Advances artificial life ecal 2013
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,789
On Slideshare
2,785
From Embeds
4
Number of Embeds
3

Actions

Shares
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 4

http://www.scoop.it 2
http://psychickeobtezovani.webnode.cz 1
http://www.pinterest.com 1

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 2 edited by Pietro Liò, Orazio Miglino, Giuseppe Nicosia, Stefano Nolfi, Mario Pavone 2-6 September 2013, Taormina, Italy Proceedings of the twelfth European Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems Advances in Artificial Life ECAL 2013
  • 2. This is a human-readable summary of the Legal Code (the full license) which can be found at found at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/legalcode. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States You are free: to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work Under the following conditions: Attribution — You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). Noncommercial — You may not use this work for commercial purposes. No Derivative Works — You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work. With the understanding that: Waiver — Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. Public Domain — Where the work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license. Other Rights — In no way are any of the following rights affected by the license: Your fair dealing or fair use rights, or other applicable copyright exceptions and limitations; The author's moral rights; Rights other persons may have either in the work itself or in how the work is used, such as publicity or privacy rights. Notice — For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. The best way to do this is with a link to http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc- nd/3.0/us/.
  • 3. Table of Contents Preface xiv ECAL - General Track Simon Tudge, Richard Watson and Markus Brede. Cooperation and the Division of Labour 1 Yutetsu Kuruma, Hideaki Matsubayashi and Takuya Ueda. Autonomous construction of synthetic cell membrane 9 Jared Moore, Anne Gutmann, Craig McGowan and Philip McKinley. Exploring the Role of the Tail in Bipedal Hopping through Computational Evolution 11 Kiril Kiryazov and Robert Lowe. The role of arousal in embodying the cueXdeficit model in multi-resource human-robot interaction 19 Simon Alderton and Jason Noble. Simulating Sleeping Sickness: a two host agent-based model 27 Adam Erskine and J. Michael Herrmann. Cell Division Behaviour in a Heterogeneous Swarm Environment 35 Guillaume Beslon, B´er´enice Batut, David P. Parsons, Dominique Schneider and Carole Knibbe. An alife game to teach evolution of antibiotic resistance 43 Eduardo J. Izquierdo, Miguel Aguilera and Randall D. Beer. Analysis of Ultrastability in Small Dynamical Recurrent Neural Networks 51 Dov Pechenick, Jason Moore and Joshua Payne. The influence of assortativity on the robustness and evolvability of gene regulatory networks upon gene birth 59 Flavio L. Pinheiro, V´ıtor V. Vasconcelos, Francisco C. Santos and Jorge M. Pacheco. Self-organized game dynamics in complex networks 61 Stefano Nichele and Gunnart Tufte. Evolution of Incremental Complex Behavior on Cellular Machines 63 Simon Hickinbotham, Michael Weeks and James Austin. The ALife Zoo: cross-browser, platform-agnostic hosting of Artificial Life simulations 71 Micah Rosenkind, David Arnold and Graham Winstanley. A Temporal Pattern Predictor for Virtual Char- acters 79 i
  • 4. Table of Contents Lance Williams. Evolution of Tail-Call Optimization in a Population of Self-Hosting Compilers 86 Qinxin Pan, Ting Hu, Angeline Andrew, Margaret Karagas and Jason Moore. Bladder cancer specific pathway interaction networks 94 Roman Miletitch, Vito Trianni, Alexandre Campo and Marco Dorigo. Information Aggregation Mechanisms in Social Odometry 102 Jie Tan, Jason Moore and Ryan Urbanowicz. Rapid Rule Compaction Strategies for Global Knowledge Discovery in a Supervised Learning Classifier System 110 Christoph Salge, Cornelius Glackin and Daniel Polani. Empowerment and State-dependent Noise - An Intrinsic Motivation for Avoiding Unpredictable Agents 118 Randal Olson, Masoud Mirmomeni, Tim Brom, Eric Bruger, Arend Hintze, David Knoester and Christoph Adami. Evolved digital ecosystems: Dynamic steady state, not optimal fixed point 126 Omer Markovitch and Doron Lancet. Prebiotic Evolution of Molecular Assemblies: From Molecules to Ecology 134 Veljko Potkonjak, Vladimir M. Petrovic, Kosta Jovanovic and Dragan Kostic. Human-Robot Analogy - How Physiology Shapes Human and Robot Motion 136 Alessandro Fontana and Borys Wrobel. An artificial lizard regrows its tail (and more): regeneration of 3-dimensional structures with hundreds of thousands of artificial cells 144 Lenka Pitonakova and Seth Bullock. Controlling Ant-Based Construction 151 Markus Brede and Jason Noble. The coevolution of costly heterogeneities and cooperation in the prisoner’s dilemma game 159 Miguel Gonzalez, Richard Watson, Jason Noble and Patrick Doncaster. Multiple Life-History Stage Com- petition and its Effect on Coexistence 167 Taichi Haruna. Robustness and Directed Structures in Ecological Flow Networks 175 V´ıtor V. Vasconcelos, Flavio L. Pinheiro, Francisco C. Santos and Jorge M. Pacheco. Bootstrapping back the climate with self-organization 182 Benjamin Inden and J¨urgen Jost. Neural agents can evolve to reproduce sequences of arbitrary length 184 Pierre Buesser and Marco Tomassini. Spatial Organisation of Cooperation with Contingent Agent Migration 192 Dusan Misevic, Antoine Frenoy and Fran¸cois Taddei. In silico evolution of transferable genetic elements 200 Daiki Komatsu, Kei Fujiwara and Shin-Ichiro M. Nomura. Construction of a remote-controlled supramolec- ular micro-crawler 208 ECAL 2013 ii
  • 5. Table of Contents Declan Baugh and Barry McMullin. Evolution of G-P mapping in a von Neumann Self-reproducer within Tierra 210 Paul Szerlip and Kenneth Stanley. Indirectly Encoded Sodarace for Artificial Life 218 Alberto Antonioni, Mattia Egloff and Marco Tomassini. An Energy-Based Model for Spatial Social Net- works 226 Arash Khabbaz Saberi, Jan Friso Groote and Sarmen Keshishzadeh. Analysis of Path Planning Algorithms: a Formal Verification-based Approach 232 Nathaniel Virgo and Takashi Ikegami. Autocatalysis Before Enzymes: The Emergence of Prebiotic Chain Reactions 240 Matthew Egbert, Gerd Gruenert, Gabi Escuela and Peter Dittrich. Synthetic signalling protocell networks as models of neural computation 248 Tadao Maekawa, Manabu Honda, Norie Kawai, Emi Nishina, Osamu Ueno and Tsutomu Oohashi. Het- erogeneity and complexity of a simulated terrestrial environment account for the superiority of the altruistic gene 250 Maja Murnik, ˇSpela Petric and Miha Turˇsic. Beyond Life Cycles 258 Jean-Marc Montanier and Nicolas Bredeche. Evolution of Altruism and Spatial Dispersion: an Artificial Evolutionary Ecology Approach 260 Paul Williams and Randall Beer. Environmental Feedback Drives Multiple Behaviors from the Same Neural Circuit 268 Zoe Bukovac, Alan Dorin and Adrian Dyer. A-Bees See: A Simulation to Assess Social Bee Visual Attention During Complex Search Tasks 276 Atanas Radenski. Using MapReduce Streaming for Distributed Life Simulation on the Cloud 284 Kai Olav Ellefsen. Balancing the Costs and Benefits of Learning Ability 292 Markus Brede and Simon Tudge. Replication strategies and the evolution of cooperation by exploitation 300 James Snowdon and Ben Waterson. When congestion can be useful: modelling driver diversion behaviour in road traffic networks 308 Tomonori Hasegawa and Barry McMullin. Exploring the Point-mutation Space of a von Neumann Self- reproducer within the Avida World 316 Hiroki Mori, Yuzi Okuyama and Minoru Asada. Emergence of diverse behaviors from interactions between nonlinear oscillator complex networks and a musculoskeletal system 324 iii ECAL 2013
  • 6. Table of Contents Dharani Punithan and Bob Mckay. Collective Dynamics and Homeostatic Emergence in Complex Adaptive Ecosystem 332 Christian Darabos, Craig O. Mackenzien, Marco Tomassini, Mario Giacobini and Jason H. Moore. Cellular Automata Coevolution of Update Functions and Topologies: A Tradeoff between Accuracy and Speed 340 Christian Darabos, Britney E. Graham, Ting Hu and Jason H. Moore. Bipartite Networks Show the Genotype-to-Phenotype Relationship in Biological Systems Models: A Study of the Robustness, Evolv- ability, and Accessibility in Linear Cellular Automata 348 Adam Jackson and Richard Watson. The Effects of Assortment on Population Structuring Traits on the Evolution of Cooperation 356 Dov Pechenick, Joshua Payne and Jason Moore. An alternative route to robustness: The relationship between assortativity, in-components, and characteristic path length in gene regulatory networks 364 Marco Villani, Alessandro Filisetti, Stefano Benedettini, Andrea Roli, David Avra Lane and Roberto Serra. The detection of intermediate-level emergent structures and patterns 372 Elio Tuci, Boris Mitavskiy and Gianpiero Francesca. On the evolution of self-organised role-allocation and role-switching behaviour in swarm robotics: a case study 379 James Dyke and Iain Weaver. Tipping points in Complex Coupled Life-Environment Systems 387 Miguel Aguilera, Ignacio Morer, Xabier E. Barandiaran and Manuel G. Bedia. Quantifying Political Self- Organization in Social Media. Fractal patterns in the Spanish 15M movement on Twitter 395 Orly Stettiner. Biology of Digital Organisms: How Language and tools Constructs Reality 403 Kai Olav Ellefsen. Evolved Sensitive Periods in Learning 409 Jean Sirmai. Autopoiesis Facilitates Self-Reproduction 417 Solvi F. Arnold, Reiji Suzuki and Takaya Arita. Evolution of Social Representation in Neural Networks 425 Radek Hrbacek and Michaela Sikulova. Coevolutionary Cartesian Genetic Programming in FPGA 431 Takashi Ito, Marcin Pilat, Reiji Suzuki and Takaya Arita. Coevolutionary Dynamics Caused by Asymmetries in Predator-Prey and Morphology-Behavior Relationships 439 John Maher. The Influence of Cell Type on Artificial Development 446 Michal Joachimczak, Taras Kowaliw, Rene Doursat and Borys Wrobel. Controlling development and chemo- taxis of soft-bodied multicellular animats with the same gene regulatory network 454 Bijan Ranjbar-Sahraei, Katerina Stankova, Karl Tuyls and Gerhard Weiss. Stackelberg-based Coverage Approach in Nonconvex Environments 462 ECAL 2013 iv
  • 7. Table of Contents Takahiro Sasaki. Simulating Limited Diversity in Evolution of Influenza 470 Timothy Moran, Markus Brede, Antonella Ianni and Jason Noble. The Origin of Money: An Agent-Based Model 472 Philippe Collard. Beyond the schelling’s segregation: is it equivalent to be repulsed by dissimilar rather to be attracted by similar? 480 Shin-Ichiro M. Nomura, Yusuke Sato and Kei Fujiwara. Molecular robotics approach for constructing an artificial cell model 488 Hisashi Murakami and Yukio Gunji. L´evy-like Distribution Shown by Intermittent Search Model with Mis- understanding Switch Pattern 492 Mizuki Oka, Takashi Ikegami, Alex Woodward, Yiqing Zhu and Kazuhiko Kato. Cooperation, Congestion and Chaos in Concurrent Computation 498 John Lones and Lola Ca˜namero. Epigentic adaptation in action selection environments with temporal dynamics 505 James Thorniley and Phil Husbands. Hidden information transfer in an autonomous swinging robot 513 Amber Ferger, Wai Fai Lau, Philipp Ross, Wyman Zhao, Hiroki Sayama and Steen Rasmussen. Impact of Personal Fabrication Technology on Social Structure and Wealth Distribution: An Agent-Based Simulation Study 521 Carlos Fernandes, Juan Laredo, Juan Julian Merelo, Carlos Cotta and Agostinho Rosa. Adapting the Bak-Sneppen Model to a Dynamic and Partially Connected Grid of Hierarchical Species 523 Joachim Erdei, Michal Joachimczak and Borys Wrobel. Evolving gene regulatory networks controlling foraging strategies of prey and predators in an artificial ecosystem 531 Gianluca Massera, Tomassino Ferrauto, Onofrio Gigliotta and Stefano Nolfi. FARSA : An Open Software Tool for Embodied Cognitive Science 538 Minami Takato, Shinpei Yamasaki, Shiho Takahama, Junichi Tanida, Ken Saito and Fumio Uchikoba. Insect Type MEMS Micro Robot Controlled by CMOS IC of Hardware Neural Networks 546 Tiago Baptista and Ernesto Costa. Open-Ended Evolution of a Circadian Rhythm 554 Ezequiel Di Mario, I˜naki Navarro and Alcherio Martinoli. The Effect of the Environment in the Synthesis of Robotic Controllers: A Case Study in Multi-Robot Obstacle Avoidance using Distributed Particle Swarm Optimization 561 Martin Stehl´ık, Adam Saleh, Andriy Stetsko and Vashek Matyas. Multi-Objective Optimization of Intrusion Detection Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks 569 v ECAL 2013
  • 8. Table of Contents Yuri Lenon Barbosa Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Fisch de Brito, Creto Augusto Vidal and Joaquim Bento Cavalcante Neto. Evolving Plastic Neuromodulated Networks for Behavior Emergence of Autonomous Virtual Characters 577 Andrea Guarneri, Dario Maggiorini, Laura Anna Ripamonti and Marco Trubian. GOLEM: Generator Of Life Embedded into MMOs 585 Darius Falahat, Enrico Gerding and Markus Brede. Evolving Behaviour-Dependent Strategies in Agent Negotiations 593 Ralf Der and Georg Martius. Behavior as broken symmetry in embodied self-organizing robots 601 Payam Zahadat, Karl Crailsheim and Thomas Schmickl. Social Inhibition Manages Division of Labour in Artificial Swarm Systems 609 Tsubasa Azumagakito, Reiji Suzuki and Takaya Arita. Cyclic Behavior in Gene-Culture Coevolution Me- diated by Phenotypic Plasticity in Language 617 Vasthi Alonso Chavez, James G. Dyke and C. Patrick Doncaster. Detecting regime shifts in artificial ecosystems 625 Sue Attwood, Lola Ca˜namero and Rene Te Boekhorst. SimianWorld - A Study of Social Organisation Using an Artificial Life Model 633 Sim´on C. Smith and J. Michael Herrmann. Self-Organisation of Generic Policies in Reinforcement Learn- ing 641 Ant´onio Homem Ferreira and Carlos Martinho. ASAP: an Ant resource Search Algorithm for swarm-like P2P networks 649 Anna Shcherbacheva and Tuomo Kauranne. Swarm dynamics with limited perception - how do mosquitoes recognize a friend? 657 Zbigniew Pliszka and Olgierd Unold. Some Remarks on Dynamics of Binary Chromosomes Population 663 Manuel Heras-Escribano, Jason Noble and Manuel De Pinedo. The only wrong cell is the dead one: On the enactive approach to normativity 665 Evert Haasdijk and Nicolas Bredeche. Controlling Task Distribution in MONEE 671 Francesco Pugliese and Davide Marocco. The relationship between Flocking Behavior and the Emergence of Leadership 679 Brian Hrolenok and Tucker Balch. Learning Schooling Behavior from Observation 686 Hirotaka Osawa and Michita Imai. Evolution of Mutual Trust Protocol in Human-based Multi-Agent Sim- ulation 692 ECAL 2013 vi
  • 9. Table of Contents Julien Hubert, Eiko Matsuda and Takashi Ikegami. Hebbian Learning In A Multimodal Environment 698 Dario Maggiorini, Laura Anna Ripamonti and Samuele Panzeri. Follow the Leader: a Scalable Approach for Realistic Group Behavior of Roaming NPCs in MMO Games 706 Tomohiro Harada and Keiki Takadama. Analyzing Program Evolution in Genetic Programming using Asyn- chronous Evaluation 713 Payam Zahadat, Thomas Schmickl and Karl Crailsheim. Evolution of Spatial Pattern Formation by Au- tonomous Bio-Inspired Cellular Controllers 721 Takayuki Niizato. Multiplicity of Interpretation in an Asynchronous Updating Rule: Emergence of Collective Cognition 729 Yara Khaluf and Franz Rammig. Task Allocation Strategy for Time-Constrained Tasks in Robots Swarms 737 Margareta Segerst˚ahl. Formal Model of Living Systems 745 Yuri Lenon Barbosa Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Fisch de Brito, Creto Augusto Vidal and Joaquim Bento Cavalcante Neto. Emergence of Autonomous Behaviors of Virtual Characters through Simulated Re- production 750 Takeo Kato, Koichiro Sato and Yoshiyuki Matsuoka. Robust Optimization of Adjustable Control Factors Using Particle Swarm Optimization 758 Paolo Arena, Luca Patan`e and Roland Strauss. The insect Mushroom Bodies: a paradigm of neural reuse 765 Alessandro Di Nuovo, Davide Marocco, Santo Di Nuovo and Angelo Cangelosi. Ballistic Action Planning in Robotics by means of Artificial Imagery 773 Sjriek Alers, Bijan Ranjbar-Sahraei, Stefan May, Karl Tuyls and Gerhard Weiss. Evaluation of an Experi- mental Framework for Exploiting Vision in Swarm Robotics 775 Lorenzo Garattoni, Andrea Roli, Matteo Amaducci, Carlo Pinciroli and Mauro Birattari. Boolean network robotics as an intermediate step in the synthesis of finite state machines for robot control 783 Adrien Padirac, Alexandre Baccouche, Teruo Fujii, Andre Estevez-Torres and Yannick Rondelez. Predator prey molecular landscapes 791 Alessandro Filisetti, Alex Graudenzi, Chiara Damiani, Marco Villani and Roberto Serra. The role of backward reactions in a stochastic model of catalytic reaction networks 793 Vincent Ducharme, Richard Egli and Sylvie Jett´e. A cardiopulmonary system for a virtual patient 802 Yukio Gunji, Tomoko Sakiyama, Sohei Wakisaka, Naotaka Fujii and Tomoaki Nakamura. Artificial Causal Space-Time 810 vii ECAL 2013
  • 10. Table of Contents Jitka Cejkova, Damian Gorny, Petra Haufov´a and Frantiˇsek ˇStep´anek. “Artificial spores” - hybrid alginate microcapsules with encapsulated yeast cells 818 Hideaki Matsubayashi, Yutetsu Kuruma and Takuya Ueda. In vitro Synthesis of Membrane Protein Ma- chinery toward the Construction of Artificial Cell 824 Jerzy Maselko, James Pantaleone and Vitaliy Kaminker. Experimental studied on growing chemical organ- isms 825 Adaptive Hardware & Systems and Bioelectronics Julio G. Arriaga, George Kossan, Martin L. Cody, Edgar E. Vallejo and Charles E. Taylor. Acoustic sensor arrays for understanding bird communication. Identifying Cassin’s Vireos using SVMs and HMMs 827 Adaptive Living Material Technologies & Biomimetic Microsystems Henderson Cleaves and Neil Anthony. Prebiotic Organic Microstructures as Model Protocells 829 Artificial Immune, Neural and Endocrine Systems Ronald Thenius, Payam Zahadat and Thomas Schmickl. EMANN - a model of emotions in an artificial neural network 830 Stein Keijzers, Peter Maandag, Elena Marchiori and Ida Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper.Image Similarity Search using a Negative Selection Algorithm 838 Artificial Immune Systems - ICARIS Huikeng Lau, Iain Bate and Jon Timmis. Immune-Inspired Error Detection for Multiple Faulty Robots in Swarm Robotics 846 Grazziela Figueredo, Peer-Olaf Siebers, Douglas Augusto, Helio Barbosa and Uwe Aickelin. The use of Agent-based Simulation to Discover Extreme Cases in Immune-Interactions with Early-Stage Cancer Scenarios 854 Kevin Sim, Emma Hart and Ben Paechter. Learning to Solve Bin Packing Problems with an Immune Inspired Hyper-heuristic 856 Nicola Capodieci, Emma Hart and Giacomo Cabri. An immune network approach for self-adaptive ensem- bles of autonomic components: a case study in swarm robotics 864 Wilburn W. P. Tsang and Henry Y. K. Lau. An Artificial Immune System-based Many-Objective Optimiza- tion Algorithm with Network Activation Scheme 872 Mark Read, Magnus Tripp, Hannah Leonova, Louis Rose and Jon Timmis. Automated calibration of agent- based immunological simulations 874 ECAL 2013 viii
  • 11. Table of Contents Shangce Gao, Tao Gong, Weiya Zhong, Fang Wang and Beibei Chen. Enhancing the learning capacity of immunological algorithms: a comprehensive study of learning operators 876 Dongdong Zhao and Wenjian Luo. Real-Valued Negative Databases 884 Emma Hart, Mark Read, Chris McEwan, Uwe Aickelin and Julie Greensmith. On the Role of the AIS Practitioner 891 Paul Taylor, Fiona Polack and Jon Timmis. Accelerating Immunos 99 893 Henry Lau and Nicole Lee. Modelling the migration and maturation of dendritic cells for automatic opti- mization of complex engineering problems 899 Lingli Yu, Binglu Wu and Tao Gong. A hierarchical support vector machine based on feature-driven method for speech emotion recognition 901 Bioinspired Learning and Optimization Ana L. C. Bazzan. Comparing Reinforcement Learning and Evolutionary Based Adaptation in Population Games 909 Paulo Urbano and Loukas Georgiou. Improving Grammatical Evolution in Santa Fe Trail using Novelty Search 917 Matthew Crossley, Andy Nisbet and Martyn Amos. Quantifying the Impact of Parameter Tuning on Nature-Inspired Algorithms 925 Arnaud Zinflou, Caroline Gagne and Marc Gravel. A hybrid genetic/immune strategy to tackle the multi- objective quadratic assignment problem 933 Ariadne Costa, Patr´ıcia Vargas and Renato Tin´os. Using explicit averaging fitness for studying the behaviour of rats in a maze 940 Bioinspired Robotics Heiko Hamann. Speciation Dynamics: Generating Selective Pressure Towards Diversity 947 Shuhei Miyashita and Daniela Rus. Multi-crease Self-folding by Uniform Heating 955 Claire E. Gerrard, John Mccall, George Coghill and Christopher Macleod. Artificial Reaction Network A- gents 957 Mark Khazanov, Ben Humphreys, William Keat and John Rieffel. Exploiting Dynamical Complexity in a Physical Tensegrity Robot to Achieve Locomotion 965 Adam Stanton and Alastair Channon. Heterogeneous complexification strategies robustly outperform homo- geneous strategies for incremental evolution 973 ix ECAL 2013
