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Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
Energysources
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Energysources
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Energysources

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  • 1. ENERGY SOURCESENERGY SOURCES
  • 2. TYPES OF SOURCESTYPES OF SOURCES • RENEWABLE: CAN BE REGENERATEDRENEWABLE: CAN BE REGENERATED IN A SHORT AMOUNT OF TIME OR ISIN A SHORT AMOUNT OF TIME OR IS BASICALLY UNLIMITEDBASICALLY UNLIMITED • NON-RENEWABLE: CAN’T BENON-RENEWABLE: CAN’T BE REPLACED IN A SHORT AMOUNT OFREPLACED IN A SHORT AMOUNT OF TIME AND IS LIMITEDTIME AND IS LIMITED
  • 3. NON-RENEWABLENON-RENEWABLE • FOSSIL FUELSFOSSIL FUELS – NATURAL GASNATURAL GAS – COALCOAL – OILOIL • FISSIONFISSION
  • 4. RENEWABLERENEWABLE • HYDROHYDRO • SOLARSOLAR • WOODWOOD • TRASHTRASH • GEOTHERMALGEOTHERMAL • WINDWIND • FUSIONFUSION
  • 5. GEOTHERMALGEOTHERMAL
  • 6. • Natural steam from the production wells power the turbine •generator. The steam is condensed by evaporation in the cooling •tower and pumped down an injection well to sustain production. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 7. Like all steam turbine generators, the force of steam is used to spin the turbine blades which spin the generator, producing electricity. But with geothermal energy, no fuels are burned. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 8. Turbine blades inside a geothermal turbine generator. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 9. Turbine generator outdoors at an Imperial Valley geothermal power plant in California. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 10. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 11. DRY STEAM POWERDRY STEAM POWER PLANTPLANT In dry steam power plants, the steam (and no water) shoots up the wells and is passed through a rock catcher (not shown) and then directly into the turbine. Dry steam fields are rare. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 12. THE GEYSERSTHE GEYSERS CALIFORNIACALIFORNIA The first geothermal power plants in the U.S. were built in 1962 at The Geysers dry steam field, in northern California. It is still the largest producing geothermal field in the world. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 13. 20 plants are still operating at The Geysers. Wastewater from nearby cities is injected into the field, providing environmentally safe disposal and increased steam to power plants. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 14. FLASH STEAM POWERFLASH STEAM POWER PLANTPLANT • Flash steam power plants use hot waterFlash steam power plants use hot water reservoirs. In flash plants, as hot water isreservoirs. In flash plants, as hot water is released from the pressure of the deepreleased from the pressure of the deep reservoir in a flash tank, some of it flashesreservoir in a flash tank, some of it flashes to steam.to steam.
  • 15. Flash technology was invented in New Zealand. Flash steam plants are the most common, since most reservoirs are hot water reservoirs. This flash steam plant is in East Mesa, California. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 16. In a binary cycle power plant (binary means two), the heat from geothermal water is used to vaporize a "working fluid" in separate adjacent pipes. The vapor, like steam, powers the turbine generator. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 17. In the heat exchanger, heat is transferred from the geothermal water to a second liquid. The geothermal water is never exposed to the air and is injected back into the periphery of the reservoir. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 18. This power plant provides about 25% of the electricity used on the Big Island of Hawaii. It is a hybrid binary and flash plant. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 19. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 20. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 21. Geothermal power could serve 100% of the electrical needs of 39 countries (over 620,000,000 people) in Africa, Central/ South America and the Pacific. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  • 22. FUSION POWERFUSION POWER
  • 23. STAR POWERSTAR POWER www.td.anl.gov
  • 24. ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES • UNLIMITED SUPPLYUNLIMITED SUPPLY • NO GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONSNO GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS • NO RADIATIONNO RADIATION
  • 25. FUELSFUELS • DUETERIUM: COULD LAST MILLIONSDUETERIUM: COULD LAST MILLIONS OF YEARSOF YEARS TRITIUM IS BRED FROM LITHIUMTRITIUM IS BRED FROM LITHIUM LITHIUM: COULD LAST FOR ATLEASTLITHIUM: COULD LAST FOR ATLEAST 1000 YEARS1000 YEARS
  • 26. • COMBINING HEAVY HYDROGENCOMBINING HEAVY HYDROGEN ISOTOPES INTO HELIUM RELEASESISOTOPES INTO HELIUM RELEASES THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF POWERTHE GREATEST AMOUNT OF POWER en.wikipedia.org
  • 27. www.jet.efda.org
  • 28. • Dueterium + DueteriumDueterium + Dueterium  Tritium +ProtonTritium +Proton  Helium + neutronHelium + neutron
  • 29. FUSION REACTIONSFUSION REACTIONS • To get molecules to fuse, the repulsionTo get molecules to fuse, the repulsion forces must be overcome by:forces must be overcome by: – Gravity (as in stars)Gravity (as in stars) – Magnetic fields on plasmaMagnetic fields on plasma – Rapid pulse of energy to a fusion fuelRapid pulse of energy to a fusion fuel (hydrogen bomb or a pulse of a laser, ion or(hydrogen bomb or a pulse of a laser, ion or electron beam)electron beam)
  • 30. How can a plasma beHow can a plasma be confined ?confined ? www.jet.efda.org
  • 31. STAR FUSIONSTAR FUSION en.wikipedia.org
  • 32. PLASMAPLASMA • Plasmas occur at very high temperatures -Plasmas occur at very high temperatures - the electrons are stripped from the atomicthe electrons are stripped from the atomic www.jet.efda.org
  • 33. HYDROGEN BOMBHYDROGEN BOMB en.wikipedia.org
  • 34. Magnetic confinementMagnetic confinement • pinching the fieldpinching the field lines at the end ->lines at the end -> reflection (“mirror”)reflection (“mirror”) -> linear arrangement-> linear arrangement Particles move freely along field lines: how to stop the losses in that direction ? two solutions • however: a pure toroidal field does not workhowever: a pure toroidal field does not work • need a helical fieldneed a helical field • closing the field lines onclosing the field lines on themselvesthemselves -> toroidal confinement-> toroidal confinement www.jet.efda.org
  • 35. TOKAMAK (MAGNETIC FIELD)TOKAMAK (MAGNETIC FIELD) www.jet.efda.org
  • 36. TORUSTORUS THE VACUUM CHAMBER OF THE TOKAMAK www.jet.efda.org
  • 37. MAGNETIC FIELD IN TOKAMAKMAGNETIC FIELD IN TOKAMAK www.jet.efda.org
  • 38. TOKAMAKTOKAMAK www.jet.efda.org
  • 39. HEATING THE PLASMAHEATING THE PLASMA www.jet.efda.org
  • 40. 2.5%, 0.72.5%, 0.7 ββTT ,, ββPP 1010 QQ (P(Pfusfus /P/Pinin )) 80+80+PPαα (MW)(MW) 40-9040-90PPauxaux (MW)(MW) 0.5, 1.850.5, 1.85 δδ,,κκ 5.35.3BBtt (T)(T) 15(17)15(17)IIPP (MA)(MA) 850850VVPP (m(m33 )) 22a (m)a (m) 6.26.2R (m)R (m) ITERITER estimated cost :estimated cost : 4 000 Million4 000 Million EuroEuro ITER will be a nuclear machine: 1.5 x 1020 neutrons/s www.jet.efda.org
  • 41. What is a plasma : fourth state ofWhat is a plasma : fourth state of MatterMatter Increasing Temperature A plasma is electrically conducting and very reactive www.jet.efda.org

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