recognition (10) Obligation (2)Recognition in general (2) Desire to improve products (1)Peer recognition (2) Knowledge about the future (1)Ego (2) Knowledge about the needs ofCompany recognition (1) customers (1)Publicity (1) Getting ideas and feedback (1)Getting attention from the Company Frustration (1)(1) Helping others (1)Getting new rights to the service (1) DevelopersSelf-actualization (10) Money (1)Challenges (2) Fame (1)Learning (2) Recognition (1)Self-fulfillment (1) Fun and “coolness” (1)Want to be a part of new things (1) Community spirit (1Generation Mind Set (1)Frustration (1)Creating new (1)Spending time (1)Charity (7)Theme is ethically, politically orreligiously important (3)Altruism (2)Helping others and their livingconditions (2)Ideas coming real (7)Cannot implement the idea alone (5) 88
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceSome of the themes need clarification. First of all, money was mentioned mainly ina negative context. Interviewees explained that money might corrupt theatmosphere of the community and confuse motivations. In general, intervieweesassumed that money could motivate normal users, who have a lot of time, to submittheir normal ideas, but not lead users to share their innovative ideas, unless theamount of money is remarkable. If an idea fetched 1 billion for the Company, onemillion for the inventor is reasonable, but there needs to be a different channel forthat kind of ideas.However, even normal users may not accept small rewards. One notion was thatgiving little amounts of money might look like exhaustion, as the followinginterviewee describes: “Nokia wants to take all our ideas and give something like 500 [euros] in return.”As to recognition, peer recognition was seen as a strong motivator, but presumingthe community. An interviewee says: “If your community is the whole internet, in whose opinion you have the fame? It’s missing.”This quotation refers to the fact that the Idea Marketplace is targeted to everyone.However, one interviewee points out that users might bring their ideas from theIdea Marketplace to their own community via social media to get respect, whichwould also promote the service. Another interviewee referred to the same group ofpeople who are mainly interested in enhancing their own ego. Third intervieweeclaimed that after all, everyone is interested in giving the best possible image, noone just says it aloud.According to an interviewee, the Idea Marketplace enables new kind of companyrecognition, or rather a channel for employees on the bottom of the hierarchy tobecome recognized.Getting feedback was also one popular theme, but it seems that getting feedbackbelongs rather under recognition theme than social motivations. One intervieweetook an example about sketching: 89
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace “You have contributed and thought about it… and when it comes back with a sketch made by some real designer of the Company, like it could be like this or that, you’ll be like wow. That’s a lot, I claim that it’s a really big motivation. I was listened, I was taken seriously, I made a difference.”Regular feedback would also make people work more. If the process is iterative,ideators who get through are motivated to work their ideas further as they knowtheir idea is promising and there are less competitors left in that stage.As to collaboration, there was one point to mention. One interviewee questionedthe logic of creating a new community when the Internet is already full of existingones. He also reminded that creating a new community from a scratch is practicallyimpossible.Of social motivators, networking was mentioned most often and especially in ameaning of getting to know new people, not just keeping touch with old friends.This, as well as getting feedback from others, was mentioned together with socialmedia, the features of which match very well with these needs. Interaction with thecommunity was also one of the few reasons identified to start using the IdeaMarketplace regularly.Implementation of ideas was also a popular suggested motivator with severalshades. The most often mentioned one was the idea that an ideator would like touse but is not able to implement himself. Money for implementation means thatideator will win a lot of money, but not for himself but to be invested inimplementing the idea.Self-actualization includes several needs from the top of the hierarchy of needs byMaslow (1943), such as learning and self-fulfillment.The last one of the larger themes was the motivation to help the Companybecause of some old, emotional connection or being a fan.Two interviewees also took the perspective of the Company’s employees andimagined what would motivate them to do their own part, that is, go to the IdeaMarketplace, search for suitable ideas and take them into account when designingnew products. Both interviewees mentioned obligation - employees will be 90
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceexpected to participate. On the other hand, some employees might proactively wantto read consumers’ thoughts to be able to improve products. They may also getsignals of the future, or simply ideas and feedback to be able to act faster, producebetter products and thus, extra value for the customer.One interviewee concentrated fully on the motivations of developers. He stronglypointed out the significance of motivation – applications are made to make money.Most developers are doing programming for living, either as entrepreneurs orfreelancers or in a software company. Thus, money is for them at least animportant hygiene factor, but they also actually dream about getting rich, as thereare some success story applications which have made their creators rich andfamous. This is why developers are rigorous when it comes to IPR and legalmatters. If there is a risk of losing some unknown share of the profit to theCompany or the original ideator, developers will not use the Idea Marketplace.Instead, for instance promising 100 percent of the profit when getting an idea fromthe Idea Marketplace could work as a motivator, as currently the Company takes 30percent of profit of applications that are sold in Ovi Store. Other mentionedmotivators included recognition, for example, seeing own application in theCompany’s commercial. Moreover, developers want to do “cool” things, be the firstdoing the “cool” thing and be part of the “coolest” communities.As a summary, interviewees found money as a negative factor when trying tomotivate users to be innovative. Instead, recognition and giving feedback werefound important. Also motivations related to self-actualization were mentionedoften, but in different many forms. The Company’s employees were believed toparticipate because it would benefit their job and developers would use the IdeaMarketplace if they can financially from it.9.3.3 RolesRoles that came up in interviews were really different from their nature than theones identified in the literature review. Interviewees defined roles based on theactivity of users or based on their role when working in projects, while some 91