  • 12. Table of Contents Gregory Vorobyev, Andrew Vardy and Wolfgang Banzhaf. Conformity and Nonconformity in Collective Robotics: A Case Study 981 Xiaofeng Xiong, Florentin Woergoetter and Poramate Manoonpong. A Neuromechanical Controller of a Hexapod Robot for Walking on Sponge, Gravel and Snow Surfaces 989 Fabien Hervouet and Eric Bourreau. FIMO: Framework for Intrinsic Motivation 997 Filippo Vella, Ignazio Infantino, Giovanni Pilato and Riccardo Rizzo. A pratical approach to Humanoid Introspection 1005 Andrew Philippides, Bart Baddeley, Phil Husbands and Paul Graham. A Situated and Embodied Model of Ant Route Navigation 1007 G. Matthew Fricke, Francois Asperti-Boursin, Joshua Hecker, Judy Cannon and Melanie Moses. From Microbiology to Microcontrollers: Robot Search Patterns Inspired by T Cell Movement 1009 Sebastian Clarke, Frederic Labrosse, Vito Trianni and Elio Tuci. An evolutionary approach to road following: a simulated case study 1017 Joshua Hecker, Karl Stolleis, Bjorn Swenson, Kenneth Letendre and Melanie Moses. Evolving Error Toler- ance in Biologically-Inspired iAnt Robots 1025 Christopher Schwarzer and Nico Michiels. Conditions for Outperformance of Recombination in Online Evolution of Swarm Robots 1033 Daniela Kengyel, Ronald Thenius, Karl Crailsheim and Thomas Schmickl. Influence of a Social Gradient on a Swarm of Agents Controlled by the BEECLUST Algorithm 1041 Vincenzo Fioriti, Stefano Chiesa and Fabio Fratichini. Expanding the Time Horizon in Underwater Robot Swarms 1049 A.E. Eiben, Nicolas Bredeche, Mark Hoogendoorn, Juergen Stradner, Jon Timmis, Andy Tyrrell and Alan Winfield. The Triangle of Life 1056 Biologically Inspired Engineering Martin Ullrich, Petra Haufov´a, Mandeep Singh and Frantiˇsek ˇStep´anek. Radiofrequency triggered enzymatic reaction inside hydrogel microparticles 1064 Evolvable Hardware, Evolutionary Electronics & BioChips Leroy Cronin. Linking Evolution in Silico, Hardware, and Chemistry to discover or engineer Inorganic Biology 1066 Samuel Chapman, David Knoester, Arend Hintze and Christoph Adami. Evolution of an artificial visual cortex for image recognition 1067 ECAL 2013 x
  • 13. Table of Contents Eiko Matsuda, Takeshi Mita, Julien Hubert, Mizuki Oka, Douglas Bakkum, Urs Frey, Hirokazu Takahashi and Takashi Ikegami. Multiple Time Scales Observed in Spontaneously Evolved Neurons on High- density CMOS Electrode Array 1075 Foundations of Complex Systems and Biological Complexity Steen Rasmussen, Harold Fellermann and Shinpei Tanaka. Sequence selection and evolution in a binary polymer model 1083 Gonzalo Ruz, Marco Montalva and Eric Goles. On the preservation of limit cycles in Boolean networks under different updating schemes 1085 Jack Hessel and Sherri Goings. Using Reproductive Altruism to Evolve Multicellularity in Digital Organ- isms 1091 Martin Biehl and Daniel Polani. One way to see two in one 1099 Mathematical Models for the Living Systems and Life Sciences Paul Calcraft, Phil Husbands and Andrew Philippides. An Environmental Model of Self-Compatibility Transitions in the Solanaceae Plant Family 1107 Jure Demˇsar and Iztok Lebar Bajec. Family Bird: A Heterogeneous Simulated Flock 1114 Pedro Mariano and Luis Correia. Population Dynamics of Centipede Game using an Energy Based Evolu- tionary Algorithm 1116 Tobias Meister, Ronald Thenius, Daniela Kengyel and Thomas Schmickl. Cooperation of two different swarms controlled by BEECLUST algorithm 1124 Music and the Origins and Evolution of Language Jonathan Impett and Leonardo Impett. The perception of potential: interference, dimensionality and knowledge 1126 Programmable Nanomaterials Leroy Cronin. Programming the Assembly of Inorganic Nanomaterials Using Networked Chemical Reac- tions 1132 Darko Stefanovic, Milan Stojanovic, Mark Olah and Oleg Semenov. Catalytic Molecular Walkers: Aspects of Product Release 1134 xi ECAL 2013
  • 14. Table of Contents Synthetic and Systems Biochemistry and Biological Control Leroy Cronin. Synthetic biology manipulations in 3D printed wet-ware 1142 Nathanael Aubert, Quang Huy Dinh, Masami Hagiya, Hitoshi Iba, Teruo Fujii, Nicolas Bredeche and Yannick Rondelez. Evolution of Cheating DNA-based Agents Playing the Game of Rock-Paper-Scis- sors 1143 Christoph Flamm, Chris Hemmingsen and Daniel Merkle.Barrier Trees for Metabolic Adjustment Land- scapes 1151 Yoshihiro Shimizu and Yo Tanaka. Reconstitution of the protein synthesis system on a glass microchip 1159 Pasquale Stano, Erica D’Aguanno, Paolo Carrara, Alfred Fahr and Pier Luigi Luisi. Recent advancements in synthetic cells research 1160 Ben Shirt-Ediss, Ricard Sol´e and Kepa Ruiz-Mirazo. Steady state analysis of a vesicle bioreactor with mechanosensitive channels 1162 Late Breaking Papers Inman Harvey. How Fast Can We Evolve Something? 1170 ¨Onder G¨urcan. An Emergent Model for Mimicking Human Neuronal Pathways in Silico 1172 Huy Tran and Andre S. Ribeiro. Effects of inducer intake kinetics on the dynamics of gene expression 1174 Cai Li, Robert Lowe and Tom Ziemke. Crawling Posture Learning in Humanoid Robots using a Natural- Actor-Critic CPG Architecture 1182 Ignazio Infantino and Riccardo Rizzo. An Artificial Behavioral Immune System for cognitive robotics 1191 Michael Spranger. Evolutionary Explanations for Spatial Language - A Case Study on Landmarks 1199 Alaa Abi Haidar, Adrien Six, Jean-Gabriel Ganascia and Veronique Thomas-Vaslin. The Artificial Immune Systems Domain: Identifying Progress and Main Contributors Using Publication and Co-Authorship Analyses 1206 Geoff Nitschke and Olaf Witkowski. The Transmission of Migratory Behaviors 1218 Genki Ichinose, Masaya Saito, Hiroki Sayama and David Sloan Wilson. Adaptive long-range migration promotes cooperation under tempting conditions 1220 ECAL 2013 xii
  • 15. Table of Contents Hector Zenil, Gordon Ball and Jesper Tegner. Testing Biological Models for Non-linear Sensitivity with a Programmability Test 1222 Chris Gordon-Smith. SimSoup: Molecules Designed for Switchable Autocatalytic Memory 1224 Roland Cazalis. The emergence of life and evolution: Towards a categorial approach 1232 Yao Yao, Kathleen Marchal and Yves Van de Peer. Using novel bio-inspired principles to improve adapt- ability of evolutionary robots in dynamically changing environments 1234 Peter Scully, Jingping Song, Jules Pagna Disso and Mark Neal. CARDINAL-E: AIS Extensions to CAR- DINAL for Decentralised Self-Organisation for Network Security 1235 Author List 1237 xiii ECAL 2013
  • 16. ECAL 2013 Preface ECAL 2013 continues with its mission to play a unique role as an information and knowledge sharing forum in synthetic life, where the wide range of its offerings allows ECAL attendants to learn and network. After a pioneering phase lasted more than twenty years, ECAL will show the current state of the art of a mature and autonomous discipline, Artificial Life, that is collocated at the intersection between a theoretical perspective, namely the scientific explanations of different levels of life organizations (e.g., molecules, compartments, cells, tissues, organs, organisms, societies, collective and social phenomena), and advanced technological applications (bio-inspired algorithms and techniques to building-up concrete solutions such as in robotics, data analysis, search engines, gaming). ECAL 2013, the twelfth European Conference on Artificial Life, is held in Taormina, on the beautiful island of Sicily, Italy, in September 2-6, 2013. While hosting the event, the city of Taormina will give the participants the opportunity to enjoy the richness of its historical and cultural atmosphere, its traditions, and the beauty of its natural resources, the sea, and Mount Etna the largest and active volcano of Europe (a UNESCO World Heritage site). The 12th ECAL is truly “grand celebration” with hundreds of paper and poster presentations, five focused tutorials and an impressive constellation of ten satellite workshops. The scientific program has been designed to optimize the interactions on all levels. This year’s program includes papers from one of the largest pool of submissions (267 submissions). Moreover, at ECAL 2013 we added new and exciting tracks: Adaptive Hardware & Systems and Bioelectronics, Adap- tive Living Material Technologies & Biomimetic Microsystems, Artificial Immune, Neural and Endocrine Systems, Artificial Immune Systems - ICARIS, Bioinspired Learning and Optimization, Bioinspired Robotics, Biologically Inspired Engineering, Evolvable Hardware, Evolutionary Electronics & BioChips, Foundations of Complex Systems and Biological Complexity, Mathematical Models for the Living Systems and Life Sciences, Music and the Origins and Evolution of Language, Programmable Nanomaterials, and Synthetic and Systems Biochemistry and Biological Control. So, in the ECAL 2013 program you will find research works written by leading scientists in the field, from fifty different countries and five continents, describing an impressive array of results, ideas, technologies and applications. The keynotes have always been one of the most important parts of ECAL. The nine keynote speakers of ECAL 2013 will focus on a wide spectrum of topics of our scientific and technological ecosystem. In particular, the nine keynote speakers are the following: • Roberto Cingolani, Italian Institute of Technology - IIT, Italy • Roberto Cipolla, University of Cambridge, UK • Dario Floreano, Ecole Polytechnique F´ed´erale de Lausanne - EPFL, Switzerland • Martin Hanczyc, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark • Henrik Hautop Lund, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark • Keymeulen, California Institute of Technology - CALTECH, USA • Steve Oliver, University of Cambridge, UK • Bernhard Palsson, University of California San Diego - UCSD, USA • Rolf Pfeifer, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - ETH, Switzerland These speakers make a blend of all the Artificial Life topics, in particular their choice represents one of the first cross talk between synthetic (or systems biology) and robotics through the concept of artificial life. We expect both the round table with the speakers and the frequent non-formal interactions with the researchers attending the conference and the workshops will represent remarkable events! This edition has highlighted a more profound integration of concepts and ideas from life sciences, artificial intelligence, mathematics, engineering and computer science than in the past. Furthermore, the integration between dry and wet lab biological results shows more progress. Although synthetic biology appears on a small number of Preface ECAL 2013 xiv
  • 17. papers, it is already showing itself as a powerful engine for boosting new ideas into the ECAL breath of topics and new type of researchers, perhaps interested in designing life at different levels of complexity, will follow ECAL or will consider ECAL as top conference. As organisers of such important event we felt the duty to ask ourselves three questions: Will this event attract young inquisitive minds? Will this event be full of opportunity and career boosts for established researchers in the artificial life fields? Will an ECAL author, or a student attending it, change the world? We have shaped the conference to answer all these questions. We believe this conference is the place for rapid exchange of very innovative ideas in artificial life and therefore has a very important role in the current geography of places where innovation could take place. A young researcher will be exposed to the largest diversity of ideas in artificial life. The expectations are reflected by the larger number of registrations, papers, and satellite workshops with respect to the previous editions. Finally, we would like to recognize the enormous efforts of the ECAL organizing committee who made ECAL possible by donating their time, expertise, and enthusiasm. Without their hard work and dedication, ECAL would not be possible. We also could not have organized ECAL 2013 without the excellent work of all of the program committee members, our workshop chair, tutorial chair, publicity chair, financial manager, conference secretary and local organizers. We would like to express our appreciation to the plenary speakers, to the tutorial speakers, to the workshop organizers, and to all the authors who submitted research papers to ECAL 2013. ECAL is the premier event for science and technology in synthetic life, where scientists from all over the world meet to exchange ideas and sharpen their skills. Taormina, September 2013 Pietro Li`o, Orazio Miglino, Giuseppe Nicosia, Stefano Nolfi, and Mario Pavone Preface xv ECAL 2013
  • 18. Keynote Speakers Nanotechnologies for Humans and Humanoids • Roberto Cingolani is the Scientific Director of IIT since December 8th, 2005. He earned a Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Bari in 1988. From 1989 to 1991, he was a staff member at Max Planck Institute for Festk¨orperforschung in Stuttgart (Germany). Since 2001, he has been member of various panels of the European Commission within the Sixth and Seventh Frame Programs in the field of Nanotechnology, New materials and New production systems. From 2002, he has been member of different panels of the Ministry of Research and University (Technical Secretariat for the National Research Plan, Commission for the selection the Centres of Excellence). From 2000 to 2003, he was executive Vice-president of the National Institute for the Physics of the Matter (INFM). Founder and Director of the National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL) of INFM at University of Lecce in 2001, R. Cingolani is author or co-author of about 700 papers in international journals and holds about 30 patents in the fields of structural, optical and electronic properties of quantum nanostructures of semiconductors, molecular nanotechnologies for plastic photonics, OLED e plastic electronic devices (since 2000), bio-nanotechnologies, biomimetic systems, biological electronic devices (since 2003) and smart nanocomposite materials. Abstract Nanotechnology is developing along a pathway which is parallel to that of evolution. Nanocomposite biomimetic materials, new sensing devices, interconnection of living cells (organs) and circuits are boosting the development of complex integrated systems such as humanoids and animaloids, whose performances, either biomechanic or cognitive, are continuously improving. A number of new technologies is thus first developed for these advanced machines, and then transferred to humans. Following the concept of the evolutionary pathway of technology we will briefly describe a few representative examples developed at IIT over the last few years: - Artificial molecules and artificial antibodies, and their application to drug delivery and diagnostics - Plantoids and robots with sensing roots - Animaloid (quadrupeds) with advanced equilibrium and motion characteristics and their application to disaster recovery - Humanoids with unprecedented cognitive and biomechanic capabilities, and their application as human companions, and for rehabilitation and prosthetic tools - New biocompatible materials for soft machines Computer Vision: Making Machines that See • Roberto Cipolla is a Professor of Information Engineering at the University of Cambridge and the Director of Toshiba’s (Toshiba Research Europe) Cambridge Research Laboratory. He obtained a B.A. (Engineering) from the University of Cambridge in 1984 and an M.S.E. (Electrical Engineering) from the University of Pennsylvania in 1985. From 1985 to 1988 he studied and worked in Japan at the Osaka University of Foreign Studies (Japanese Language) and Electrotechnical Laboratory. In 1991 he was awarded a D.Phil. (Computer Vision) from the University of Oxford and from 1991-92 was a Toshiba Fellow and engineer at the Toshiba Corporation Research and Development Centre in Kawasaki, Japan. He joined the Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge in 1992 as a Lecturer and a Fellow of Jesus College. He became a Reader in Information Engineering in 1997 and a Professor in 2000. His research interests are in computer vision and robotics and include the recovery of motion and 3D shape of visible surfaces from image sequences; object detection and recognition; novel man-machine interfaces using hand, face and body gestures; real-time visual tracking for localisation and robot guidance; applications of computer vision in mobile phones, visual inspection and image-retrieval and video search. He has authored 3 books, edited 8 volumes and co-authored more than 300 papers. Abstract Computer vision is the science and technology of making machines that see. The talk will begin with an overview of the state-of-the-art in the 3R’s of computer vision: registration, reconstruction and Preface ECAL 2013 xvi
  • 19. recognition and will include demonstrations of research projects from the University of Cambridge. and Toshiba Research Europe’ s Cambridge Laboratory. The second part of the talk will introduce a novel digital interface - a talking head created by Toshiba Research Europe and the University of Cambridge. We have developed a system that can generate a realistic expressive talking head animation. The user enters input text and selects an expression such as ’happy’ and ’angry’ and the software makes a previously recorded face model talk at an unprecedented level of realism. The face and speech model was learned from a large training dataset where sentences are spoken with a number of different emotions. In addition to a neutral style, the corpus includes angry, happy, sad, tender and fearful expressions. The realism of the animation is achieved by novel training and face modelling algorithms. A key technology behind training the expressive “talking head” model is Cluster Adaptive Training (CAT), which allows flexible control over the expressiveness of both the voice and the face model. The new technology allows next generation interfaces. By combining speech and face video synthesis, so-called visual speech synthesis, interaction with computers will become more similar to interacting with another person. A demonstration will be included at the end of the talk. Bio-mimetic Flying Robots • Dario Floreano is full professor, Director of the Laboratory of Intelligent Systems at Ecole Polytechnique F´ed´erale de Lausanne Switzerland (EPFL) and Director of the Swiss National Center of Robotics, a national strategic initiative bringing together all major robotics labs in Switzerland. His research focuses on the con- vergence of biology, artificial intelligence, and robotics. He has published more than 300 peer-reviewed papers, which have been cited more than 9K times, and four books on the topics of evolutionary robotics, bio-inspired artificial intelligence, and bio-mimetic flying robots with MIT Press and Springer Verlag. He is member of the World Economic Forum Council on robotics and smart devices, co-founder of the International Society of Artificial Life, Inc. (USA), co-founder of the aerial robot company senseFly Ltd (now member of the Parrot Group), advisor to the European Commission for Future Emerging Technologies, member of the editorial board of 10 professional journals, and board member of numerous professional societies in robotics and artificial intel- ligence. He is also active in the public understanding of robotics and artificial intelligence, delivered almost 150 invited talks worldwide, and started the popular robotics podcast Talking Robots (now The RobotsPodcast). Abstract I will present an overview of my lab’s efforts to develop autonomous robots capable of flying in cluttered environments and in safe interaction with humans. I will start by presenting miniature and small-size robots capable of performing collision-free flight and altitude control indoor and outdoor by means of insect-inspired vision and control. I will also present evolved and bio-mimetic strategies for coordination of outdoor flying robots. Finally, I will revisit the conventional concept of flying robots and describe recent work on the development of flying robots capable of surviving and exploiting collisions, just like insects do, in order to explore semi-collapsed buildings or extremely cluttered environments with no light. The real artificial lives of droplets • Martin Hanczyc is an Associate Professor at the Institute of Physics and Chemistry at the University of Southern Denmark. He formally was an Honorary Senior Lecturer at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London and Chief Chemist at ProtoLife. He received a bachelor’s degree in Biology from Pennsylvania State University, a doctorate in Genetics from Yale University and was a postdoctorate fellow under Jack Szostak at Harvard University. He has published in the area of protocells, complex systems, evolution and the origin of life in specialized journals including JACS and Langmuir as well as PNAS and Science. He is also a mentor for the first iGEM synthetic biology student team from Denmark. He is developing novel synthetic chemical systems based on the properties of living systems. Martin actively develops outreach for his research by giving several public lectures and collaborating with architects and artists in several exhibitions Preface xvii ECAL 2013
