Clonal Expansion in Cancer
Peter Nowell (1976) hypothesized the clonal evolution of tumors
where a tumor arises initially from 1 specific cell which then develops
a growth advantage over other cells.
Normal cells evolve into cells with increasingly
neoplastic phenotypes through a process called
Normal to Invasive
Excessive growth Loss of cellular structure Excessive growth Invades
& tissue arrangement in place
Normal Hyperplasia Mild Carcinoma in
dysplasia situ (severe
The process of tumor formation is complex and involves
The complexity of this process is reflected in the long
time periods required for most human cancers to develop
These changes involve both the activation of oncogenes
and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes
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