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceinterviewees concentrated on roles that belonged to employees supporting end-users. Thus, the roles raised from interviews were grouped into three categories:community roles, project roles and supporting roles. Community roles refer to end-users, project roles to roles that are needed when taking ideas further, andsupporting roles belong to Company’s employees who work for the IdeaMarketplace. These groups and their meanings are described in more detail asfollows. In addition to these roles, there is a separate group, developers, whichmust be considered equally. Developers refer to group of people who havetechnical skills, ability and will to develop applications and other software.9.3.3.1 Community rolesAccording to interviewees, most of the roles identified from the literature are notactual roles but rather behaviors. For instance, all the “real” roles can include manyof these behaviors, such as the “role” of partner, hero, expert or guide, according towhat is needed in the community. Or, as one interviewee put it, those kinds of rolesare not actual roles but just an embodiment of their motivation to participate, andthese “roles” are part of actual roles. Another interviewee expressed that roles areactually the same thing as motivation: “I am a facilitator, what motivates me? Well, facilitating, of course!”According to the interviews, community roles include passive audience, normalusers and lead users. An interviewee explained that the most active 20 percent ofusers, lead users, creates 80 percent of the content and the rest 20 percent iscreated by the normal users, which is the majority. In addition there are “eye balls”,the passive audience that does not leave any trace but only reads what others havebeen writing.Let us first discuss the normal users as a role. They submit some ideas, vote andcomment some ideas but are mainly just watching, reading and browsing, like thepassive audience. But this is beneficial as well, because their attention motivatesothers to produce content. Even if some interviewees claimed that these usersmight not be the most innovative ones, others reminded that they still represent a 92
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacehuge majority of the Company’s customers and therefore, their opinion isextremely valuable when studying who is voting for what kind of features. That iswhy it will also be important to get as versatile user base as possible. This is alsoone point mentioned earlier – innovation arises from variety.The smaller group, lead users, can be early adopters who have a lot of energy fromfrustration towards nonfunctional products and want to solve problems andchallenges. They are worth searching, persuading and profiling even for somespecial purposes. One interviewee suggested the Company’s fans could be turnedinto lead users, but another one reminded that fans are mainly 20-40 year oldmales, so that group is biased and needs another point of view as well. It was alsomentioned that this group must be steady; it cannot be changed for each challenge.The group of lead users should also contain “brokers”, who connect people andideas. Experts, a role defined in the literature review but brought up in this contexttoo, are good at this because they see connections that other people necessarily donot.9.3.3.2 Project roles of users in the Idea MarketplaceProject roles was another category of roles, which could become relevant for theIdea Marketplace when bringing ideas forward in teams of users. Also theCompany’s employees can adopt project roles.Project roles are familiar from physical work environment and the roles areimplementer, ideator, inspirer, coach, project leader, and expert. Implementer is aperson who makes things happen instead of eternal planning. Ideator has a lot ofideas, while inspirer inspires others. Coach is also an innovative person, but heconcentrates on challenging ideas and bringing new points of view. These peopleare needed when taking radical actions. Project leader is a precise person, takingthe responsibility and driving the project forward. Project leaders and experts areespecially needed in effective non-usual projects. Experts know the field of currentproject and are often interested in nothing but the subject matter. According to oneinterviewee, it must be kept in mind that in one project, there cannot be two 93
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceexperts from the same field, otherwise they end up having a war since they arereally ambitious from their nature.9.3.3.3 Supporting roles of users in the Idea MarketplaceSupporting roles include community facilitator, moderator, IT support, R&D team,tester and catalyst. They should all be employees of the Company. Communityfacilitator was mentioned most often. Community facilitator is an employee who“looks after the site” by governing the structure, raising interesting content to themain page, deciding who should be rewarded and considering if some users shouldbe given more rights. He is making the community more interesting by dailybringing up new quality content by other users. As one interviewee put it: “His role is to make sure that the community flourishes. He roots out weeds when occurring, and when seeing beautiful flowers, he waters. He also outlines that this is a pumpkin plantation, here are tomatoes, and it’s also ruling people, he’s more like a social worker than technical employee.”According to another interviewee, community facilitator may also include keepingconversations on the right track and maybe taking off the old content and thecontent people are not interested in. Popular content may also need to be taken offin case it is old. Community facilitator can also give some advice for the new-comers, such as “these are the comments you are most likely to receive, be ready forthem.”Moderators are ensuring that the community behaves well. They take offinappropriate content and, if it is repeated by someone, they contact the person,and ban him, if he does not change his behavior.IT support makes sure that the technical platform works. They can also add newfeatures and improve usability.Testers simply test the functioning of the site and make sure it is working properly.“R&D team” listens feedback, responses to it and takes suitable content to theroadmap. In the case of the Idea Marketplace, this role is naturally not just for R&D 94
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacebut the whole organization or at least the so called “harvesters”. One intervieweesuggested that everyone should be watching ideas from his or her own area.“Catalyst” refers to sponsors who can take the idea further to the actualimplementation.9.3.3.4 Developers in the Idea MarketplaceFinally, developers form their very own group. They are not working for theCompany, but they are in a way a supporting role as they implement applicationideas. According to one interviewee, the profile of developers is moving from high-tech more to the direction of a web designer. Along with the new easy-to-useprogramming tools, almost anyone can do the technical part of application, but theappearance will become even more essential.9.3.3.5 Summary of roles in interviewsAccording to the interviewees, roles identified in the literature review are not rolesbut behaviors of higher-level roles, which are few. These behaviors are stillvaluable – they can be used to define what kinds of behaviors are needed in realroles of an online community like the Idea Marketplace. Findings from chapter 9.1also support this division, as users in Dell IdeaStorm were not just “greeters” or“opinions providers”, but two separate user groups similar to normal users andlead users were identified. Fewer roles are also more manageable in practice, if theCompany for instance wants to attract or activate certain roles. Figure 12 illustratesthe roles identified in interviews. 95