  • 20. world wide including the Architecture Biennale in Venice Italy in 2010 to bring experiments out of the lab and into the public space. His approach to science has been integrative, multidisciplinary and publicly visible with over 20 press items including Nature News, Scientific American, Discovery Channel, and BBC Radio. Martin gave an invited public lecture at TED in 2011, which now has over 500,000 views. Abstract My work is focused on understanding the fundamental principles of living and evolving systems through experimental science. To this end, I build synthetic systems where dynamic life-like properties emerge when self-assembled systems are pushed away from equilibrium. I will present an experimental model of bottom-up synthetic biology: chemically-active oil droplets. This system has the ability to sense, metabolize and the potential to evolve. Specifically, I will present how sensory-motor coupling can produce chemotactic motile droplets and may form the basis for intelligent and self-replicating materials. In addition, I am involved with a new consortium to develop a robotic interface with feedback to maintain and manipulate the non-equilibrium state of the chemical systems in real time. This represents the integration of chemical, computational, and robotic artificial life. Playware ABC • Henrik Hautop Lund, Technical University of Denmark, is head of the Center for Playware. He is World Champion in RoboCup Humanoids Freestyle 2002, has developed shape-shifting modular robots, and has collaborated closely on robotics, ALife and AI with companies like LEGO, Kompan, BandaiNamco, etc. for the past two decades. His Center for Playware at the Technical University of Denmark has a long track record of developing modular playware for playful contextualized IT training in Sub-Saharan Africa and for playful rehabilitation of mentally and physically handicapped children and adult in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. These modular playware technology developments include I-Blocks (LEGO bricks with processing power) and modular interactive tiles (larger bricks for physical rehab). Further, with the development of East-Africa’s first science and business park, local entrepreneurship has been fostered amongst students graduating from the university degree programs in contextualized IT. Combining such skills, it became possible to develop technical skill enhancing football games and global connectivity based on modular playware for townships in South Africa for the FIFA World Cup 2010. Lately, together with international pop star and World music promoter Peter Gabriel, it has been possible to develop the MusicTiles app as a music 2.0 experience to enhance music creativity amongst everybody, even people with no initial musical skills whatsoever. In all cases, the modular playware technology approach is used in a playful way to enhance learning and creativity amongst anybody, anywhere, anytime. Abstract Embodied Artificial Life research has led to the development of playware defined as intelligent hard- ware and software that creates play and playful experiences for users of all ages. With recent technology development, we become able to exploit robotics, modern artificial intelligence and embodied artificial life to create playware which acts as a play force that inspires and motivates users to enter into a play dynamics. In such play dynamics, users forget about time and place, and simultaneously increase their creative, cognitive, physical, and social skills. The Playware ABC concept allows you to develop solutions for anybody, anywhere, anytime through building bodies and brains to allow people to construct, combine and create. Designing playware technology that results in specific behaviors of the user in not a trivial task, and it demands an array of background knowledge in a number of scientific fields. Indeed, definition of desired interactions and behaviors should arise from deep knowledge of the field of application (e.g. play of a specific user group, clinical knowledge of therapy of a specific patient group, professional music knowledge, and professional sport knowledge). In order to meet a practice, where several disciplines can join to develop such playware, and inspired by early artificial life work, we conceptualized the approach of modular playware in the form of building blocks. Building blocks should allow easy and fast expert-driven or user-driven development of playware applications for a given application field. The development of such modular playware technology takes its inspiration from modular robotics, human-robot interaction and embodied artificial life. In this talk, I will present the design principles for creating such modular playware technology with focus on the embodied AI principles that forms the foundation for the design principles of modular playware technology. I will exemplify the design principles with practical applications from the fields of play, sports, music, performance art, and health. Preface ECAL 2013 xviii
  • 21. Self-Repairing and Tuning Reconfigurable Electronics for Space • Didier Keymeulen joined the computer science division of the Japanese National Electrotechnical Laboratory as senior researcher in 1996. In 1998 he moved to the California Institute of Technology and is currently principal member of the technical staff in the Bio-Inspired Technologies Group. He is leading several research tasks on adaptive computing, fault-tolerant electronics, and autonomous and adaptive sensor technologies. He was the electronics test lead of the tunable laser spectrometer (TLS) instrument on the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission to Mars. He serves as chair, co-chair, and program-chair of the NASA/ESA Annual Conferences on Adaptive Hardware and Systems. Didier received his BSEE, MSEE and Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the Free University of Brussels, Belgium. Abstract Space missions often require technologies not yet available for earth applications. This talk will present the development of self-reconfigurable electronics for few real-world problems encountered in space applications: survival in extreme environment, high precision inertial measurement for navigation, and in-situ adaptive control for space instruments. Radiation and extreme-temperature hardened electronics is needed to survive the harsh environments beyond earth’s atmosphere. Traditional approaches to pre- serve electronics incorporate radiation shielding, insulation and redundancy at the expense of power and weight. This presentation will demonstrate the implementation of a self-adaptive system using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and data converters which can autonomously recover the lost function- ality of a reconfigurable analog array (RAA) integrated circuit (IC). The second application is related to the development of inexpensive, navigation grade, miniaturized inertial measurement unit (IMU), which surpasses the state-of-the art in performance, compactness (both size and mass) and power efficiency used by current space missions. The talk will explain a self-tuning method for reconfigurable Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) gyroscopes based on evolutionary computation that has the capacity to efficiently increase the sensitivity of MEMS gyroscopes through in-situ tuning. Finally, we will address the path forward of using adaptive electronics for space. The Robot Scientist: Artificial Life Investigates Real Life • Steve Oliver started to work on yeast as a graduate student and has studied it ever since, with occasional excursions into the filamentous fungi and even Streptomyces bacteria. The yeast genome-sequencing project was initiated in his lab in the mid-1980’s when he started to sequence chromosome III. This turned into a major European Project, which eventually led to the sequencing of the entire yeast genome. He then took up the challenge presented by all the genes of unknown function revealed by the genome sequence, leading the EUROFAN Consortium that pioneered many of the ’omic and other high-throughput technologies in current use. His lab is dedicated to unravelling the workings of the yeast cell, using both top-down and bottom-up systems biology strategies. He is also concerned with developing yeasts as systems to both understand and combat human diseases, including through the use of automated (“Robot Scientist” methods in collaboration with Ross King’s group in Aberystwyth). Finally, he takes an interest, at both the bioinformatic and experimental levels, in the evolution of genomes and networks, and is starting to apply this to mammalian systems. The models and experimental systems he uses with yeast sometimes lead in unexpected directions, such as predicting the impact of gene copy number variation in cancer, constructing network models to identify genes important in Alzheimer’s Disease, or using yeast “surrogates” to screen for drugs against parasitic diseases . Abstract Science involves the generation of hypotheses and the testing of those hypotheses by experiments whose results are recorded in sufficient detail to enable reproducibility. We developed the Robot Scientist “Adam” to advance the automation of both these processes. Adam has autonomously generated functional genomics hypotheses about the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and experimentally tested those hypothe- ses using laboratory automation. We, and others, have manually confirmed Adam’s conclusions using additional experiments. To describe Adam’s experiments we developed an ontology and logical language. The resulting formalisation involves over 10,000 different research units in a nested tree-like structure, ten levels deep, that relates the 6.6 million biomass measurements to their logical description. This formalisa- tion describes how a machine discovered new scientific knowledge. We have now developed a second Robot Preface xix ECAL 2013
  • 22. Scientist, “Eve”. Like Adam, Eve is a laboratory automation system that uses artificial intelligence tech- niques to discover scientific knowledge through cycles of experimentation. Eve automates the screening of candidate drugs, hit confirmation, and lead generation through QSAR learning and testing. Econometric modelling has identified the conditions where Eve outperforms standard automation. The second advance is the development of assays based on cellular analog computers. These utilize Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthetic biology to compute arbitrary Boolean functions of compound properties. These advances have enabled us to reposition multiple compounds as drugs likely to be effective at inhibiting specific enzyme targets in parasites causing tropical diseases. An Insight into Metabolic Requirements of Life • Bernhard Ø. Palsson earned a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1984. He held a faculty position at the University of Michigan from 1984 to 1995. He has been with UCSD since 1995. He is the author of over 350 peer reviewed scientific articles. He co-authored the text TISSUE ENGINEERING, Prentice Hall in 2004, and wrote SYSTEMS BIOLOGY: properties of reconstructed networks, Cambridge University Press in 2006, and SYSTEMS BIOLOGY: simulation of dynamic network states, Cambridge University Press in 2011. He sits on the editorial boards of several biology, bioengineering and biotechnology journals. Profes- sor Palsson current research at UCSD focuses on 1) the reconstruction of genome-scale biochemical reaction networks (metabolism, transcriptional regulation & signaling), 2) the development of mathematical analysis procedures for genome-scale models (constraint-based and dynamic models), and 3) the experimental verifi- cation of genome-scale models with current emphasis on cellular metabolism and transcriptional regulation in E. coli, human pathogens, and organisms that are environmentally & bioprocess importance. He received an Institute of International Education Fellowship in 1977, Rotary Fellowship in 1979, a NATO fellowship in 1984, was named the G.G. Brown Associate Professor at Michigan in 1989, a Fulbright Fellow in 1995, an Ib Henriksen Fellow in 1996, the Olaf Hougen Professorship at the University of Wisconsin in 1999, the Lindbergh Tissue Engineering award in 2001, was named the Galetti Chair of Bioengineering in 2004, was elected into the National Academy of Engineering in 2006, received the UCSD Chancellor’s Associates award in Science and Technology in 2006, and was selected as the developer of one of the most influential technologies on Biotech over the past 10 years by Nature Biotechnology (March 2006). He was the Richard S.H. Mah Lecturer at Northwestern University in 2007, received the Ernst W. Bertner Memorial Award, from the MD Anderson in Houston in 2008, an honorary doctorate from Chalmers University in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2009, the Marvin Johnson Award from the ACS in 2010, elected fellow of the AAAS on 2011, and received the ASM Promega Biotechnology Research Award in 2012. Professor Palsson is an inventor with over 35 U.S. patents, many of which are in the area of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cell culture technology, bioreactor design, gene transfer, cell separations, high-throughput single cell manipulation, pedigree-controlled drug screening, network reconstruction, laboratory adaptive evolution, in silico model building and metabolic engineering. He co-founded a biotechnology company, AASTROM BIOSCIENCES (NASDAQ: ASTM) in 1988, where he served as the Vice President of Developmental Research for two years. Dr. Palsson is the founder and co-founder of ONCOSIS, a company that was focused on the purging of occult tumor cells in autologous bone marrow transplants, renamed as CYNTELLECT, focusing on instrumentation for high-throughput screening and in situ cell sorting and processing, GENOMATICA, a company that is focused on the production of commodity chemicals by fermentation (a spin-off from UCSD), and GT LIFE SCIENCES, an in silico biology (a spin-off from Genomatica). Abstract Whole genome sequencing has enabled us to understand the basic gene portfolio of living cells. A class of gene products that are well known are metabolic enzymes. Based on genome annotation and legacy data it has become possible to reconstruct metabolic networks. These networks are amenable to modeling as systems and have given the basis for in silico cells that are the best representation of their living counterparts. We will discuss the conceptual basis for this field, the difficult and laborious process of network reconstruction, and give examples of the use of in silico cell simulations. Preface ECAL 2013 xx
  • 23. “Soft Robotics” - the next generation of intelligent machines • Rolf Pfeifer Master’s degree in physics and mathematics and Ph.D. in computer science (1979) from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland. Three years as a post-doctoral fellow at Carnegie-Mellon and at Yale University in the US. Since 1987: professor of computer science at the De- partment of Informatics, University of Zurich, and director of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Visiting professor and research fellow at the Free University of Brussels, the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in Cambridge, Mass., the Neurosciences Institute (NSI) in San Diego, the Beijing Open Laboratory for Cog- nitive Science, and the Sony Computer Science Laboratory in Paris. Elected “21st Century COE Professor, Information Science and Technology” at the University of Tokyo in 2004. In 2009: visiting professor at the Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna in Pisa, and at Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China; appointed “Fellow of the School of Engineering” at the University of Tokyo. Currently: Deputy Director of the NCCR Robotics, the “National Competence Center for Research in Robotics” in Switzerland. Research interests: embodied intelligence, biorobotics, morphological computation, modular robotics, self-assembly and educational tech- nology. Authored books: ”Understanding Intelligence”, MIT Press, 1999 (with C. Scheier), “How the body shapes the way we think: a new view of intelligence,” 2007 (with Josh Bongard) MIT Press (popular science style), “Designing intelligence - why brains aren’t enough” (short version - with Josh Bongard and Don Berry, e-book), and “La r´evolution de l’intelligence du corps”, 2012 (“The revolution of embodied intelligence”; with Alexandre Pitti) (in French). Lecture series: “The ShanghAI Lectures”, a global mixed-reality lecture series on embodied intelligence, broadcast in 2012 from the University of Zurich, and Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China in cooperation with other universities from around the globe. World exhibition: ROBOTS ON TOUR - World Congress and Exhibition of Robots, Humanoids, Cyborgs, and more. 9 March 2013, Zurich (Puls 5): robotsontour.org. Abstract Researchers from robotics and artificial intelligence increasingly agree that ideas from biology and self-organization can strongly benefit the design of autonomous robots. Biological organisms have evolved to perform and survive in a world characterized by rapid changes, high uncertainty, indefinite richness, and limited availability of information. The term “Soft Robotics” designates a new generation of robots capable of functioning in the real world by capitalizing on “soft” designs at various levels: surface (skin), move- ment mechanisms (muscles, tendons), and interaction with other agents (smooth, friendly interaction). Industrial robots, in contrast, operate in highly controlled environments with no or very little uncertainty. By “outsourcing” functionality to morphological and material characteristics - e.g. to the elasticity of the muscle-tendon system - the distinction between control and to-be-controlled, which is at the heart of manufacturing and control theory, breaks down and entirely new concepts will be required. In this lecture I will argue that the next generation of intelligent machines - robots - will be of the “soft” kind and I will explore the theoretical and practical implications, whose importance can hardly be over-estimated. I will be using many examples and case studies. In particular I will be introducing the tendon-driven “soft” robot “Roboy” that we have been developing in our laboratory over the last few months. Although many challenges remain, concepts from biologically inspired “soft” robotics will eventually enable researchers to engineer machines for the real world that possess at least some of the desirable properties of biological organisms, such as adaptivity, robustness, and versatility. Preface xxi ECAL 2013
  • 24. Tutorials • Cell Pathway Design for Biotechnology and Synthetic Biology Claudio Angione, Jole Costanza, Giovanni Carapezza, Pietro Li´o and Giuseppe Nicosia Description. We will introduce the BioCAD framework that we have developed to analyse, optimise and re- design biological models. The framework includes 1) Multi-Objective Optimisation, 2) Sensitivity, 3) Identifiability and 4) Robustness analyses. More specifically, we will present single- and multi-objective optimization algorithms able to handle genetic strategies or uptake rates in a given model. We will show that the condition of Pareto optimality can be relaxed (e.g., epsilon-dominance) to include suboptimal points that can be used to boost the algorithm in its convergence process. The Sensitivity Analysis (SA) is used to compute an index for each parameter that indicates its influence in the model. The Identifia- bility Analysis (IA) detects functional relations among decision variables through a statistical analysis on the values after and before the optimisation. The Robustness Analysis (RA), Local, Global and Glocal robustness, proves useful to assess the fragileness and robustness of the Pareto optimal solution (or of a given feasible solution) as a result of a perturbation occurring in the model. Our methodology is suit- able for (i) any model consisting of ordinary differential equations, differential algebraic equations, flux balance analysis and gene-protein reaction mappings and for (ii) any simulator (e.g., SBML, MatLab, NEURON, C/C++ program). In the tutorial, we will show how these techniques offer avenues to system- atically explore, analyse, optimise, design and cross-compare biological models (e.g., metabolic models, gene regulatory networks). • Exploring Prebiotic Chemistry Spaces Jakob L. Andersen, Christoph Flamm, and Daniel Merkle Description. We have developed a graph grammar based formalism to model chemical transformations. Within our formalism molecules are treated as vertex and edge labeled graphs and reactions (between molecules) are handled as graph rewrite. This approach nicely captures the algebraic properties of real chemistry, where novel molecules can be produced during chemical reactions. Graph grammars, i.e. a set of reaction rules and starting molecules, are very compact representations of entire chemical space. These spaces can contain interesting chemical transformation patterns such as auto-catalytic sub-networks, or alternative routes to molecules of interest. Such sub-networks are usually hard to find due to the vastness of chem- ical spaces. The situation is especially bad in the origin of life realm, where several putative prebiotic chemistries, all combinatorial complex in nature, have been suggested. Efficient computational methods for constructing and exploring chemical spaces are therefore essential to explore alternative scenarios, or to shade light on potential chemical processes which could have resulted in the emergence of life. The tutorial will offer a mix between short background presentations and accompanying practical examples. To ensure that attendees have the right libraries and programs available, we will provide a working environment. The attendees will learn (i) how to translate chemical reactions to graph rewrite rules, (ii) various methods to explicitly construct chemical spaces (iii) query the chemical space for interesting sub-networks. • Designing Adaptive Humanoid Robots Through the FARSA Open-Source Framework Gianluca Massera, Tomassino Ferrauto, Onofrio Gigliotta and Stefano Nolfi Description. In this tutorial we will illustrate FARSA, an open-source tool available from http://laral.istc.cnr.it/farsa/, that allows to carry on research on Adaptive Robotics. Farsa allows to simulate different robotic plat- forms (the iCub humanoid robot, and the Khepera, e-Puck, and marXbot wheeled robots), design the sensorimotor system of the robots, design the environment in which the robots operate, perform collective experiments with many interacting robots, design the robots’ neural controllers, and allow the robots to develop their behavioural skills through an evolutionary or learning process. It is a cross-platform framework, that works on Linux, Windows and Mac on both 32bit and 64bit systems, constituted by a collection of integrated open-source object-oriented C++ libraries. The framework comes with a powerful graphical application that allow to create and run a large variety of experiments and to analyse and test the obtained results. Furthermore, FARSA has a plugin mechanism that allow to add new features (new robots, new motors, new neural networks, new learning algorithms, etc) that are integrated and accessible Preface ECAL 2013 xxii
  • 25. by the graphic interface without modifying and recompiling the core code. FARSA is well documented, easy to use and comes with a series of exemplificative experiments that allow users to quickly gain a comprehension of the tool and a base for running a large spectrum of new experiments that can be set up simply by changing the available parameters. The aim of the tutorial is that to allow also non-technical user to quickly acquire the knowledge required to use the tool and personalize it to specific research interests. • Next Generation Sequencing Data Production, Analysis, and Archiving Heiko Muller and Luca Zammataro Description. Application of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) in cancer research is becoming routine in laboratories all over the world and new applications of NGS are being developed at increasing speed. The generation, analysis, interpretation, and storage of NGS data poses a number of technical challenges. Here, the computational infrastructure and the analysis pipelines used at the Center of Genomic Science in Milan (Italian Institute of Technology) are described. In the second part, meta-analysis approaches facilitating the interpretation of NGS data are being discussed. In particular, we will highlight international efforts in cancer genomics aimed at collecting genomic data (e.g. somatic mutations, gene expression, epigenetic modifications, copy number variation) from cancer samples and correlating these data with clinical parameters with the aim of identifying novel biomarkers of cancer subtypes and eventually novel targets for therapeutic intervention. The joined analysis of genomic data of various kinds is a field of active research that is often referred to as Integromics. We will provide an overview of the current state of the art and illustrate the use of selected novel bioinformtaic resources of general interest. • PyCX: A Python-Based Simulation Code Repository for Complex Systems Education Hiroki Sayama Description. This tutorial will introduce PyCX, an online repository of sample codes, all written in plain Python, of various complex systems simulation, including iterative maps, cellular automata, dynamical networks and agent-based models. These sample codes are designed as educational materials so that students can gain practical skills for both complex systems simulation and computer programming si- multaneously. The target audience of this tutorial will primarily be educators and researchers who teach complex systems-related courses and thus need simple, easy-to-understand examples of complex systems simulation. The tutorial will also be helpful for students who want to learn basics of writing complex sys- tems simulation themselves. Prior knowledge of Python is helpful but not required. Participants should bring their own laptops to the tutorial so they can work on hands-on coding activities. Preface xxiii ECAL 2013
  • 26. Satellite Workshops • A TRUCE workshop on Unconventional Computing in 2070 Martyn Amos • Artificial Life Based Models of Higher Cognition Onofrio Gigliotta and Davide Marocco • Artificial Life in Massive Data Flow Takashi Ikegami, Mizuki Oka, Norman Packard, Mark Bedau and Rolf Pfeifer • Collective Behaviours and Social Dynamics Stefano Nolfi, Marco Dorigo, Francesco Mondada, Tom Wenseleers, Vito Trianni and Michael Spranger • 2nd International Workshop on the Evolution of Physical Systems John Rieffel, Nicolas Bredeche, Jean-Baptiste Mouret and Evert Haasdijk • ERLARS 2013 - 6th International Workshop on Evolutionary and Reinforcement Learning for Autonomous Robot Systems Nils T. Siebel and Yohannes Kassahun • Fundamentals of Collective Adaptive Systems Emma Hart and Ben Paechter • HSB - 2nd International Workshop on Hybrid Systems and Biology Thao Dang and Carla Piazza • Protocells: Back to the Future Timoteo Carletti, Alessandro Filisetti, Norman Packard and Roberto Serra • What Synthetic Biology can offer to Artificial Intelligence? Perspectives in the Bio-Chem-ICT and other scenarios Luisa Damiano, Pasquale Stano and Yutetsu Kuruma Preface ECAL 2013 xxiv
  • 27. Program Committee An event like ECAL’13 would not have been possible without the following dedicated members of the Program Committee. Our gratitude goes to all of them. Hussein Abbass Alberto Acerbi Andy Adamatzky Youhei Akimoto Lee Altenberg Michele Amoretti Martyn Amos Claes Andersson Marco Antoniotti Paolo Arena Takaya Arita Dirk Arnold Giuseppe Ascia Jaume Bacardit Gianluca Baldassarre Wolfgang Banzhaf Xabier E. Barandiaran Helio Jose Barbosa Jake Beal Lucia Beccai Mark Bedau Randall Beer Katie Bentley Peter Bentley Heder S. Bernardino Daniel Berrar Hugues Bersini Luc Berthouze Mauro Birattari Jacek Blazewicz Leonidas Bleris Christian Blum Joshua C. Bongard Terry Bossomaier Paul Bourgine Anthony Brabazon Andrea Bracciali Juergen Branke Larry Bull Seth Bullock Tadeusz Burczy´nski Stefano Cagnoni Yizhi Cai Raffaele Calabretta Alexandre Campo Angelo Cangelosi Giulio Caravagna Timoteo Carletti Alberto Castellini Vincenzo Catania Ciro Cattuto Uday Chakraborty Bernard Chazelle Antonio Chella Ying-ping Chen Tang-Kay Chen Tianshi Chen Gregory S. Chirikjian Sung-Bae Cho Anders L. Christensen Dominique Chu David Merodio Codinachs David Cornforth Luis Correia Jole Costanza Vincenzo Cutello Alberto D’Onofrio Bruce Damer Chiara Damiani Thomas Dandekar Christian Darabos Kerstin Dautenhahn Joachim De Beule Francisco Fernandez de Vega Kalyanmoy Deb Jordi Delgado Ralf Der Barbara Di Camillo Gianni Di Caro Cecilia Di Chio Ezequiel Di Mario Peter Dittrich Marco Dorigo Alan Dorin Ren´e Doursat Marc Ebner Pascale Ehrenfreund Gusz Eiben Arantza Etxeberria Giovanni M. Farinella Nazim Fates Harold Fellermann Chrisantha Fernando Paola Festa Grazziela Figueredo Alessandro Filisetti Christoph Flamm Francesco Fontanella Enrico Formenti Luigi Fortuna Giuditta Franco Walter Frisch Ruedi F¨uchslin Toshio Fukuda Luca Gambardella Jean-Gabriel Ganascia Nicholas Geard Philip Gerlee Carlos Gershenson Mario Giacobini Onofrio Gigliotta Alex Graudenzi Roderich Gross Thilo Gross Mario Guarracino Alaa Abi-Hadar Jin kao Hao Inman Harvey Paulien Hogeweg Gregory S. Hornby Phil Husbands Tim J. Hutton Fumiya Iida Hiro Iizuka Takashi Ikegami Christian Jacob Yaochu Jin Colin Johnson Laetitia Jourdan Janusz Kacprzyk George Kampis Istvan Karsai Jozef Kelemen Serge Kernbach Didier Keymeulen DaeEun Kim Natalio Krasnogor Renaud Lambiotte Doron Lancet Pier Luca Lanzi Doheon Lee E. Stanley Lee Jonathan Lee Niles Lehman Tom Lenaerts Lukas Lichtensteiger Pietro Li`o Hod Lipson Dapeng Liu Joseph Lizier Daniel Lobo Fernando Lobo Pier Luigi Luisi Torbj¨orn Lundh Dario Maggiorini George D. Magoulas Vittorio Maniezzo Elena Marchiori Omer Markovitch Davide Marocco Dominique Martinez Antonio Masegosa Jerzy Maselko Sarah Maurer Giancarlo Mauri John McCaskill Chris McEwan Barry McMullin Peter William McOwan Jos´e F. Mendes Olivier Michel Martin Middendorf Orazio Miglino Julian Miller Marco Mirolli Natasa Miskov-Zivanov Francesco Mondada Lu´ıs Moniz Pereira Sara Montagna Jason H. Moore Giovanni Muscato I˜naki Navarro Chrystopher L. Nehaniv Giuseppe Nicosia Martin Nilsson Jacobi Jason Noble Stefano Nolfi Wieslaw Nowak Michael O’Neill Eckehard Olbrich Ping-Feng Pai Wei Pang Elisa Pappalardo Luca Patan`e Marco Pavone Mario Pavone Joshua Payne David Pelta Andrew Philippides Simone Pigolotti Rapha¨el Plasson Alessio Plebe Daniel Polani Mikhail Prokopenko Paolo Provero Palaniappan Ramaswamy Vitorino Ramos Steen Rasmussen Thomas S. Ray John Rieffel Laura A. Ripamonti Luis M. Rocha Andrea Roli Pierre Rouze Kepa Ruiz Mirazo Franck RUFFIER Erol Sahin Corrado Santoro Francisco C. Santos Hiroki Sayama Thomas Schmickl Marc Schoenauer Luis Seabra Lopes Roberto Serra Hsu-Shih Shih Andrew Shreve Ricard Sol´e Giandomenico Spezzano Antoine Spicher Peter Stadler Kenneth Stanley Pasquale Stano Luc Steels Giovanni Stracquadanio Reiji Suzuki El-Ghazali Talbi Arvydas Tamulis Kay Chen Tan Uwe Tangen Charles Taylor Tim Taylor Pietro Terna German Terrazas Angulo Christof Teuscher Gianna M. Toffolo Marco Tomassini Vito Trianni Soichiro Tsuda Elio Tuci Ali Emre Turgut Karl Tuyls Jon Umerez Renato Umeton Ashish Umre Edgar E Vallejo Sergi Valverde Patricia A. Vargas Richard Vaughan Marco Villani Mirko Viroli Paul Vogt Richard Watson Janet Wiles Alan Winfield Rachel Wood Andrew Wuensche Larry Yaeger Hector Zenil Tom Ziemke Preface xxv ECAL 2013
  • 28. Organizing Committee Chairs • Pietro Li`o, University of Cambridge, UK • Orazio Miglino, University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy • Giuseppe Nicosia, University of Catania, Italy • Stefano Nolfi, ICST-CNR, Italy • Mario Pavone, University of Catania, Italy Workshop Chair • Giovanni Stracquadanio, Johns Hopkins University, USA Tutorial Chair • Giuseppe Narzisi, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, USA Local Organizing Committee • Claudio Angione, University of Cambridge, UK • Giovanni Carapezza, University of Catania, Italy • Piero Consoli, University of Catania, Italy • Jole Costanza, University of Catania, Italy • Marisa Lappano Anile, Associazione Angelo Marcello Anile • Annalisa Occhipinti, University of Catania, Italy Publicity Chair • Giovanni Murabito, Di.Gi. Apps Inc. ECAL 2013 General Chairs: Pietro Li`o, Orazio Miglino, Giuseppe Nicosia, Stefano Nolfi, Mario Pavone, Taormina, September 2013. Preface ECAL 2013 xxvi
  • 29. Cooperation and the Division of Labour Simon J. Tudge1, Richard A. Watson1 and Markus Brede1 1 The University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK sjt4g11@soton.ac.uk Abstract Cooperation is vital for maintaining the integrity of complex life forms. In many cases in nature cooperation manifests it- self through constituent parts performing different, but com- plementary, functions. The vast majority of studies on the evolution of cooperation, however, look only at the special case in which cooperation manifests itself via the constituent parts performing identical tasks. In this paper we investigate a class of games in which the socially optimal behaviour has the property of being heterogeneous. We show that this class of games is equivalent to a region of ST space (the space of nor- malised two-player games characterised by the ‘sucker’ and ‘temptation’ payoffs) which has previously been dismissed. We analyse, through a simple group selection model, prop- erties that evolving agents would need to have in order to “solve” this dilemma. Specifically we find that positive as- sortment on pure strategies may lower mean individual pay- off, and that assortment on mixed strategies will increase pay- off, but not maximise it. Introduction Division Of Labour (DOL) is ubiquitous in the biologi- cal world. Social insects often have specialised castes for performing individual tasks (Hölldobler and Wilson, 2009). Multicellular organisms exhibit high levels of cell differ- entiation. Colonial marine invertebrates have differentiated parts which also specialise (Dunn and Wagner, 2006). Even bacteria have been shown to exhibit specialisation (Crespi, 2001). Arguably DOL is one of the major benefits to group living. It has long been recognised that specialisation may result in gains in efficiency; the idea can be traced at least as far back as Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (Smith, 1776). However, with all group living comes the potential for the emergence of cooperative dilemmas. Whenever a task is broken down into smaller parts the products of the sub-tasks must be shared or distributed. This potentially opens the door to free riders who benefit from the distribution of the products of labour, without contributing to its costs. There are a growing body of artificial life studies con- cerning the evolution of the division of labour. Specifically authors have addressed: the mechanisms by which a divi- sion of labour can occur (Goldsby et al., 2012), the evolu- tionary pathway to the emergence of complex internal fea- tures (Lenski et al., 2003), the evolution of differentiation in multicellular organisms (Ray and Hart, 1999), the role of gene networks in multicellular development (Joachimczak and Wróbel, 2008) and the evolutionary role of asymmetric cell division (Hotz, 2004). DOL is also one of the key theoretical ideas behind the major evolutionary transitions research program (May- nard Smith and Szathmary, 1997). A major transition is one in which biological entities which were, preceding the tran- sition, able to replicate as individuals are, after the transi- tion, only able to replicate as part of a larger whole. DOL is likely to be one of the key concepts that leads to a deeper un- derstanding of the major transitions. As increased speciali- sation develops, individuals become increasingly dependent upon one another, to the point where it is no longer sensible to regard them as functionally independent entities. For ex- ample, a potentially defining characteristic of certain types of major transition (i.e. the fraternal transitions (Queller, 1997)) is a reproductive division of labour (Michod, 2006). Cooperative dilemmas are the class of games in which well-mixed populations of agents evolve to a state which does not maximise mean individual payoff. Theoretical con- siderations regarding the evolution of cooperation posit a game in which the socially optimal behaviour, for the popu- lation, is for every agent to perform the action labelled as cooperate. These set of games are cooperative dilemmas if there exists an ESS which is different from total coop- eration. That is that under freely evolving conditions the population is composed either partially or entirely of defec- tors. Models of the evolution of cooperation then typically consider extensions of the underlying game which result in an increase in the level of cooperation. A common way in which this is achieved is through imposing population struc- ture which leads to positive assortment and hence to an in- crease in cooperation (see for instance: Nowak and May (1992); Maynard Smith (1964)). Here positive assortment means that like strategies play each other more often than would be expected from random interactions. (For general arguments concerning the role of assortment in the evolution ECAL - General Track 1 ECAL 2013
  • 30. of cooperation see: Eshel and Cavalli-Sforza (1983); Queller (1985); Dugatkin and Mesterton-Gibbons (1992); Godfrey- Smith (2008)). Despite the large variety of computational and analytic models along these lines all such studies are built on a com- mon assumption: namely the final optimal state is a homo- geneous one in which all individuals play the same strat- egy. However, many situations in nature can be said to be in cooperative states, but between individuals or components which are not exhibiting homogeneous behaviours. To the best of the authors’ knowledge none of these evolutionary game-theoretic investigations have considered situations in which a heterogeneous final state is desirable. This paper firstly identifies the class of games in which a mixed state is socially optimal, i.e. games in which a divi- sion of labour may evolve. We show that these games are related to the conventional cooperative dilemmas. We then go on to present two models to illustrate some key points. The first model challenges the assumption that positive as- sortment on pure strategies will lead to an increase in the population’s mean payoff. The second model extends this by introducing the additional assumption of mixed strate- gies. The model shows that positive assortment on mixed strategies does lead to an increase in the population’s mean payoff. Finally we sketch some further theoretical consid- erations which show that, although positive assortment on mixed strategies does lead to an increase in payoff, it is not the highest payoff that can be reached under any circum- stance. Specifically in order to maximise average payoff in- dividuals would have to control not just the frequency of strategies, but the frequency of interactions within the popu- lation. In this case a negative assortment on social strategies is optimal for the population; however, we show that it is not evolutionarily stable. In order for this optimal configuration to be stable it is necessary to have a higher level positive as- sortment on genotypes which provides a lower level negative assortment of phenotype/social strategy. Division of Labour Games We now outline a formalism which enables us to think about the division of labour in the simplest non-trivial case. Consider a situation in which individuals meet and per- form one of two tasks: A or B. Each task bestows a benefit to both of the individuals involved in the interaction. The benefits are given by bA and bB respectively. Each individ- ual must bear the cost of their performed task themselves. Costs are given by cA and cB. However, if both individuals perform the same task the cost of that task is shared between them. In addition, there is a synergistic benefit which is the benefit of having both tasks performed together: δ. We con- sider the cases in which A has a higher cost but also a higher benefit than B, i.e. cA > cB and bA > bB. An example of the situation described above might go as follows. Two human individuals living in the same tribe may perform one of two tasks. Task A is to go and hunt for meat. Task B is to build a fire. Hunting comes at an extra cost to the individual either because it requires more energy or because it is inherently riskier. The benefit of hunting is meat. Building the fire has a lower, but non-zero, cost. The benefit of building the fire is warmth. We assume that the meat is more valuable than the warmth, but that both tasks provide some benefit in isolation. In this instance the syn- ergistic benefit, δ, is that of having cooked meat. It is the benefit above and beyond that of the sum of the two bene- fits in isolation. We are assuming here that the benefits are non-excludable, that is that the hunter could not stop the fire builder from taking meat, and vice versa. This cartoon is an aid to understanding; the essential features of the situation are represented via the payoff matrix: A B A bA −cA/2 bA +bB +δ −cA B bA +bB +δ −cB bB −cB/2 Given that games have two arbitrary degrees of freedom we will assume that: bA −cA/2 = 1 and bB −cB/2 = 0. We can thus rewrite the above payoff matrix as: A B A 1 1−r +δ B 1+r +δ 0 Where r = 1 2 (cA −cB). This reduces to the 1 dimensional parameterisation of the snowdrift game if δ = 0 (Hauert, 2004). Conceptually we may also think of the story behind the snowdrift game as the special case in which task B is the task of doing nothing with no benefit and no cost. We can trivially see that this game represents a region of ST space using S = 1 − r + δ and T = 1 + r + δ. For an explanation of ST space see Santos et al. (2006). Note that r is the difference in cost between performing the two tasks, and can thus be thought of as parameteris- ing the severity of the dilemma. δ represents the synergistic benefits of having both tasks performed. δ > 0 corresponds to the region S+T > 2. ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 2