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceFigure 12 Roles identified from interviews9.3.4 Features of an idea marketplaceThe conversation around features of an idea marketplace was versatile. The themesmentioned most often were reward system, feedback, social media applications andability to work for an idea. Other occurred themes are also presented in the end ofthis sub-chapter.9.3.4.1 Ways to reward users in the Idea MarketplaceOne obvious option for the reward system was scores that users will get from allkind of contribution. Scores define the value of the user in the community. Oneinterviewee, however, reminded of the downsides of automated scores: it is almostimpossible to design the system no one can play. For instance, if one posts aprovocative comment or idea to the site, it will receive a lot of attention and thusscores but does not necessarily provide any value for the community. Or one can 96
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacesystematically vote for all ideas or write a same comment to all ideas. Anotherinterviewee proposed replacing scores partially by human intelligence. This couldbe done by promoting some trusted users to “VIPs” who score users and canpromote them to VIPs as well. On the other hand, a score system must still exist inthe background, because, according to one interviewee, it is always possible to misssome active users who have been doing a lot for the community. Users could alsobe promoted with “badges” or titles for some specific activity they tend to do, suchas “bug buster” or “innovator”. This approach was in use in Backstage, theCompany’s test environment for employees, but it got too complicated to maintain.The interviewee, however, told that the reward system would have been possibleto maintain with better infrastructure. It is also good to have “the contributor of themonth” title, but the winner should change every month, even if the same person isthe most active in practice.One interviewee proposed simply giving a phone every month for the contributorof the month. This could also be done, for instance, by giving the phone for theperson whose idea is on the top at a certain moment, and counter would show thetime left. This approach would encourage the top ideators to promote their ideaseven more when the challenge is coming to its end. The interviewee also remindedthat users can be cheated only once – if you betray their trust, for instance, bypromising a reward and not delivering it, the word will spread and in worst casedestroy the whole service.9.3.4.2 Feedback system for usersThe perceptions on the feedback system varied a lot. No interviewee thought thatevery individual idea should necessarily receive a reply, but it was agreed thatgiving individual feedback instead of a standard message to as many users aspossible is valuable. In practice, two options were proposed by interviewees. Thefirst was hiring a couple of people writing the answers. Naturally, these peoplecould not know answers to all ideas, but they could act as brokers finding relevantpeople and consulting them. Another option would be to harness all the Company’s 97
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceemployees giving feedback. That could be done, for instance, by linking the tags inthe Intranet describing the Company’s employees’ expertise and interests with ideatags and sending notifications when matching ideas are submitted. That way, all theCompany’s employees would be posted about newest relevant ideas, and theycould quickly react. Some interviewees thought this would be a brilliant solution,while others were skeptical. The main arguments by two interviewees against theproposed solutions were that in reality the Company’s employees would not havetime to react to these notifications. That is, even if they were aware of the newestideas, they would not have time to implement them. On the other hand, oneinterviewee argued that the Company’s employees should have time to browse andimplement ideas because it is their job to be interested in ideas related to their job.Fourth one recommended that the Company’s employees could order notificationwith desired tags and they could recommend tags as well as particular ideas toother the employees via the system.Another interviewee brought up a worry about managing the feedback policy.According to him, not all the employees of the Company should talk to end-usersbecause they might promise too much or say something incorrect. The tone of voiceis extremely important. One cannot, for instance, say “thank you, we don’t need anymore information about this matter”, but you need to say that the bug is noted andtell who is taking care of it. Moreover, the feedback cannot always be the same”thank you, we will look in to this, we will investigate, this is very interesting” becausepeople will notice very soon if everyone else will get the same feedback – even if itis true. One option would be to find such a big group of voluntary employees that itrepresents the whole organization. One interviewee proposed that volunteerscould be chosen separately for each challenge so that the topic of challenge isrelated to the job of the volunteer and she or he will include it to her or his jobtargets to reserve enough time and also get some compensation for the time spent.According to this interviewee, having a changing group of volunteers is beneficialalso because a fixed group of people cannot know everything. These people wouldbe trained on how to talk with end-users. Still, the challenge would be to find these 98
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacevolunteers, because they need to be in high enough position to be able to makedecisions regarding questions, and these people are usually the busiest. Oneinterviewee took the idea even further and proposed that the Company’s designersshould give the feedback for the most promising ideas in a form of real sketches.That would be really impressive for the submitter and also motivate others. It alsohelps to test the idea and communicate if it has been understood correctly.In addition to giving feedback right after the idea is submitted, ideators should beinformed of the implementation of the idea – did anything ever happen or is theidea going to be realized in the next release. This could be taken further by makinga few profound reports about what actually happened to some implemented ideas,who was involved, and what stages were included. Users who have liked orcommented an idea could also get an automatic notification when the idea has beenimplemented and information on where to purchase the new service or product inquestion.One type of feedback is, of course, the