  • 31. Figure 1: The location of all games in ST space. Previously the top right quadrant was simply referred to as the snow- drift game. Here we split this region into two. Snowdrift A corresponds to games which are snowdrift games but not DOL games. Snowdrift B refers to snowdrift games which are also division of labour games. The remainder of this pa- per is concerned with the region labelled snowdrift B. Cooperative Dilemmas The previous section introduced a class of games which are formally equivalent to the region of ST space in which S + T > 2. We shall refer to these games as Division of Labour games. Snowdrift games are defined by 0 < S < 1 and T > 1. We shall focus our investigation on the class of games which are both snowdrift games and DOL games (note that neither one implies the other). ST space was conceived of in order to systematically in- vestigate all classes of cooperative dilemmas. Some authors (see for instance Macy and Flache (2002)) specifically ex- clude the region S + T > 2 from the definition of cooper- ative dilemmas. We find this exclusion somewhat artificial. The essence of a cooperative dilemma is a situation in which evolution leads to a state which does not maximise mean individual payoff. It just so happens that in conventional cooperative dilemmas social welfare is maximised by ev- ery agent cooperating, but this is by no means an essential part of the argument. Let us define the Socially Optimal Fre- quency (SOF) as the frequency of cooperate (or type A in the language of DOL games) which maximises the mean payoff of the population under well mixed conditions. We then de- fine a cooperative dilemma as one in which SOF=ESS. We now need to derive an equation for the SOF in terms of S and T. To do this note that the mean fitness of the population is given by: ¯f = fcρc + fdρd (1) We consider a fixed population size so that ρd = 1−ρc. Fit- nesses are given by fc = ρc + Sρd and fd = Tρc. We then arrive at a formula for average fitness in terms of density of cooperators (ρ): ¯f = ρ(S+T +ρ(1−S−T)) (2) The SOF is the maximum of this function for ρ ∈ [0,1]. It is straight forward to prove that: SOF = S+T 2(S+T−1) S+T > 2 1 S+T ≤ 2 (3) The ESS of the snowdrift game is (Nowak, 2006a): ESS = S S+T −1 (4) for DOL games which are also snowdrift games the ESS is only equal to the SOF in the very special instance in which S = T. Thus, by our slightly broader definition, DOL games are cooperative dilemmas. Figure 2: Left: The equilibrium frequency of cooperate. Right: the SOF, note that in the top right hand corner this is not equal to 100% cooperation. Model In this section we demonstrate that positive assortment on pure strategies is only sufficient in allowing populations to reach the SOF in the non-generic case in which SOF = 1. We go on to show that positive assortment is still one of the key elements in allowing populations to reach the SOF. However, in this case the assortment must be on something other than pure social strategies. We implement two generational GAs (labelled model I and II) to illustrate some key points. In both cases we con- struct a scenario in which one can exogenously control the level of assortment in a population of evolving individuals and measure the total payoff in the population. Model I serves as a control for model II. With model I we allow only pure strategies which are only able to perform one of two tasks, A or B, for the entirety of their lifetime. In model II we lift this assumption and allow for mixed strategies. Specifically a genotype specifies not a task A or B, but a probability, p ∈ [0,1], which determines how often task A is ECAL - General Track 3 ECAL 2013
  • 32. performed. Apart from this difference models I and II have the same underlying structure. The models consist of two distinct phases, a group phase and a population phase. Rounds of the game during one gen- eration occur in τ discrete time steps; the first X time steps within groups, the remaining τ − X time steps within the fully mixed population. If fG is fitness acquired within the group phase and fP fitness acquired within the population phase then total fitness, fT , is given by: fT = X τ fG + τ −X τ fP (5) There are NG groups consisting of g players in each group. Individuals acquire fitness over both stages of the genera- tion. NG individuals are chosen at the end of the population stage via fitness proportionate selection and go on to form new groups. The founding individuals immediately repli- cate g−1 times so that the groups are composed of g clonal individuals. Figure 3 shows schematics for the two models. Figure 3: Schematics for models I and II respectively. We consider the model in two different manners. First of all, we model the situation through numerical integration of the relevant replicator equation (see appendix A). This corresponds to infinite populations without mutations. Sec- ondly, we model the system via an agent based simulation with finite population and mutations. The two approaches show good agreement in final results. In the agent-based model there is mutation. Mutation leads to one of the individuals in the group stage being ge- netically different to their parent. In model I we model mutation by allowing an A to create a B, and vice versa, with a probability µ = 1×10−2. In model II, with probability µ = 5×10−2, an individual is born with a value of p which differs from its parent by an amount cho- sen from the random uniform distribution [−0.1,0.1]. Mu- tations are capped to physically meaningful ranges (i.e. be- tween 0 and 1) if they mutate outside of this range. Figure 4: Top: The mean value of p at equilibrium for a range of values of α in model II. The lower dotted line is the ESS and the upper one the SOF. Bottom: Fitness at ESS for the two models. The solid line is generated from the pre- dictions of the analytic model, points from the agent based model. Clearly agents in model II are at an advantage over those in model I. (r,δ) = (0.5,0.5). This group structuring model allows us to fine-tune the level of assortment on the population. It bears some similar- ities to the hay-stack model (Maynard Smith, 1964). How- ever, within a group there is no selection, as all members are clonal. The groups are formed from a founder and serve only to limit the interactions of individuals to a certain, non- random, subset of the population. In this sense the models bear some conceptual similarities to the ones discussed in Godfrey-Smith (2008). The qualitative results would be re- peatable with any of the standard repertoire of “evolution of ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 4
  • 33. cooperation” models (Nowak, 2006b). This particular model is not chosen for biological realism, but because the essen- tial property of population structure leading to positive as- sortment is completely transparent. The models have the convenient feature of being able to tune the level of popula- tion structure via the parameter α = X/τ. Previously the distinction between pure and mixed strate- gies has not been important. In a snowdrift game the fre- quency of cooperate at the ESS can represent either the frequency of pure strategy cooperators within the popula- tion or the average value of p (the probability of coop- erating) within a population of mixed strategy individuals (Maynard Smith, 1982, p.17). These two models show that this distinction is important when playing a game in which SOF = 1. In model I there is a one-to-one correspondence between the genotype and the social strategies A and B. Group struc- ture provides only positive assortment on pure strategies. Assortment is needed for the evolution of cooperation. How- ever, positive assortment leads to groups comprised only of one type. It is important to realise that model II provides assortment on mixed strategies rather than on the pure phenotypes A and B. This is crucial to the following results. Figure 5: The mean fitness at ESS. Left column is for pure strategies, as in model I, right column is for mixed strategies, as in model II. Going down the page the figures correspond to increasing levels of α. Top: α = 0, middle: α = 0.25 and bottom: α = 0.5. Figure 4 shows the results of the two versions of the model. There are 125 groups composed of 5 individuals each. The simulation is run for 5 × 106 generations and the average value of p (probability of playing strategy A) over the entire population is recorded. We find that groups in model II evolve towards the SOF for larger values of α (the degree of population structure). As expected with α = 0 the population simply evolves to the ESS in both models. We plot the relative fitness for models I and II for increas- ing α to illustrate the fact that mixed strategies are at an evolutionary advantage over pure ones. Note that by con- struction pure strategies only interact with types of the same pure strategy within groups (in model I). In the case where the socially optimal solution was pure cooperate the abil- ity to form pure groups is sufficient to solve the dilemma. However, in general these are a special type of game. For DOL games, in which a mix of strategies is desirable, mixed strategies can outperform pure ones. Figure 5 shows the fitness at ESS for models I and II for all games parameterised via r and δ. Interestingly positive assortment on pure strategies can actually be detrimental to the population’s payoff if δ (the synergistic benefit to hetero- geneous behaviours) is sufficiently high. The higher the syn- ergistic benefit is the greater the advantage of having mixed strategies. Group Phenotypes Groups composed of mixed strategies do not maximise so- cial welfare. The reason for this is that they are unable to control their internal structure or organisation. In this sec- tion we formalise this point. We leave a detailed specifica- tion and analysis of a model for a forthcoming work. In a well-mixed population the parameter ρ (frequency of type A) characterises the state of the system. However, if interactions are not random then ρ on its own is insufficient. We also need to know the frequency of the different types of within-group interactions. In principle there are three types of interactions: (A-A, A-B and B-B). If the total number of interaction of all types is fixed, then knowing the fractional density of each type will specify the state of the group. We will denote these three densities as ϕAA, ϕAB and ϕBB. How- ever, it is sufficient to know only one of these. Let us then use ϕAB and drop the subscript. We shall define the group phenotype as a point in the space (ρ,ϕ). The following for- mulae show how the densities of all types of interaction can be found from these two variables. ϕAA = ρ − 1 2 ϕ (6) ϕAB = ϕ (7) ϕBB = 1−ρ − 1 2 ϕ (8) Notice that ϕ is confined within certain ranges based on ρ. Specifically 0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 2Min{ρ,1−ρ}. ϕ is equivalent to certain measures of linkage disequilibrium (see for in- stance Hartl and Clark (1998)). For interesting parallels be- tween population genetics and the evolution of cooperation ECAL - General Track 5 ECAL 2013
  • 34. see Gardner et al. (2007). The previous section considered the cases in which groups only had control over the parameter ρ and had no way of controlling the internal composition of within group interac- tions. In this case they were confined to have a value of ϕ = ϕ(R) = 2ρ(1−ρ) (9) where R stands for random. Thus the SOF (Socially Opti- mal Frequency) corresponds to the fittest group with random internal interactions. Let us also define the Optimal Group Phenotype (OGP) to be the point in (ρ,ϕ) space which max- imises average fitness. To see this, note that average fitness is given by: ¯f = ρ + 1 2 (S+T −1)ϕ (10) for games in (S,T) space. The OGP is then given by: OGP = (1,0) S+T < 2 (1/2,1) S+T > 2 (11) thus in DOL games a group which maximises the amount of A-B links at the expense of all other types of interactions is the one which maximises group fitness. Figure 6: Left: The average fitness in terms of ρ and ϕ, for a certain game in which R + T > 2. Right: the abso- lute difference between the fitness of the two phenotypes A and B (assuming that the group is composed of pure strat- egy individuals). The dotted line marks ϕ(R). Circled points correspond to A: The ESS under well mixed conditions, B: The SOF, C: The optimal point for pure groups and D: the OGP. Note: if S +T < 2 B, C and D coincide. The fact that stability is non-zero at points B and D shows that these sit- uations are fundamentally unstable without the addition of extra assumptions. With reference to figure 6 model I of the previous section was only able to evolve to point C, model II was able to do better and reach point B. However, neither model produced groups who were able to reach point D. This is the subject of a forthcoming work in which we investigate the effects of developmental or aggregational processes. Discussion Kant said: “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a uni- versal law.” In a fully assorted population Kant’s principle is not only morally commendable, but it is also entirely sensible. Given that you will only meet individuals who are the same as you it makes sense to perform social actions which are beneficial to be on the receiving end of. Thus it would seem that posi- tive assortment is the answer to the evolution of cooperation. On the other hand gains from specialisation occur via a collection of different types of individuals. We have seen that a division of labour game may be a cooperative dilemma. There are two needs which seem to be fundamen- tally at odds with each other: firstly, the need for positive as- sortment to alleviate the cooperative dilemma, and secondly, the need for negative assortment in order to gain from spe- cialisation. This is the fundamental problem of the evolution of the division of labour. How does nature have her cake and eat it? That is how does evolution create the positive assort- ment necessary to alleviate the cooperative dilemma, but at the same time maintain the diversity needed to benefit from a division of labour? It could be argued that many interesting and complex as- pects of the biological world are about solving this problem. Phenotypic plasticity is a way in which a social strategy is able to become decoupled from the genotype which under- lies it (Gavrilets, 2010). Thus we can have assortment on genotype without assortment on phenotype (as in model II), which goes some way to alleviating the problem of the di- vision of labour. This is the key point which the models presented here attempt to illustrate. One way of express- ing this would be to say that the social strategy has become de-Darwinised (sensu Godfrey-Smith (2009)). In division of labour games the optimal configuration involves As interact- ing with Bs to the exclusion of all other types of interaction. However, in this situation the fitness acquired by the pheno- type B will always outweigh that acquired by A (because in our framework T > S). Thus the optimisation of the higher level entity, the group, is in direct conflict with that of the lower level entities, the individuals. The only way in which higher level optimisation can occur is if selection does not act directly on the frequency of the constituent types A and B. This is what we mean by de-Darwinisation. A potential way for this to occur is through a genotype-phenotype map which is not one-to-one (i.e. a genotype may specify more ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 6
  • 35. than one phenotype). In this case, although social interac- tions lead to Bs having a higher fitness, the configuration is sustainable because natural selection does not “see” the phenotypes A and B, it only “sees” genotypes which spec- ify certain frequencies and organisations of social strategies. We see the concept of de-Darwinisation as a powerful con- ceptual tool for understanding the emergence of higher lev- els of biological organisation. An ALife approach will doubtless be one of the key the- oretical tools in our quest to understand biological organisa- tion. Simulation is necessary not only because the processes of interest are obscured by time, but also because we only have one truly independent example of life. What we really want to know is which aspects of biology are contingent on the particulars of our bio-chemistry, and which are profound consequences of the logic of natural selection. This paper has attempted to add to the small, but growing number, of ALife studies which tackle the question of the division of labour and internal organisation. We have laid down ground work for a systematic investigation of the ultimate causes of the evolution of internal differentiation and organisation. Acknowledgments This work was supported by an EPSRC Doctoral Training Centre grant (EP/G03690X/1). Thanks to Paul Ryan and Patrick Doncaster for their useful comments. Also to Char- lott Rittmeister for her proof reading. Appendix A We sketch the solution to the model via the replicator equa- tion formalism, for the case of mixed strategies playing within variable levels of group structure. Individuals have strategies which are specified via a prob- ability p. They play strategy A with probability p, and there- fore B with probability 1 − p. An individual with strategy p who interacts with another individual with strategy q re- ceives an expected payoff of: F[p,q] = pqR+ p(1−q)S+(1− p)qT +(1− p)(1−q)P (12) Selection acts on p and thus the population is specified by the function ρ(p) which is a 1D function which specifies the density of the population playing a strategy for every value of p ∈ [0,1]. The systems dynamics are specified by the replicator equation: ˙ρ(p) = ρ(p) f(p)− ¯f(p) (13) where f(p) is the fitness of the individuals for a given p, and ¯f(p) is the mean fitness of the population. The fitness of any strategy comprises of two parts. The fit- ness gained in the group phase, and the fitness gained in the population phase. Call these fitness fG and fP respectively. In the absence of mutations strategies always play with like strategies in the group phase, thus: fG = F[p, p] (14) in the population phase strategies play with every other strat- egy. The average payoff is given by the strategy they would have received from playing a hypothetical average individ- ual. That is: fP = F[p, ¯p] (15) where ¯p is the average value of p in the population. Total fitness is thus: f(p) = TGF[p, p]+TPF[p, ¯p] (16) we normalise by saying that TG +TP = τ, i.e. that the whole cycle happens over τ units of time. Let α = TG/τ. By divid- ing by τ we arrive at: f(p) = αF[p, p]+(1−α)F[p, ¯p] (17) We thus have a fitness defined for every possible strategy, which can be used to model the situation by means of the replicator equation. Population dynamics follow from numerical integration of equation 13. References Crespi, B. J. (2001). The evolution of social behavior in microorganisms. Trends in ecology & evolution, 16(4):178–183. Dugatkin, L. A. and Mesterton-Gibbons, M. (1992). Co- operation Among Unrelated Individuals: Evolutionary Factors. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 67(3):267– 281. Dunn, C. W. and Wagner, G. P. (2006). The evolu- tion of colony-level development in the Siphonophora (Cnidaria:Hydrozoa). Development genes and evolu- tion, 216(12):743–54. Eshel, I. and Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (1983). Assortment of encounters and evolution of cooperativeness. Proceed- ings of the National Academy of Sciences, 79(4):1331– 1335. Gardner, A., West, S. A., and Barton, N. H. (2007). The rela- tion between multilocus population genetics and social evolution theory. The American naturalist, 169(2):207– 26. Gavrilets, S. (2010). Rapid transition towards the Divi- sion of Labor via evolution of developmental plasticity. PLoS computational biology, 6(6). Godfrey-Smith, P. (2008). Varieties of Population Structure and the Levels of Selection. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 59(1):25–50. ECAL - General Track 7 ECAL 2013
  • 36. Godfrey-Smith, P. (2009). Darwinian Populations and Nat- ural Selection. OUP Oxford. Goldsby, H. J., Dornhaus, A., Kerr, B., and Ofria, C. (2012). Task-switching costs promote the evolution of division of labor and shifts in individuality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Hartl, D. L. and Clark, A. G. (1998). Principles of Popula- tion Genetics. Sinauer Associates. Hauert, C. (2004). Spatial structure often inhibits the evolu- tion of cooperation in the snowdrift game. Nature. Hölldobler, B. and Wilson, E. (2009). The Super-Organism. Norton. Hotz, P. (2004). Asymmetric cell division in artificial evolu- tion. Evolutionary Computation, 2004. CEC2004. ... . Joachimczak, M. and Wróbel, B. (2008). Evo-devo in silico: a model of a gene network regulating multicellular de- velopment in 3D space with artificial physics. Artificial Life XI: Proceedings of the . . ., pages 297–304. Lenski, R. E., Ofria, C., Pennock, R. T., and Adami, C. (2003). The evolutionary origin of complex features. Nature, 423(6936):139–44. Macy, M. W. and Flache, A. (2002). Learning dynamics in social dilemmas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99 Suppl 3:7229–36. Maynard Smith, J. (1964). Group selection and kin selec- tion. Nature. Maynard Smith, J. (1982). Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Maynard Smith, J. and Szathmary, E. (1997). The Major Transitions in Evolution. OUP Oxford. Michod, R. E. (2006). The group covariance effect and fit- ness trade-offs during evolutionary transitions in indi- viduality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sci- ences of the United States of America, 103(24):9113–7. Nowak, M. A. (2006a). Evolutionary Dynamics: Exploring the Equations of Life. Belknap Press. Nowak, M. A. (2006b). Five rules for the evolution of coop- eration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5805):1560–3. Nowak, M. A. and May, R. (1992). Evolutionary games and spatial chaos. Nature. Queller, D. C. (1985). Kinship, reciprocity and synergism in the evolution of social behaviour. Nature, 318. Queller, D. C. (1997). Cooperators since life began. Quar- terly Review of Biology. Ray, T. and Hart, J. (1999). Evolution of differenti- ated multi-threaded digital organisms. Proceedings 1999 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems., 1:1–10. Santos, F. C., Pacheco, J. M., and Lenaerts, T. (2006). Co- operation prevails when individuals adjust their social ties. PLoS computational biology, 2(10):e140. Smith, A. (1776). Wealth of Nations. Hayes Barton Press. ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 8
  • 37. Autonomous construction of synthetic cell membrane Yutetsu Kuruma1 , Hideaki Matsubayashi1 and Takuya Ueda1 1 Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan kuruma@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract A minimal artificial living cell is a sustainable and repro- ducible cell-like entity composed of biological components such as proteins, DNA, RNA and phospholipids (Luisi et al. (2006)). The most realistic strategy in producing such an artificial cell is assembling biomolecules that imitate the ar- chitecture and the function of biosystems in living organisms (Oberholzer et al. (1995)). Firstly we reconstructed the gene expression machinery with the minimal number of purified translation factors addressing the need for an artificial gene expression system. The PURE (Protein synthesis Using Re- combinant Elements) system (Shimizu et al. (2001)), a key tool for bottom-up synthetic biology, enables information en- coded in the DNA sequence to be converted to functional pro- teins and enzymes, and can be used in developing artificial cellular components. Another important and indispensable feature of artificial cells is the encapsulation of genetic infor- mation and gene expression system by a lipid bilayer mem- brane (Ishikawa et al. (2004); Kuruma et al. (2009)). This is also important to sustain an individual from environment. In addition to compartmentalization of biomolecule compo- nents, the membrane provides a structural platform for impor- tant biological functions such as selective transport of mate- rials, adoption of environment information, production of en- ergy, etc. Actually, many of the vital cell functions reside on the lipid membrane, and these functions mostly rely on mem- brane proteins. In this paper, we focused on three important membrane func- tions, i.e. (i) lipid synthesis, (ii) energy production and (iii) membrane protein synthesis. All these membrane functions were indispensable for sustaining cell alive and must be re- constructed as a consequence of internal metabolic reactions. Each membrane function has the corresponding membrane proteins. Therefore our strategy is to construct the membrane function on artificial membrane vesicles, liposomes, through the gene expression of the corresponding protein components by the PURE system. (i) For the lipid synthesis, we selected eight membrane enzymes involving in the biosynthesis pro- cess of major phospholipids from a bacterial genome. These eight enzymes were synthesized by the PURE system in the presence of membrane fraction (membrane Nano-Disc) and measured their activities. The goal of this project is to de- velop a biochemical network in vitro that aims to produce several kinds of phospholipids necessary for the formation of cell envelop. As the first step, we have succeeded to synthe- size two membrane enzymes inside liposomes and individu- ally detected their activities (5). This result would be a funda- mental for the construction of a self-reproducible cell mem- brane. (ii) For energy production, a membrane embedded su- per molecule complex, FoF1-ATP synthase (FoF1), was syn- thesized through the eight kinds of component proteins. The function of FoF1 is to produce ATP molecules, which is an energy source of most cellular activities, based on the proton gradient across a membrane. We have succeeded to synthe- size FoF1 complex by the PURE system and detected its ATP synthesis activity that driven by an artificially generated pro- ton gradient. Furthermore, the reconstructed FoF1 is coupled with another membrane machinery, bacteriorhodopsin (bR), to construct an artificial organelle. The bR is proton pomp machinery that transports protons to inside of the membrane vesicles due to light stimulation. Therefore, our idea is that if the bR and FoF1 were allocated on a same membrane vesi- cle, the resulting vesicle is able to generate ATP molecules by light irradiation (Fig. 1). In this design, we have succeeded to detect the production of ATP molecules in the rate of 35 nmol ATP/hr/mL Reaction Solution. If the produced ATP could be used for protein synthesis reaction within the PURE sys- tem, this represents an energetically independent system and becomes a practical platform of autonomous artificial cell. (iii) All these membrane machineries are built up based on a spontaneous membrane insertion of the synthesized mem- brane proteins. However, a certain kind of membrane protein cannot be integrated spontaneously. In that case, the mem- brane protein needs a help of special membrane machinery, Sec translocon, to achieve the native formation on a lipid membrane. The Sec translocon works as a gate to mediate a membrane insertion and secretion of membrane proteins (Fig. 2). Therefore our idea is to synthesize the component proteins of Sec translocon by the PURE system and construct the Sec translocon on membrane vesicles. Since most of membrane proteins are generated through Sec translocon in living cells, any types of membrane protein can be produced after the con- struction of Sec translocon. So far, we have succeeded to syn- thesize three component proteins (SecYEG) of Sec translo- con of bacteria and to detect its heterotrimeric complex for- mation on a lipid membrane. Furthermore, so synthesized SecYEG enables to produce another membrane proteins that cannot be spontaneously integrated into the membrane. This result indicates that, by synthesizing the Sec translocon, other important membrane proteins (machineries) can be continu- ously produced on the artificial membrane vesicles. Using our in vitro gene expression system, cell membrane functions can be partially constructed on the artificial mem- brane vesicles. More importantly, these membrane functions were autonomously constructed just by adding of the cor- responding DNAs. The ability of an artificial cell to au- ECAL - General Track 9 ECAL 2013
  • 38. Figure 1: Artificial organelle consists of FoF1-ATP synthase and bacteriorhodopsin for production of ATP. tonomously produce membrane protein machineries by its in- ternal genetic/metabolic network is consistent with the theory of autopoiesis by Varela and Maturana (Varela et al. (1974)). This is adaptive and complements the definition of life, sel- freproduction, which is based on gene replication. We be- lieve that our cell-free approach will become a central device for the construction of artificial cell membranes and a break- through for the realization of artificial cells. References Ishikawa, K., Sato, K., Shima, Y., Urabe, I., and Yomo, T. (2004). Expression of a cascading genetic network within liposomes. FEBS letters, 576(3):387–390. Kuruma, Y., Stano, P., Ueda, T., and Luisi, P. L. (2009). A synthetic biology approach to the construction of membrane proteins in semi-synthetic minimal cells. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembranes, 1788(2):567–574. Luisi, P. L., Ferri, F., and Stano, P. (2006). Approaches to semi-synthetic minimal cells: a review. Naturwis- senschaften, 93(1):1–13. Oberholzer, T., Albrizio, M., and Luisi, P. L. (1995). Poly- merase chain reaction in liposomes. Chemistry & biol- ogy, 2(10):677–682. Shimizu, Y., Inoue, A., Tomari, Y., Suzuki, T., Yokogawa, T., Nishikawa, K., and Ueda, T. (2001). Cell-free trans- lation reconstituted with purified components. Nature biotechnology, 19(8):751–755. Figure 2: Membrane secretion and integration functions of SecYEG translocon. Varela, F. G., Maturana, H. R., and Uribe, R. (1974). Au- topoiesis: The organization of living systems, its char- acterization and a model. Biosystems, 5(4):187–196. ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 10
  • 39. Exploring the Role of the Tail in Bipedal Hopping through Computational Evolution Jared M. Moore1 , Anne K. Gutmann2 , Craig P. McGowan2 , and Philip K. McKinley1 1 Dept. Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA 2 Dept. Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA moore112@msu.edu Abstract Bipedal hopping has evolved as a mode of terrestrial loco- motion in relatively few mammalian species. Despite large differences in body size, habitat use, and having evolved in- dependently, all species that use bipedal hopping have re- markably similar limb morphology and posture. In addition, these species all have relatively long tails, presumably to as- sist in maintaining stability. However, the evolution of this behavior, and specifically the role of the tail, is not well un- derstood. In this paper, we explore the evolution of bipedal hopping in a simulated animat, using a relatively simple mus- culoskeletal model and a rigid-body physics simulation en- vironment. Results indicate that characteristically different hopping gaits evolve with alterations to the morphology, in- cluding the structure and actuation of the tail. Many of the the results are consistent with behaviors and morphologies observed in natural organisms. However, in some cases ef- fective hopping evolved despite key differences from nature, potentially inspiring new design approaches in robotic and biomechanical systems. Introduction Bipedal hopping has evolved in relatively few mammalian species, but apparently for different reasons. In small ani- mals such as kangaroo rats (Figure 1), spring hares, and jer- boas, hopping is primarily used as a predator escape mech- anism (Biewener and Blickhan, 1988). In larger animals, such as kangaroos and wallabies, hopping offers an energy- efficient means of locomotion over long distances (Dawson and Taylor, 1973). Despite size differences, the overall mor- phologies of these animals are quite similar. Specifically, bipedal hoppers tend to have long tails and powerful hind legs, which perform the majority of work during locomo- tion. Yet, the evolutionary origins of this behavior, as well as many related issues, remain obscure. Can bipedal hop- ping evolve only with this morphology, or is it coincidence that these various species exhibit similar body proportions? Which aspects of the morphology are essential to hopping? Do there exist other morphologies for which bipedal hop- ping would provide an effective means of locomotion? Not only can answering such questions inform biology, but a bet- ter understanding of the evolutionary history and mechanics of hopping has application in biomechanics, robotics and the development of prosthetics. Unfortunately, the relatively small number of species that exhibit this behavior, as well as incomplete fossil records, make it difficult to address this problem through natural systems alone. Computational evolution provides a means to explore the selective pressures that can lead to hopping, as well as mor- phological characteristics that sustain it over generations. Moreover, both the behavior and body can deviate from those occurring in nature, enabling the researcher to dis- cover more general principles regarding these issues. A pre- vious study into the evolution of hopping using a 2D muscu- loskeletal model found that both quadrupedal and bipedal hopping gaits are very sensitive to changes in morphol- ogy (Hase et al., 2004). However, such a model does not take into account many aspects of hopping, such as main- taining balance, that are essential in the physical world. Our work explores the evolution of hopping in 3D physics- based simulation environments. While our early studies, de- scribed here, rely on rigid-body physics environments, more complex musculoskeletal models have been developed (Gut- mann et al., 2012) and will be integrated into our investiga- tions as computational capacity permits. In this paper, we focus on the role of the tail in the evolution of hopping behavior. The virtual animat model approximates muscles, joints, mass and torque, enabling us to evolve biologically plausible patterns of movement. Through a series of five evolutionary treatments, described Figure 1: The kangaroo rat was selected as the base mor- phology for studying the evolution of bipedal hopping, due to its representative morphology and the availability of infor- mation on both the mechanics and dynamics of its behavior. ECAL - General Track 11 ECAL 2013
  • 40. later, we investigate the effect of different initial (and evolv- able) tail configurations on the evolution of effective hop- ping gaits. We initially start with a fixed morphology resem- bling a kangaroo rat, but restrictions on the morphology are loosened with each subsequent treatment. The contributions of this paper are as follows. First, the proposed muscle model produces locomotion patterns simi- lar to those of natural organisms and limits the output poten- tial of each individual joint. This model is computationally less expensive than a musculoskeletal dynamics simulator, enabling the large number of evaluations necessary in evo- lutionary approaches. Second, the results demonstrate that a tail is essential to hopping, but that different configura- tions can lead to very different gaits, some closely resem- bling those of biological counterparts (namely kangaroo rats and wallabies), and others different from any known species. Third, while we observed a close coupling among tail move- ment and the oscillation frequency of leg joints, we discov- ered multiple combinations that produced effective bipedal hopping behavior. Finally, we were surprised that many evolved tails had relatively low mass, as it is hypothesized that a heavy tail helps maintain a high moment of inertia in animals, producing a more stable gait. This result might be due to our relatively simple model of the morphology (we plan to use more detailed musculoskeletal models in the fu- ture), but might also represent a combination of morphology and behavior that has application outside biology. Related Work The role of the tail in locomotion is of considerable inter- est within biology. In their studies of geckos, which are not bipedal hoppers, Full and colleagues found that the tail is essential to both orientation control and gait stability (Jusufi et al., 2008; Libby et al., 2012). Alexander and Vernon stud- ied the musculoskeletal system of kangaroos and described the overall mechanical system and the forces exerted dur- ing hopping (Alexander and Vernon, 1975). They also first hypothesized that the tail was necessary to balance the an- gular momentum produced by the swinging legs during hop- ping. However, to our knowledge no one has yet tested this hypothesis, nor explored its significance in other hopping species. In robotics, hopping is an intriguing locomotion strategy for its potential energy efficiency and the ability to rapidly change elevation. The latter is particularly important to radio communication, as signal propagation distance is greatly in- creased by moving transmitters above ground level (Cintr´on and Mutka, 2010). Indeed, research in this area has led to the development of small robots capable of both self stabi- lization and hopping (Zhao et al., 2009). Prior studies on hopping have also addressed mechanics of simple, single- joint actuated robots that were able to achieve stable hop- ping gaits (Berkemeier and Fearing, 1998), and single-hop robots have been constructed using pneumatic muscle actu- ators (Niiyama et al., 2007). It has also been shown that combining several hops was more energy efficient than a single, powerful hop, while producing the same jumping height (Aguilar et al., 2012). This efficient hopping motion was discovered after analyzing thousands of results, lending support to harnessing the search capability of evolutionary computation in order to address similar problems. Evolutionary approaches have been shown to be success- ful in many robotic and biological applications. Beginning with the foundational work of Brooks and Sims (Brooks, 1992; Sims, 1994), computational evolution has proven ef- fective at producing a diverse range of behaviors. Examples include evolution of neural-based controllers (Cliff et al., 1993; Ijspeert, 2001, 2008) and locomotion strategies for real or simulated robots (Bongard, 2011; Clune et al., 2009; Gomez et al., 2008). Other studies have focused on opti- mizing morphological components, such as the caudal fin of a robotic fish (Clark et al., 2012) and flexible joints in ter- restrial robots (Moore and McKinley, 2012). As noted ear- lier, the evolutionary computation study conducted by Hase et al. (Hase et al., 2004) found that 2D animats with sim- ulated neuromuscular morphologies were capable of both bipedal and quadrupedal hopping motions similar to their re- spective biological counterparts. By applying evolutionary approaches to the study of bipedal hopping in 3D animats, we hope to gain insights into this behavior at a level not pre- viously explored. Methods We began our study with an animat based roughly on the morphology of a kangaroo rat, whose gaits have been ana- lyzed extensively with the aid of high-speed, high-resolution video cameras (Gutmann et al., 2013); see Figure 2. We first evolved gaits for fixed morphologies, then allowed evolution of morphological parameters such as limb dimensions, joint output potential and mass distribution. Virtual Animat. Figure 3 shows the initial animat con- structed in the Open Dynamics Engine (Smith, 2012), with body part dimensions corresponding to that of the kanga- roo rat. The animat also features a controller that actu- ates all joints. Kinematic data of the kangaroo rat’s hop- ping gait indicated that the individual joints move in a pe- riodic motion similar to a sine wave. Hence, for this initial study where we focus on steady state hopping gaits, a rel- atively simple sinusoidal controller was implemented; our ongoing investigations use more complex neural-based con- trollers. In addition, left/right symmetry was enforced. This decision was made primarily due to the difficulty in evolv- ing a controller for a predefined morphology (unlike na- ture, where they evolved together). Preliminary experiments found that asymmetric controllers had difficulty achieving stable gaits due to large differences in the length of hind and fore limbs. Moreover, observation of kangaroo rats demon- strates left/right symmetry during hopping. ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 12
  • 41. Figure 2: X-ray video progression of a kangaroo rat hopping across a force plate to quantify hopping dynamics. Muscle Model. Animals exhibit fluid movements pro- duced by muscles contracting and relaxing in a coordinated manner. To approximate such dynamics in a rigid-body sim- ulator such as ODE, we modeled muscular connections us- ing hinge joints with appropriate constraints. In particular, we devised a model in which the energy an individual joint can expend during actuation is limited. Doing so prevents situations in which a joint can move with an infinite amount of force, an impossibility in biological organisms. Figure 4 shows the range of motion and relative power of each joint in the morphology. Limiting the maximum force an indi- vidual joint can exert produces a system in which multiple joints must work together to move the animat. This muscu- lar model is applied only to the rear legs, as the fore legs do not factor heavily into the locomotion pattern for evolved individuals. We found that this model produced coordination among the components of the body and natural looking gaits. Dur- ing locomotion, animal joints do not always move through- out their entire range of motion (for example, strides may be shortened to handle rough terrain, or the center of gravity may be lowered by crouching to improve balance). If the po- tential were unlimited, joints would always move throughout their full range of motion, irrespective of external forces. By limiting potential, the range of motion of one joint would be indirectly determined by the evolved muscle output param- eters of other joints. Moreover, limiting the overall output potential of each joint allowed the limbs to flex and react to the ground when landing, increasing stability and the “natu- ralness” of the gait. Figure 3: Initial simulated animat used in this study, with morphological dimensions and mass based on kangaroo rat. Figure 4: Two-dimensional representation of the animat joints, with range of movement indicated. Evolutionary Setup. For each of five treatments, de- scribed in the next section, we executed 25 replicate runs, each with a unique random number seed. In each run, a population of 150 individuals evolved for 4000 generations. Fitness was defined simply to be the distance traveled in 10 seconds of simulated time. No special selective pressure was applied to prefer hopping to other forms of locomotion. Suc- cessive generations were populated using 2-way tournament selection with mutation and crossover as defined below. The genome comprised 12, 14, or 16 values, depending on the treatment, as shown in Table 1. For treatments 1 and 2, the genome did not include parameters for an actuated tail. The mutation rate was relatively high, 20%, but mutations were defined according to a gaussian distribution, so an in- dividual mutation was unlikely to produce a large change in value. We found this approach to be effective given the con- trol strategy used, where a large change in a single key pa- rameter, such as a phase offset, often produced an unstable solution. A more conservative mutation approach allowed for gradual change to gait patterns over generations. Single-point crossover was applied with a probability of 25% per genome. Crossover exhibited spatial locality, in that parents for an individual solution were chosen within a defined range. Specifically, we applied a geographical ap- proach (Spector and Klein, 2006), where the population is considered as a one-dimensional line with wrap-around. In- dividuals are produced from parents that are considered to be close to their offspring. ECAL - General Track 13 ECAL 2013