feedback users give to each other. Oneinterviewed social media expert reminded about “rich get richer” dilemma, whichoften follows top lists. That is, users vote more for the ideas that have already madeit to the top ten. According to him, this is not a reliable way to rate ideas, butinstead, he suggested “hot or not” feature, where users compare two random ideas.Then all the ideas will get views, and moreover, the popularity of an idea can becounted based on the ratio between views and votes. In addition, he recommendedkeeping the negative voting option, but when voting down, user should specify thereason in the comment field. This would give the ideator constructive feedbackinstead of leaving him wondering what is wrong with the idea. Finally, theinterviewee described an innovative way to rate ideas with sliders of variouscriteria. Instead of giving thumbs up or down, a user can rate for instance the socialvalue or radicality of it. He gave an example of a virtual tea shop, where users couldsee the other products they had rated as a reference when rating new flavors.To conclude, the feedback should consist of automatic scores and badges combinedwith human intelligence as well as feedback given by the Company’s employees. Of 99
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceproposed alternatives, having a separate group of feedback givers for eachchallenge sounded most functional when feedback givers are reserved inbeforehand and they get compensation.9.3.4.3 Social media featuresThe interviews dealt also broadly with Facebook and other social mediaapplications. One must-have feature of the Idea Marketplace was a Facebook loginso that people do not need to create “yet another” account for the Idea Marketplace.Another obvious feature was a Facebook application to “like”, share andrecommend ideas in Facebook. “Liking” refers to a feature which enables users toshow they like some idea by voting it. This would remind people about theexistence of the Idea Marketplace, and Facebook could even be the channel to sendnotifications about updates of the Idea Marketplace. Notification could also be sentto users’ emails. The application should immediately show which of one’s Facebookfriends are online and one should not need to add the same people as “friends”again. But in addition, there should be a possibility to network with new people aswell. The Idea Marketplace could, for instance, recommend people with similarideas or interests. The Idea Marketplace could also tell the location of users andthus enable real-life networking. However, the interaction in the system shouldremain professional and be idea related instead of filling streams with “how areyou” kind of messages.Naturally, Facebook is not the only possible social media. People could add theirideas to their own blogs, website, Twitter, LinkedIn or other social mediaapplications. Or the other way around, one could bring in own content from othersites, such as SlideShare or Flickr. Social networks are also important from thedeveloper point of view, as developers rather work on ideas by their fellows thanstrangers. 100
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace9.3.4.4 Collaboration functionsNaturally, people should be able to take ideas further in the Idea Marketplace inaddition to just submitting new ideas. There should be some kind of space to storedocuments, manage project and collaborate. One interviewee recommendedscouting collaboration tools by, for instance, Microsoft, for future development. Anexpert from collaboration field said that some basic functions would include co-editing documents in real time and having virtual meetings, at least having realtime conversations. The team must be able to co-operate on the idea and agree oncheckpoints. However, according to him, there is no need to implement thesefeatures in the Idea Marketplace, but ideators can very well use also external toolsthey have gotten used to and have access to.Another suggested theme was innovation methods, such as Six Thinking Hats byEdward de Bono. An idea of crowdsourcing prototype production using microtaskapproach was also tested with interviewees, and it was found interesting, butinterviewees were concerned that some users who would get 5 euros for producinga demo of a good idea would sell it for 5,000 euros to the Company’s competitors.By microtask, an interviewee referred to work that can be split into small simple“micro” tasks and deliver all over the world via the Internet to be performed. Therepresentative from R&D hoped that ideators would be offered tools to makedemos and storyboards, which are kind of cartoons, from their ideas. She proposedthat, for instance, a browser version of the Company’s new software developmenttool kits could be provided instead of tools that one needs to download to one’sown computer. These tools can be used to program even real applications but alsodemos of more complicating software.9.3.4.5 Other themesOther themes brought up by interviewees included submitting ideas in an“appealing” format, rating ideas by their relevance in addition to innovativeness,grouping users into teams, making content current, streams, notifications,modification, usernames, segmentation and the easiness of use. 101
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceBy an “appealing format”, an interviewee meant setting a desired format for theideas, which would be the most suitable. There could, for example, be a characterlimit to avoid long and exhausting description, or adding a picture could becompulsory. Submitting the title of an idea in an epic format was also proposed.Epic answers to questions “who does what for what reason”. For instance, “as adriver I want to get SMS notifications and read messages in my car safely withoutneeding to pull over”. This would force the submitter to think the benefit as well.Other needed information beneficial for decision makers and implementers is“functional and emotional elements”. Functional elements include utility andusability, while emotional elements include social value and enjoyment. Accordingto one interviewee, often only usability is thought and enjoyment totally forgotten.The idea submission form should include questions that force to cover theseaspects too.“Grouping” was discussed from two angles. First, an interviewee reminded thatteams collaborating on ideas would benefit greatly from a designer, because a niceappearance can sometimes even make a bad idea look better than good, and goodideas looking really good. In addition, users could be profiled according to teamtypes introduced in the chapter 9.3.3 and grouped based on them.According to one marketing-oriented interviewee, the content should be madetopical to make it interesting, but that is taken care of as the ideas are mainlygathered challenge-based. Another interviewee added that the content should bereally dynamic at least on the main page. New interesting content should behighlighted continuously, as well as all the demos, sketches and other rare contentwhich would otherwise get lost in the huge pool of ideas. It would show that ideasare actually taken further.Segmentation referred to getting background information about users, which couldbe used in marketing to target certain products to certain user group.Furthermore, it was reminded that the service should be easy and clear to use. Oneinterviewee emphasized that the site should not be based on Flash and other good-looking but dysfunctional elements. It should rather be simple and work fast. 102
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceAccording to him, this has been the latest trend in Silicon Valley, for instanceFacebook, Twitter and Digg.it are all box-like and plain. Filtering the noise out ofrelevant content is one element here. Developers also need their own filter to easilyfind application ideas.One interviewee also covered “gaming” fairly. He proposed using virtual moneywhich could be invested in promising ideas. If the idea gets successful, one will getones money back. This approach makes using the system exciting, playful and fun.One option is to give “super diamond user” badges to distinguished users.Finally, user names were mentioned. The web presence is extremely important fortechnical people. They might be known best by their web nick name, and thus, theyshould be able to keep it. However, the real name should be visible at least for themoderator to enable controlling the site.9.4 Synthesis of the Case StudyFigures 13a and 13b synthesize the whole Part III: Use Case Study. In Part IIIconsisted on three chapters. On chapter 9.1, two main roles were identified, thefirst being “normal users” and the second named as “lead users”. Chapter 9.2utilized motivations identified in the literature review and asked the respondentswhich of them they would be motivated by. Responds of lead users and normalusers were compared, and the main motivators of both, as well as the biggestmotivational differences, were discovered. Finally, chapter 9.3, presented a groupof features and functionalities that the Idea Marketplace should have.Motivations and roles were easily combined to Figure 13 based on of the results ofthe survey. The background questions revealed the role of each respondent, eithernormal user or lead user, and thus it was possible to compare the motivations ofboth.However, coupling motivations with features was more ambiguous. The researcherwas forced to use her intuition and tacit knowledge to combine these two. On theother hand, these connections are also of common sense, for instance, of thepresented alternatives, getting feedback from the Company falls under company 103
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacerecognition. Motivations identified in the literature review and the survey resultswere compiled with motivations by interviewees. In addition, interviews broughtup some “supporting roles” that were linked to suitable motivations. Finally, thewhole synthesis was validated by the last interviewee who is the co-founder andCEO of a Finnish social media start-up. She also recommended adding a few detailsto the synthesis, which were then embedded accordingly to results as well.Figure 13 illustrating the synthesis consists of three shapes – a rectangle withrounded corners stands for a motivator, a right-angled rectangle represents afeature, and an oval refers to a supporting role. Main roles, lead users and normalusers, are illustrated using different shades of gray, dark for lead users and light fornormal users. Middle gray refers to motivators by interviewees that were notassigned to either of the groups. Colors were also used to group related motivatorstogether. Colored rectangles with rounded corners describe the theme of the groupand the according color recurs in lines of each motivator, feature and role thatbelong to the group in question. The main themes are social reasons, self-actualization, recognition, financial motivators, ideas coming real, charity, andhelping the Company. Arrows point out which elements belong together. Numbersin arrows refer to the number of occurrence of the motivation in question.The objective of the Figure 13 is to link all studied elements together and illustratethe connections between them. It acts as a map which tells in one view which arethe most important motivators, and what roles are motivated by whichmotivations. The size of the motivation rectangle implies the importance of themotivation. When looking into it more carefully one can find ways to implementthese motivations in an idea marketplace. For instance, when social reasons arewanted, related features tell what functionalities are needed in the site: browsingand following people, commenting, recommending, seeing location and being ableto share in social media. When especially lead users are wanted to the site, one canconcentrate on motivations on dark grey and related features instead of light greymotivations. Rounded shapes even tell what supporting roles are needed to 104
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceimplement succesfully wanted features and motivations. For instance, companyrecognition needs three supporting roles, harvesters, community manager and theCompany’s employees to happen.All roles, motivations and features are described in more detail earlier in this study. 105
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceFigure 13a Synthesis of the Use Case Study 106
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceFigure 14b Synthesis of the Use Case Study 107
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplacePART IV: DISCUSSIONThis study was made for the Company to support the design and implementationprocess of the new Idea Marketplace that is to be launched in spring 2011.The research question of the study was “How to get organizations’ employees,customers and other stakeholders to use the new idea marketplace to support theidea creation process?” and it was divided into following sub-questions: - What motivates people to contribute to an idea marketplace? - What features should an idea marketplace have? - What kind of roles do the users of an idea marketplace have?All of the research questions were answered. The literature review offered a list ofmotivations to be validated empirically in idea creation context. This was studiedby interviewing experts and analyzing survey results of 93 respondents. Itappeared that the same motivators motivate users to participate in an ideamarketplace as any other online community, but the significance of feedback wasemphasized by the interviewees, while the importance of money as a motivationremained unclear. Based on the survey, monetary rewards are motivating userswhen interviews didn’t believe in motivating impact of money and goods.Basic functions were covered in the literature review, but the interviewsconcretized them to actual features and thus linked tightly to motivators. Featuresenable motivators, but on the other hand, the corresponding motivator motivatesusing the feature. Some features are linked to two motivators instead of one. Thesynthesis presented the recommended features.The literature review specified 55 separate roles, which were eventually cut downinto two user groups, normal users and lead users, and a few supporting roles. Themain finding regarding roles was that the normal users have usually some specificagenda in mind when coming to an idea marketplace, and the agenda is always notpurely to innovate but also to give some general feedback. The other role, lead 108