  • 42. Table 1: Individual Gene Limits Parameter Min. Value Max Value Actuation Freq. 0 Hz 2.5 Hz Hip Orientation 0◦ 337.5◦ Knee Orientation 0◦ 337.5◦ Ankle Orientation 0◦ 337.5◦ Toe Orientation 0◦ 337.5◦ Shoulder Orientation 0◦ 337.5◦ Elbow Orientation 0◦ 337.5◦ Center of Mass body center - 0.25 × length body center + 0.25 × length Hip Power 0 (passive) 1.0 Knee Power 0 (passive) 1.0 Ankle Power 0 (passive) 1.0 Toe Power 0 (passive) 1.0 Treatments 3, 4 and 5 Tail Actuation Freq. 0 Hz 2.5 Hz Tail Orientation 0◦ 337.5◦ Treatment 5 Only Tail Length 0.07 × body length 2.2 × body length Tail Mass 3.25×10−4 × body mass 0.6 × body mass Experiments & Results The 5 treatments, described below, investigate the role of the tail in bipedal hopping, including interaction with other aspects of the morphology and effect on gaits. To assist the reader in visualizing evolved behaviors, we have placed videos of selected evolved behaviors on a YouTube account: Treatment 1: http://y2u.be/V56Xmgf7pxE Treatment 2: http://y2u.be/M1BWXwVUAEM Treatment 3: http://y2u.be/bizIMorOv9g Treatment 4: http://y2u.be/dIyoE0eMm2A Treatment 5: http://y2u.be/OXIbXrwXU3Y Treatment 1: No Tail. In Treatment 1, individuals lack a tail. Most (18) of the 25 replicate runs failed to produce bipedal hopping, instead evolving bounding gaits, where fore and hind limbs alternate contact with the ground. Such gaits were common throughout the study, since they offer relatively stable locomotion, albeit slower than bipedal hop- ping. Six of the replicate runs were able to manage two or three hops before settling into a forward-leaning gait and then regressing to a bounding gait. However, in one run, the dominant individual, shown in Figure 5 and the Treatment 1 video, exhibited a fairly effective bipedal hopping gait, al- though it flipped over near the end of the simulation period. Presumably, the bounding gait was a more stable configura- tion for tailless animats. Examination of early generations found that many individuals attempting to hop tended to flip over backwards, resulting in low fitness scores. One en- couraging trend that emerged in this and subsequent treat- ments was the effectiveness of our muscle model in simulat- ing flexible joints. During locomotion, joints flexed to react to contact with the ground, resembling the function of bio- logical musculoskeletal systems. Treatment 2: Fixed, Rigid Tail. In the second treatment, individuals had a fixed, rigid tail, and were able to evolve hopping gaits with relatively high fitness values. However, we observed that the majority of successful hoppers used the tail as a “kickstand” to prevent flipping over, as had occurred in Treatment 1. The increased stability enabled individuals to hop farther. The best evolved individual for this treatment can be seen in Figure 5. Most of the replicate runs produced individuals that used their tail in this manner through the entire simulation period, however, a few managed to execute two or three hops between tail taps. Although not ideal, this tail-tapping motion turned out to be an important aspect in the emergence of hopping gaits. Treatment 3: Actuated Tail. The fixed tail in Treatment 2 approximates the initial posture of a kangaroo rat at the start of a hopping motion. In Treatment 3, we expanded the genome to allow the tail to evolve a speed of oscilla- tion value as well as a starting position. We expected to see hopping gaits that did not use the tail as a kickstand as had occurred in Treatment 2. Evolved solutions for this treat- ment did tend to favor oscillating tails that counteracted the angular momentum of the body. However, the kickstand ef- fect was still present in many individuals, although not as predominant as those evolved previously. In addition to the kickstand function of the tail, evolved individuals demon- strated a coupling between tail and leg oscillation that has the tail moving against the legs to limit the rotation of the body during the hop. An evolved individual for this treat- ment can be seen in Figure 6, which shows the use of the actuated tail to stabilize the body pitch. Treatment 4: Tail Collision Removal. In a natural en- vironment, hopping species tend not to drag their tails on the ground or even allow the tail to contact the ground at high speeds, in order to avoid injury. In Treatment 4, we explicitly removed the kickstand effect by simply prevent- ing the tail from interacting with the ground. (Effectively, the tail could contact and penetrate the ground with no ef- fect on the animat.) We expected solutions to instead use the tail as a counterbalance to angular momentum, consistent with a prevailing hypothesis in biology (Bartholomew and Caswell, 1951; Alexander and Vernon, 1975; Libby et al., 2012). Instead, the results from all replicate runs tended to- wards bounding gaits similar to those in Treatment 1. We suspect that the additional mass associated with a tail made it more difficult for the individuals to maintain balance, re- sulting in the tendency to lean forward. ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 14
  • 43. Figure 5: Behavior of evolved tailless and fixed-tail individuals. The fixed tail individual was able to hop more effectively by using its tail as a stabilizer to prevent flipping over backwards. Figure 6: An evolved hopping individual from Treatment 3 with an actuated tail. Note the coordination between tail and legs to maintain body pitch throughout the hopping motion. In the evolved individual from Treatment 5, the tail evolves to be shorter than those of the previous treatments, enabling faster hopping. Treatment 5: Evolvable Tail Morphology In the first four treatments, tails appeared to be essential to maintaining stability. In biology, it is generally agreed that an important function of the tail is to counter the angular momentum of the body, discouraging body pitch changes over the hopping period (Bartholomew and Caswell, 1951; Libby et al., 2012). Since we had based the animat’s morphology on the kanga- roo rat, we were curious what solutions would be discovered if tail length and tail mass were allowed to evolve. Indeed, Treatment 5 runs produced bipedal hoppers with tails ap- proximately half as long as those in the earlier treatments; an example is shown in Figure 6. Performance Comparison. Figure 7 plots the best and average fitness for each of the 5 treatments. In Treatment 1, solutions were forced to focus heavily on stable locomotion rather than maximizing the speed of movement, resulting in low fitness. Treatment 4 exhibited even worse performance in both plots, demonstrating that in these experiments tail tapping is an important part of the behavior, at least as the animat starts moving. Treatment 5 had the best performing individuals across all treatments, although the average per- formance was similar to that of Treatment 3. This result is likely due to individuals that were unstable and attained low fitness scores. Individuals in Treatment 2 had the second best performance, presumably by using the tail to stabilize the animat during hopping. Treatment 2 also had the best average fitness, indicating that the static nature of the mor- phology likely made finding stable solutions easier. Analysis. Considering the high performance achieved in Treatment 5, we sought to determine which factors and rela- tionships gave rise to effective bipedal hopping. We discov- ered that in the top 10% of evolved solutions in this treat- ment, there existed a relatively tight coupling between tail and leg oscillation frequencies. Figure 8 presents these data ECAL - General Track 15 ECAL 2013
  • 44. (a) (b) Figure 7: Fitness of 5 treatments over evolutionary time: (a) Best performing individual, averaged across 25 runs for each treatment; (b) Average performance in each evolved popula- tion, averaged across 25 runs for each treatment. Shaded bands indicate 95% confidence intervals. for individuals in the final generation. In the figure, the tail oscillation frequencies are generally near either a harmonic of the leg oscillation frequency, or they act as a passively flexible joint (lower right). Results that fall on or near these harmonic values have tails that move directly opposite to the rotation of the body, apparently helping to maintain a more effective body orientation. In the solutions indicated as pas- sively flexible, the tail oscillation frequencies are so low that they behave as a flexible joint that moves only in reaction to the hopping motion, thus countering rotational movement. The coordination in phase between tail and leg movement is essential for successful individuals and is supported by bio- logical observation. In hopping species, tails tend to move in concert with the rest of the body producing a unified gait pattern. In our observations of evolved animats, individu- als lacking this coordination tend to produce extraneous or detracting movements that actually hinder performance. GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGG G GGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGG GGGGGGGGGGG G GG GG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGG G GG G GGGGG GGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGG GG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGG G GGG GGGGG GG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G G GGG G G G GG GG G G GGG GG G G G G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGG G 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 2xHarmonic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 1x H arm onic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic 0.5x Harmonic Passively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively FlexiblePassively Flexible 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Leg Oscillation Frequency TailOscillationFrequency Dataset Top 10% Bottom 90% Fit G G 0 20 40 Leg Oscillation Frequency versus Tail Oscillation Frequency Figure 8: Relationship between the leg oscillation fre- quency and tail oscillation frequency in Treatment 5. The straight lines indicate harmonics between the two frequen- cies. Evolved solutions tended to either fall near these lines or in the passively flexible region. A second area of interest is the evolved mass of the tails and the resulting moments of inertia. As seen in Figure 9, the evolved results tended towards tail masses that were less than 15% of the total body mass. Indeed, tails in some of the best performing individuals accounted for less than 5% of total body mass. These light tails resulted in relatively low moments of inertia, as seen in Figure 10. Lower moments of inertia in these individuals potentially allow the body to generally change pitch throughout the hopping motion rather than maintain a stable body orientation. This result is intriguing because stable orientation in hop- ping species benefits from a high moment of inertia in tails (Usherwood and Hubel, 2012). Moreover, Figure 10 indicates that there is no direct relationship between the tail moment of inertia and leg oscillation frequency. A possible explanation is related to our evaluation period. While the in- sight into high moments of inertia for the tails is well under- stood, the biological observations leading to this conclusion generally focus on steady-state hopping. However, in our treatments, fitness evaluation begins at the start of the sim- ulation period which includes the startup phase. Hence, in- dividuals begin from a stationary starting position and must begin to hop before reaching their final steady state. The inclusion of the startup period places an emphasis on sta- bility during the transition from stationary pose to hopping to avoid falling over or becoming unstable. This pressure ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 16
  • 45. GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGG G GGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGG GGGGGGGGGGG G GG GG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGG G GG G GGGGG G GG GGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGG GG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GG G G GGG GGGGG GG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G G GGG G G G GG GG G G GGG GG G GG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGG G 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Leg Oscillation Frequency TailMass(FractionofTotalMass) Dataset Top 10% Bottom 90% Fit G G 0 20 40 Leg Oscillation Frequency versus Tail Mass Figure 9: Relationship between the leg oscillation frequency and tail mass as a percentage of total body mass. Lighter tails are favored, although the evolved tail length remains relatively constant even for different masses. GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGG GGGGGGGGGGG G GG GG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGG GGG G GGGGG GGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGG GG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGG GGGG GGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G GGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GG G G GGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G G GGGG G GGG GG G G GGG GG G GG GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG G 0.0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Leg Oscillation Frequency MomentofInertia Dataset Top 10% Bottom 90% Fit 0 20 40 Leg Oscillation Frequency versus Tail Moment of Inertia Figure 10: Relationship between the leg oscillation fre- quency and moment of inertia for an individual. A low moment of inertia generally means the animat is likely to change body pitch during hopping. likely forces the solutions to evolve parameters that encour- age stable startup gaits over those that are most efficient or fastest during the steady-state phase. One possible approach is to delay the evaluation until the animat has had an op- portunity to start moving. Adding such a transient phase, which has proven successful in other recent studies (Moore et al., 2013), may encourage tail parameter evolution to- wards steady state hopping. However, we note that at the time of this writing, a preliminary set of experiments showed that a transient phase actually reduced fitness. This issue is a topic of our ongoing research. Conclusions Although relatively uncommon in the animal kingdom, bipedal hopping provides benefits both for energy efficiency and as a survival mechanism. A better understanding of this behavior, and how it evolved, not only informs biology but has implications for the design of robotic systems. We have developed a computationally-efficient kinematic model that approximates the function of natural muscles and is suitable for integration into evolutionary algorithms. In 5 treatments, we explored the role of the tail in hopping gaits. We found that a tail is essential to hopping, as tailless individuals re- sorted to bounding or shuffling gaits. Evolved gaits exhibit similarities to their biological counterparts in terms of tail movement and joint coordination. However, our results also show that bipedal hopping is not limited to the morphologi- cal configurations observed in nature, but can evolve in other morphologies (i.e., those with short, light tails). Indeed, the initial morphology based on the kangaroo rat dimensions proved not to be the most effective morphology. Finally, the inclusion of the startup phase in fitness evaluation led to an alternate use for the tail as a stabilizer, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported. In future work we plan to conduct more in-depth study of transient versus steady-state hopping behaviors and the pressures influencing them. We also plan to refine our simu- lated muscular model to more accurately capture the behav- ior of natural muscle and tendon systems. Finally, as with our studies of aquatic robots, we intend to evolve more com- plex controllers, using artificial neural networks, for bipedal hoppers. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the BEACON Cen- ter for the Study of Evolution in Action, which directly supported this study and fosters an environment for in- terdisciplinary collaboration. This research also has been supported in part by U.S. National Science Foundation grants CNS-1059373, CNS-0915855, CNS-0751155, CCF- 0820220, and DBI-0939454. References Aguilar, J., Lesov, A., Wiesenfeld, K., and Goldman, D. (2012). Lift-off dynamics in a simple jumping robot. Physical Review Letters, 109(174301). Alexander, R. M. and Vernon, A. (1975). The mechanics of hopping by kangaroos (macropodidae). Journal of Zoology, 177(2):265–303. Bartholomew, G. A. and Caswell, H. H. (1951). Locomo- tion in kangaroo rats and its adaptive significance. J. Mamm., 32:155–169. Berkemeier, M. and Fearing, R. (1998). Sliding and hopping gaits for the underactuated acrobot. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 14(4):629 –634. ECAL - General Track 17 ECAL 2013
  • 46. Biewener, A. A. and Blickhan, R. (1988). Kangaroo rat lo- comotion: design for elastic energy storage or acceler- ation? J. Exp. Biol., 140:243–255. Bongard, J. C. (2011). Morphological and environmental scaffolding synergize when evolving robot controllers. In Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Genetic and Evolu- tionary Computation Conference. Brooks, R. A. (1992). Artificial life and real robots. In Pro- ceedings of the First European Conference on Artificial Life, pages 3–10. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Cintr´on, F. and Mutka, M. (2010). Hopping enhanced sen- sors for efficient sensor network connectivity and cov- erage. In 2010 IEEE 7th International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), pages 119 –126, San Francisco, CA, USA. IEEE. Clark, A. J., Moore, J. M., Wang, J., Tan, X., and McKin- ley, P. K. (2012). Evolutionary design and experimen- tal validation of a flexible caudal fin for robotic fish. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. Cliff, D., Husbands, P., and Harvey, I. (1993). Explorations in Evolutionary Robotics. Adaptive Behavior, 2(1):73– 110. Clune, J., Beckmann, B. E., Ofria, C., and Pennock, R. T. (2009). Evolving coordinated quadruped gaits with the HyperNEAT generative encoding. In Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computing, pages 2764–2771, Trondheim, Norway. Dawson, T. J. and Taylor, C. R. (1973). Energetic cost of locomotion in kangaroos. Nature, 246(5431):313–314. Gomez, F., Schmidhuber, J., and Miikkulainen, R. (2008). Accelerated neural evolution through cooperatively co- evolved synapses. Journal of Machine Learning Re- search, 9:937–965. Gutmann, A. K., Lee, D. V., and McGowan, C. P. (2013). Collision dynamics of bipedal hopping. In Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, San Francisco, California, USA. Gutmann, A. K., McKinley, P. K., and McGowan, C. P. (2012). A detailed musculoskeletal model for studying the evolution of bipedal hopping. Bio/computational Evolution in Action Consortium Congress, East Lans- ing, Michigan, USA. Hase, K., Khang, G., and Eom, G.-M. (2004). A simulation study on the evolution of hopping motions in animals. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, 34(3):353 –362. Ijspeert, A. J. (2001). A connectionist central pattern gener- ator for the aquatic and terrestrial gaits of a simulated salamander. Biological Cybernetics, 84(5):331–348. Ijspeert, A. J. (2008). Central pattern generators for locomo- tion control in animals and robots: A review. Neural Networks, 21(4):642–653. Jusufi, A., Goldman, D. I., Revzen, S., and Full, R. J. (2008). Active tails enhance arboreal acrobatics in geckos. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sci- ences, 105(11):4215–4219. Libby, T., Moore, T. Y., Chang-Siu, E., Li, D., Cohen, D. J., Jusufi, A., and Full, R. J. (2012). Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs. Nature, 481(7380):181–184. Moore, J. M., Clark, A. J., and McKinley, P. K. (2013). Evo- lution of station keeping as a response to flows in an aquatic robot. In Proceedings of the 2013 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computing Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ACM. Moore, J. M. and McKinley, P. K. (2012). Evolving flex- ible joint morphologies. In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computing Confer- ence, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. ACM. Niiyama, R., Nagakubo, A., and Kuniyoshi, Y. (2007). Mowgli: A bipedal jumping and landing robot with an artificial musculoskeletal system. In Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pages 2546 –2551, Roma, Italy. Sims, K. (1994). Evolving virtual creatures. In Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pages 15–22. Smith, R. (2012). Open Dynamics Engine. Manual and source code available online at: http://www.ode.org. Spector, L. and Klein, J. (2006). Trivial geography in ge- netic programming. In Yu, T., Riolo, R., and Worzel, B., editors, Genetic Programming Theory and Practice III, volume 9 of Genetic Programming, pages 109–123. Springer US. Usherwood, J. R. and Hubel, T. Y. (2012). Energetically op- timal running requires torques about the centre of mass. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, 9(73):2011– 2015. Zhao, J., Yang, R., Xi, N., Gao, B., Fan, X., Mutka, M. W., and Xiao, L. (2009). Development of a miniature self-stabilization jumping robot. In Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE/RSJ international conference on Intelligent robots and systems, pages 2217–2222, St. Louis, MO, USA. IEEE Press. ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 18