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceusers, instead, comes to the site just to spend some time. The role changes from anormal user to a lead user very clearly after only a few posts. Motivationaldifferences between these two groups were also discovered.The objectives of the thesis were as follows: - To identify the known motivations, features and roles of online communities from the literature, - to validate the identified motivations, features and roles in the context of idea crowdsourcing and to complete them with findings from end-user survey, observation and expert interviews, and - to provide recommendations on how to build a new idea marketplace that will attract a high variety of consumers globallyThe first objective was completed with regard to separate issues, but all elementswere so unconnected that structuring any synthesis in that point was impossible.Instead, the synthesis was built in the end, once the results from the empiricalstudy had been included. The second objective was also reached, possibledifferentiators being the feedback process and transparency of the implementationprocess of ideas and the strong role of community facilitator. Furthermore, thethird objective was covered in the synthesis part of the study.When comparing the results with the literature review, the following observationscan be made. All the motivators to work and act in general online communitieswere identified in the case study as well; therefore, they apply to a context of ideamarketplace as well. However, some of these motivators were mentioned in thesurvey only one or two times, and therefore, all of these cannot be provenstatistically. On the other hand, this study adds some extra value to former studiesby showing the importance of each motivator both for normal and lead users.There is also one group of motivators that does not exist in any of the referredstudies – “ideas coming real”. It can also be seen as a motivation whichdifferentiates an idea marketplace from any other online community. These resultsalso answer explicitly to the issue about monetary rewards as a motivator. 109
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceMonetary rewards were among the most popular motivators of both normal andlead users; hence, money can motivate users to perform creative tasks as well.The roles identified in the literature review differed significantly from the roles inthe results of the use case study. The field study in Dell’s IdeaStorm revealed thatmostly information related roles occurred in a real idea marketplace and that thesame roles recurred with all user types. Therefore, the relevancy of the most rolesidentified in the literature review can be questioned. However, according toIdeaStorm, there are two user groups, lead users who come to the site to spendsome time and normal users who come to the site usually only once to performsome task planned beforehand. The interviews supported the division to normalusers and lead users and provided a few additional roles that can be described assupporting roles, as these belong to Company’s employees and they support theusage of an idea marketplace. All the roles identified in the use case study could,however, adopt the roles from the literature review as certain behaviors, especiallywhen it comes to atmosphere creation, such as welcoming and encouraging users.The literature review provided a miscellaneous collection of functions for an ideamarketplace. Interviews were the main method to empirically collect suitablefunctions for an idea marketplace. Basically, the interviews did cover all the samefunctions as the literature, but moreover, they also provided some more concretefeatures. For instance, compared to “scores system”, the interviews described whatkind of score systems would work best. Some of the most promising but yet notplanned features include “hot or not” to get evenly views for all ideas, constantlychanging content by community facilitator, innovation methods and tools, sliders tomeasure radicality and relevancy, orderable idea notification for all the Company’semployees and sketches from the Companys designers.The results of the study are also well in line with requirements that chapter 2 set toa future innovation system. Chapter two emphasized the meaning of users asinnovators and networks of different actors. An idea marketplace can provide aplace for these parties to meet. In an ideal system, actors are not jealous for theirideas and all actors are equal and empowered. R&D and business are developed 110
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplacetogether utilizing each other’s results and resources. An idea marketplace canenable all of these requirements. 111
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace10. Strengths and weaknesses of the studyThe strengths of this study included the newness of the topic – not much study hasbeen done on idea crowdsourcing, at least not on motivation, feature and roleperspectives. This can also be seen as a weakness when it comes to the literaturereview. The literature review had to be made using studies about just some generalonline communities. However, that led to an unexpected result, as motivations towork, including money, applied also to motivation to create ideas.The overall quality of the literature was academic and objective, excluding somepublications by idea marketplace suppliers (e.g. Cisco, IBM, Accept Software), andsubject-matter organizations (e.g. CHI 2008 Proceedings, Proceedings of WorldConference on Educational Multimedia), whose own material may be biased.The weakest feature of this study was the relatively small number of respondentsof the survey. The small number of respondents, which spread into 30 differentmotivators, provided so little data that results cannot necessarily be generalized.An unquestionable strength of the empirical part was triangulation, conducting thestudy from three angels, interviews, observation and survey, which supported eachother. Triangulation can capture a more complete, holistic, and contextual pictureof the matters being studied as different methods compensate the weaknesses ofeach other. Thus, researchers using triangulation can be more confident of theirresults. Triangulation may also help to uncover new dimension of a phenomenon.The only clear weakness of triangulation is that replication of it is extremelydifficult, especially qualitative methods. (Jick, 1979)Another general strength was that the researcher had a privilege to dailyparticipate in the project work where an idea marketplace was actually designedand planned, and therefore, the amount of tacit knowledge about the topic becameremarkable. Naturally, this kind of knowledge could not directly be used in thestudy, but dozens of workshops and meetings must have helped to outline thequestions to be presented in the actual interviews and the survey. 112
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace11. Recommendations for further researchWhen dissecting the synthesis of the study, one may notice some similaritybetween motivation themes and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow,1943). “Self-actualization” can be found from both the results of this study andMaslow’s hierarchy, “recognition” has elements similar to “esteem”, “love andbelonging” is like “social reasons”, and “safety” as well as “physiological needs” arerelated to “financial motivators” and “ideas coming real”. It would be interesting tostudy if a corresponding hierarchy would apply to these motivators as well, that is,lower levels needs must be met to be motivated for higher motivators. This wouldalso mean that the poor would get motivated for money, while wealthy users wouldonly care for higher motivators. It remained unclear if money is only a hygienefactor or an actual motivator for users. Finding this out would be important inorder to know whether additional rewards are needed besides money, or is itenough. On the other way around, organizers of idea crowdsourcing challengesshould know if the monetary reward is always needed as a hygiene factor.Another theme to study, which is also crucial for the success of an ideamarketplace, would definitely be what would motivate one to innovate. This shouldhave been the fundamental answer of this study as well, but, after all, an ideamarketplace turned out to be a place for several supporting activities that wereneeded to get innovations and thus, the focus moved radically. To continue fromthis theme, tools to innovate in online community should also be studied further aswell as the process of getting new ideas and submitting them to the system. Forinstance, a question “does one get an idea prior to hearing about an ideamarketplace and then go and submit it, or does one go to the site at first and thenstart creating ideas” remained open. If the answer is the latter, features enabling"risk-taking, uninhibited exploration, and combination of old elements into newpatterns" should be provided. This is anyway needed to make “bad ideas” into goodones, which is the former case. Studying what would these features be would alsobe interesting. 113
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace12. Managerial implicationsManagerial implications of this study are discussed as follows using motivationalthemes as a structure, but related roles and features are dealt with simultaneously.In the end, roles identified in the literature study are discussed briefly.As already noted in the introduction of Part IV, it is best to include all motivationalthemes to all challenges, because normal users and lead users are motivated bypartially different motivations and because after all most motivations are built in tothe system. “Ideas coming real” is the most essential motivation to have – at leastthe winning idea must be implemented and the implementation, when done,reported in the Idea Marketplace. The more ideas get implemented, the better.“Ideas coming real” links to another important motivation, which is recognition,and especially company recognition. Users must be shown that they are listenedand their ideas counts. Out of proposed solutions, the best way to do it is to have acommunity facilitator taking care of general communication, and recruitinginternally a group of experts from related areas to go through ideas of eachchallenge. Having a separate designer sketching some interesting ideas was alsonice idea, which would bring credibility to the site.Also “social reasons” is in-build to the site and its features – in every challenge,users can cooperate, network and communicate. The role of external social mediachannels has an extremely important role in here. New emerging social mediatrends, such as location, should be scouted and possible cooperation with trendingsocial media channels studied. Self-actualization is likewise there for eachchallenge, but that’s very personal. For instance, learning experience is hard toassure. Instead, fun and even addictive experience can be offered using differentgaming elements, like scores, badges and timers.However, there is one important motivation that can and should be plannedindividually for each challenge, that is, financial motivations. That’s due to variationof people’s preferences; users simply have different interests and needs. Therefore,the Company is recommended to study the preferences of the target group before 114
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplaceeach challenge. For instance, if the target group is people interested insustainability, a new car is obviously not the best reward. The study can be donesimply by interviewing a few representatives of the target group, or the partnerorganization who probably knows its own people best.Although this study concluded that there are only two main roles, normal users andlead users, and some supporting roles in an idea marketplace, roles identified fromthe literature review shouldn’t be forgotten. Some of them were crucial for thesuccess of the studied online community. For instance, core organizers andadvanced users should be raised in the community. From atmosphere point ofview, guide, provider, historian, catalyst, greeter, clown, encourager andatmosphere constructors could definitely have a positive impact on theatmosphere, and actually all these roles could be embodied in the communityfacilitator. Community facilitator should also take care of administrative rolesincluding ambassador and orienter. Being a performer or hero is something thatanyone should be able to become – for instance as an “ideator of the week”. 115
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  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceAppendix 1: Survey formMotivation survey about ideationThis survey has been made for the Company - the worlds largest mobile phonemanufacturer - as a part of master’s thesis of Aalto University. All answers arehighly valued and processed confidentially. the Company is planning to establish aweb-based service to gather new ideas from all kinds of people from all around theworld. In the service, best ideas will evolve to real products and users are able tofollow the development of their ideas, as well as have an effect on the developmentprocess. Users are also rewarded for their contributions. The goal of this survey isto find out what could motivate people to use this kind of service and what kind ofrewards would be most valued. Answering to this survey is really important,because it helps us to develop a popular and world-wide service. And as a result,the Company is able to serve its customers and satisfy their needs even better. Andas a compensation for your effort, we raffle off three Angry Bird toys!* RequiredBackground Information Under 14 years oldHow old are you? *What is your gender? *Where do you live? *In what kind of surroundings do you live? *What is the highest educational level you have? * Elementary school High school Undergraduate Graduate 131
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace None Other:Please estimate what are your monthly incomes in dollars or in your own currency?* Please write down also the used currency!How well do you use computers? * 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10Not at all Very wellDo you work at the Company? *Do you use any social media tools on your free time? * E.g. Facebook, MySpace,YouTube, Twitter, Flickr, LinkedIn, hi5, Bebo, etc.Do you use any social media tools in your work?If you use social media in your work, what tools do you use and how?Motivational QuestionsLet’s assume that the Company has established a website, where people can submitideas related to mobile phones and also browse other peoples ideas, vote them andsee them coming real. If you had an idea, would you go and enter it to the website?* 132
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceIf yes, what would motivate you to do that?What would make you go and see such a website in the first place? * A suggestion by a friend A link in Facebook, blog or other social media An advertisement in Google An advertisement on TV Other:Let’s then assume that you went to the website in question and entered your idea.Which of the following additional activities you would be interested in? * Reading other ideas Voting other ideas Commenting other ideas Making business plans, demos or prototypes about other ideas Browsing other users Organizing your own idea challenges Other: 133
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceIf you wouldnt do any of these activities, why wouldnt you be interested?Which of the following would motivate you to participate at the first time? * Pleasechoose max 5 items. Getting little amount of money from each activity Chance of getting a lot of money if my idea wins Chance of getting a new mobile phone or other technical device Care for community Getting new friends Feeling of togetherness Chance of getting a paid trip to the space museum in Moscow Cooperation with others Knowledge exchange Personal learning Intellectual stimulations New viewpoints and synergy Employer recognition Peer recognition Enhancement of professional status 134
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace Winning and competing Altruism, charity Enjoyment and fun Ideology Reciprocity Interesting challenges Sense of obligation to contribute Chance of winning a one day off with pay Chance of winning something you wouldnt otherwise get Making better products/services Seeing own ideas come true Improving your own living conditions through new products Improving others living conditions through new products Passing time Nothing Other:Which of the following would motivate you to participate regularly? * Pleasechoose max 5 items. 135
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace Getting little amount of money from each activity Chance of getting a lot of money if my idea wins Chance of getting a new mobile phone or other technical device Care for community Getting new friends Feeling of togetherness Chance of getting a paid trip to the space museum in Moscow Cooperation with others Knowledge exchange Personal learning Intellectual stimulations New viewpoints and synergy Employer recognition Peer recognition Enhancement of professional status Winning and competing Altruism, charity Enjoyment and fun 136
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace Ideology Reciprocity Interesting challenges Sense of obligation to contribute Chance of winning a one day off with pay Chance of winning something you wouldnt otherwise get Making better products/services Seeing own ideas come true Improving your own living conditions through new products Improving others living conditions through new products Passing time Nothing Other:What would motivate you to create demos about ideas? * This requires more timeand effort than e.g. submitting ideas. Please choose max 5 items. Getting little amount of money from each demo Chance of getting a lot of money if my demo wins Chance of getting a new mobile phone or other technical device 137
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace Care for community Getting new friends Feeling of togetherness Chance of getting a paid trip to the space museum in Moscow Cooperation with others Knowledge exchange Personal learning Intellectual stimulations New viewpoints and synergy Employer recognition Peer recognition Enhancement of professional status Winning and competing Altruism, charity Enjoyment and fun Ideology Reciprocity Interesting challenges 138
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea Marketplace Sense of obligation to contribute Chance of winning a one day off with pay Chance of winning something you wouldnt otherwise get Making better products/services Seeing own ideas come true Improving your own living conditions through new products Improving others living conditions through new products Passing time Having interfaces to something I cant get from anywhere else (e.g. location data) Getting cool tools for creating demos Getting so simple tools that even non-programmer can use them Other: 139
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceAppendix 2: IntervieweesInternal stakeholdersBetaLabs/Backstage:John Markow, 23 June, 2010, ”Roles and motivation of users in online communities,features of online communities”.Tommi Vilkamo, 18 May, 2010, ”Roles and motivation of users in onlinecommunities, features of online communities”.Mobile Solutions:Jukka Märijärvi, 20 July, 2010, “Product development at Nokia”.Maija Nervola, 05 January, 2011, Product development at Nokia”.Pia Erkinheimo, 21 December, 2010, ”Idea creation platforms at Nokia”.Nokia Care:Juha-Matti Heikkinen, 07 September, 2010, ”Roles and motivation of users in onlinecommunities, features of online communities”.Hanna-Kaisa Sävelkoski, 13 September, 2010, “Motivations to use onlinecommunities”.Nokia Digital Marketing:Saara Bergström, 07 September, 2010, “Features of appealing social mediaservices”.Jussi-Pekka Erkkola, 14 December, 2010, ”Roles and motivation of users in onlinecommunities, features of online communities”.Arto Joensuu, 08 September, 2010, ”Roles and motivation of users in onlinecommunities, features of online communities”. 140
  • Karoliina HarjanneMasters Thesis: Developing a New Global Idea Creation Platform – Case Idea MarketplaceForum the Company:Sami Pippuri, 16 December, 2010, ”Motivations of developers, features of onlinecommunities from developer’s point of view”.Consumer analytics and Insights:Ville Tikka, 04 August, 2010, “How to make an online community innovative”.External stakeholders:Ville Peltola, IBM, 30 June, 2010, ”Roles and motivation of users in onlinecommunities, features of online communities”.Teemu Arina, Dicole, 14 January, 2011, ”Features of an appealing onlinecommunity, collaborations features of an online community”.Helene Auramo, Zipipop, 2 February, 2011,“Validating findings of the study”Sami Oinonen, independent consultant, former employee of the Company, 8September, 2010, ”Roles in an online community”.Janne Saarikko, consultant, external employee at the Company, 14 December, 2010,”Roles and motivation of users in online communities, features of onlinecommunities”.Lost interviews:Ilkka Peltola (Betalabs / Backstage), 19 May, 2010, ”Roles and motivation of usersin online communities, features of online communities”.Harri Lakkala, (Independent consultant, former employee of the Company), 23September, 2010, ”Roles and motivation of users in online communities, features ofonline communities”.Tuija Aalto, (Yle), 17 September, 2010, ”Roles and motivation of users in onlinecommunities, features of online communities”. 141