  • 47. The role of arousal in embodying the cueXdeficit model in multi-resource human- robot interaction Kiril Kiryazov1 , Robert Lowe1 1 Interaction Lab, University of Skovde, Sweden kiril.kiryazov@his.se Abstract In this paper is investigated the problem of managing limited resources in human-robot interaction with a computational architecture of emotion. The architecture is based on the appraisal theory of affect and an ethological motivational model of task selection. Key variables and performance criteria for robotic energy autonomous behaviour in interaction with humans are discussed. The role of arousal for modulating effort of movement is explored. It is shown that the architecture can manage task selection and the effort of the movement and offers sustainable basic-cycles in exemplar “two-resource problem” test-bed scenarios for an iCub robot. An extension of the architecture with a third ‘resource’ – safety – is presented and how the architecture is able to solve the new ‘three- resource’ problem is demonstrated. Introduction Research on robots interacting with humans perennially arouses interest. There are many research agendas focused on human-robot interaction (HRI), for example, concerning service robots for helping the elderly or disabled people, robot toys for treatment of autism in children, artificial pets for entertainment, autonomous vehicles and robotized spacesuits. The requisite artificial agents should be able, autonomously, to balance their internal needs such as energy homeostasis, hardware integrity, temperature balance, and at the same time fulfil designer requirements whilst interacting efficiently with the human inter-actor. If a certain degree of autonomy is missing and there is no remote control operation, the agent will require a predesigned action set for every possible environment state, an impossible feat in a complex environment where humans reside. McFarland suggests that at the root of autonomous control is energy autonomy (Mcfarland & Spier, 1997; McFarland, 2008). The robot should be able to produce high work quality whilst efficiently utilizing the available energy level of its batteries. Furthermore, the autonomous robot must find the behavioral trade-off between re-charging and working. Managing these two conflicting requirements fundamentally, constitutes the “two-resource problem”, which has become a test bed for several studies in autonomous robotics (Avila- García & Cañamero, 2004; Lowe et al., 2010) . The main emphases of the proposed solutions are: firstly, the amount of time the robot should spend at each resource, and secondly, the time at which (work, fuelling) behavioural activities should be switched (sequencing of behaviors) (Wawerla & Vaughan, 2009). Effort during movement is another crucial factor regarding energy autonomy. Responding to urgent situations such as items falling from surfaces, fire hazards, boiling, or/and overflowing, water requires fast and effortful action. However, in moments of relative calm, the autonomous robot should conserve its energy and, essentially, ‘take it easy’. More effortful movements could raise the safety hazard and this is another reason that the robot should “spare its effort” in situations other than those requiring urgency. For the purpose of addressing the above considerations for robot autonomy we have developed an affective-cognitive architecture. This combines ‘top-down’ processes, enabling (human-like) expression of emotional state, with ‘bottom up’ processes grounded in the energy balancing mechanisms of the robot. We postulate that this hybrid approach offers the robot greater potential for flexibility when performing tasks that require the cycling of two or more activities. In (Kiryazov, Lowe, Becker-Asano, & Ziemke, 2011) a similar architecture was presented but implemented in a simulated NAO robot. Robot ‘work’ concerned an abstract behavioural sequence of reaching and then stepping onto a certain square on the ground. In the current set of experiments the work is less abstract and represents a more realistic service robot task subcomponent – robot tracking/monitoring of human action. The robot is required to track a ball, which the human inter- actor holds and moves. Specifically, the robot is required to uncover an interactive dynamic in relation to its energetic and movement capabilities guiding viable task (ball tracking, (re)charging) switching behaviour. This is further constrained by a requirement to interact ‘safely’ The rest of the paper breaks down into the following sections: 2) The two-resource problem and humanoid service robotics – we provide a description of a general two-resource framework for autonomous robots and its adaptation to the proposed service robotics specific requirements; 3) An affective embodied architecture – presenting a cognitive architecture for solving the specified problems; 4) Methodology; 5) Results; 6) Discussion – a summary of present work and insights, and proposed future experiments using the cognitive architecture incorporating emotional expression and recognition mechanisms; 7) Conclusion. The two-resource problem and humanoid service robotics Two-resource problem scenarios offer a common test bed for studying behaviour cycling of autonomous robots under resource constraints. The two-resource problem requires an agent to maintain the level of two basic internal variables in relation to relevant environmental resources. In order for the problem not to be trivial, the robot behaviour that leads to an ECAL - General Track 19 ECAL 2013
  • 48. increasing satisfaction of one resource-related variable should, most of the time, lead to the inability to satisfy the other resource-related variable(s). In such a framework one of the main problems is the choice of the best action for collecting the right resource at the right moment in time (Wawerla & Vaughan, 2009). The way of gathering a resource is also important as it is stated in (Spier & Mcfarland, 1986) it is not only important “what to do next” but also “how to do it” . When the two resources are the work and energy, which a mechanical robot should balance, then the choice of an effort of a movement (speed, stiffness) contribute importantly to this two-resource problem. In the two-resource problem framework of McFarland and Spiers (Mcfarland & Spier, 1997) the artificial agent (animat) is represented as a state space. The animat is characterized with a minimum set of state variables that are sufficient to describe its psychological state. The animat should maintain homeostasis of this state (not going into a lethal limit), handling the perturbations caused by its actions and the environment. Within this framework, McFarland and Spiers’ experiment with different decision strategies for the animat. They show that very simple cueXdeficit motivation leads to good performance in a lot of different environments. The motivation of a robot/animat to approach a particular resource (r) is calculated as: !! = !!  ×  !!×  !!                                                                (1)   where Dr is the deficit of the resource-related variable in relation to a homeostatic value set by the designer. Cr is the cue of resource r and represents its ease of access, e.g. for a mechanical robot a metric for the cue could be the euclidean distance of the resource of the current position of the robot. If a resource is temporarily not visible, instead of having a zero cue value (cf. (Spier & McFarland, 1996), it is proposed to assign a low fixed value to the cue – the so-called “ambient cue”. This represent “the knowledge” of the agent that there should be some of this resource somewhere in the environment and could motivate the agent to search for it if this resource deficit is very low (even if the agent cannot see it). When the motivation is dependent on the cue, two types of behavioural patterns – opportunism and persistence – emerge, which are important for behavioural stability in two-resource problem frameworks (Avila-García & Cañamero, 2004; Spier & McFarland, 1996). Kr is the availability of tools in the environment, which are required to handle resource r. The cue of a resource is based on sensor input and the deficit is measured through proprioception. This model captures animal behaviour at an abstract level where a basic requirement of populations of animals is to choose between food and water resources (Sibly, 1975). For animals the most important resources are food and water or, alternatively, fuel and mating. The work and energy are suggested as robotic analogues for the two basic resources (Mcfarland & Spier, 1997) A basic measure for behavioural stability for a robot in such two-resource problem scenarios proposed in the above- mentioned studies is the ability of the system to produce sustainable basic cycles – cycles in the state space of the robot which don’t cross the designer-specified “lethal” limits of the resource-related variables. Figure 1. Left: A typical two-resource problem in a 2D world where the robot collects multiple resources of two different types (e.g. blue = water, red = food). Right: A two resource problem for service humanoid robots, where there is one fixed energy resource and a dynamic “work” resource. For a simple wheeled robot the movement towards a resource and its effort is simply controllable by the speed of the two motors for the left and right wheel. Humanoid robots have many more degrees of freedom and the actions they perform are much more complex. In order to simplify the optimization problem for such robots an algorithmic distinction between the task switching mechanism and the effort of movement is reasonable. In order to translate simple wheeled robot two- resource problems to humanoid robot and service robotics scenarios certain factors should be considered. In common, there is only one “energy resource” and that is a charger, which may be in a fixed position the location of which is knowable regardless of the robot’s current position. However, “work“ – which is often related to human behavior, entails complex environmental and social dynamics where interaction with human decision making is concerned. At any time the robot should choose the most appropriate action – for work or charging. The actions can be performed at different speeds or degrees of stiffness of the actuators, the latter relating to precision of performance, safety and energy efficiency. Robots can have different profiles of energy consumption related to their speed of movement. If movements at low speed are more energy efficient, then the robot has to choose the speed apt to solve the trade-off between energy and work efficiency. If the robot consumes less energy for higher movement speed, then the robot basically should move at the highest possible speed for optimal behaviour. However, as previously suggested, higher speed could raise difficulties in HRI, e.g. decreased safety. Safety is an important aspect related to effort of movement in HRI. Higher speed or more power in the actuators will also mean a greater safety hazard in a close human-robot interaction. Safety could be defined as a third resource, in the same framework, which the robot should maintain within appropriate limits in order to be efficient. One way the robot could gather “safety” is to completely stop when the safety hazard assessment is too high (for example, a human is nearby and the robot is moving fast). Another more relaxed way is to reduce speed and stiffness of the motors. Generally, emotion plays an important role for efficient communication (Thill & Lowe, 2012), (Bar-On & Parker, 2000). Expressing emotion states could provide fast feedback to another humanoid with respect to the current mental state of the partner in a cooperative task and potentially enhance the human-robot interaction. For safety purposes, it is very important that the robot recognizes human intention and action in order to act appropriately. On the other hand, the robot should meaningfully express its intention. ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 20
  • 49. An affective embodied architecture The basic schema of the proposed architecture is shown in Figure 2. Part of the architecture is based on WASABI (Becker-Asano, 2008), which is a psychologically plausible appraisal theoretic model that has been successfully implemented and tested in the context of the virtual human MAX, who served as a museum guide and a card game player (Becker-Asano, 2008). In our architecture the unconscious appraisal process of WASABI and emotion dynamics in PAD space are used mainly. The task switching module substitutes for the BDI decision-making module of WASABI with the cueXdeficit action selection strategy. Figure 2. Basic modules of the architecture: modules depicted in orange boxes are robot specific. The other three (in blue) are implementation independent. A brief description of the components of the architecture, which are relevant to the provided experimental results, follows bellow. Some of the modules, which are important for emotional communication with human (face expression, face expression recognition, tactile pattern detection), are not relevant for the presented results. However, we envisage their deployment in for future test scenarios. Their role for the efficient management of the resources and possible future experiments are proposed in the discussion section. Task switching The task-switching module uses cueXdeficit action selection mechanisms (based on the model of McFarland and Spiers (Mcfarland & Spier, 1997). The robot chooses an action of accessing a resource depending on which of the resources the robot has higher motivation for. This can be described by the following rule: Gather resource k: if !! = max! !!, where Mi, is the motivation for choosing a particular resource i: !! = !!  ×  !!, (2) Ci – is the cue of the i-th resource and is provided by the vision module. Di – is the deficit of the i-th resource. It is provided by the physiology module. In addition to the natural physiology measure of the energy level it also includes the other resources – work and safety – which are dependent on the designer’s goal. In this way the robot interprets the social environment in the same way as the physical one as suggested in (Dautenhahn, Ogden, & Quick, 2002) Appraisal The appraisal process is controlled by generating and sending to the WASABI engine emotion impulses in the form: !"#$%&' = ! !! !. !!!""  !"#$%!&"# (3) where K is a coefficient tuned experimentally according to the dynamics of the Emotion Engine in such a way that the level of arousal during a run of the system could take all of the values from its minimum to maximum value (not remaining at the same level all of the time). The emotion impulse equations represent general principles of unconscious appraisal in WASABI – that the impulses sent to the emotion engine should represent bipolar evaluations of the environmental state. In the current variant we only use the arousal dimension and negative impulses. From another side, the proposed impulse equation represents the cost function provided in (Mcfarland & Spier, 1997), which is a general criterion for deviation of the animat’s equilibrium point in its state space. WASABI emotion engine In WASABI the emotions are represented in the three- dimensional space of pleasure, arousal, and dominance by points with activation and saturation thresholds. The space itself is commonly referred to as PAD space. The emotional state is a point in this 3D space and has internal dynamics, which is modulated by emotion impulses and other modules in WASABI. In the work presented here, the architecture uses only the arousal dimension. The WASABI engine modulates the execution of the task in the control module. The speed of each movement is made proportional to the current arousal level. A Similar relation between speed and arousal is shown in (Paterson, 2002) where the correlation between the perception of a character’s arousal and its speed of movement is studied. WASABI engine also engages face expressions, which are not used in the results but discussed in the last section. Vision The vision module evaluates the cues of the resources based on the perception capabilities of the specific robotic implementation. For the current version cues of energy resource (charger) and work resource (a moving ball) are: !!"#$ = !"#$%&'"()*+,-,./ − !"#$%&'()*+*,- !"#$%&'"()*+,-,./                            (4) !!"!#$% = !"#$%&'"()*+,-ℎ!"#$" − !"#$%&'()*+ℎ!"#$" !"#$%&'"()*+,-ℎ!"#$"          (5) In this way both cues’ values are normalized in the interval [0,1]. As the safety is a special resource without a specific environmental cue representing it, its cue is set to the highest value of 1 all the time. This is also validated from the fact that ECAL - General Track 21 ECAL 2013
  • 50. gathering this resource – stopping completely – could be achieved at any time immediately. Physiological state The module calculates the resources’ deficits based on introspection – monitoring internal physical properties such as electrical currents or more “abstract” deficits such as work and safety, which depend on the designer’s requirements. Control This module executes action for gathering the resource whose motivation is the highest, as provided by the task selection module. The action parameters, e.g. for effort of movement, are modulated by the emotion state in the WASABI engine. The action for the work and charger resources consists of moving the robot’s hand towards their position. Safety is “gathered” by stopping at a place for a certain period. The speed of the movement is proportional to the arousal level scaled in such a way that the resultant speed remains within appropriate limits (not too high: undesirable for the real robot because of possible damage; not too low: prohibitively slow for HRI). Methodology For the specific tests of the proposed architecture we are using a scenario where a humanoid robot should follow a ball that is held, in front of it, at random positions by a human. When the robot moves it loses energy and in order to regain it, it should move its hand to a certain “resting” position. This scenario can be viewed as a minimalist analogy to a service robot having to refuel but also carry out a task that involves unpredictable dynamics. This work may also be viewed as a fundamental requirement of robot interaction with a human, i.e. that has some ability to dynamically track the activity of the human. The robot should cycle efficiently between working and refuelling activities in order to remain viable, i.e. not run out of energy, work and safety. The complexity of the task in this case is mainly caused by the “unpredictable” human behaviour – providing complex patterns of the ball (work resource) movement. The lethal limits for the energy requirements of the robot are obvious – it should never go beyond a (lower) limit of a completely exhausted battery at which the robot stops moving and requires human intervention. In another, not so minimalistic, variant a higher “hibernation” threshold could be implemented which allows the robot to finish what it is currently doing and to find a safe location to ‘sleep’. This hibernation threshold can be manipulated from another “hibernate” behaviour. In the current experiments with the simulated iCub we use energy consumption proportional to the speed of movement. This is the simplest approximation to the real data, which we have collected with the real iCub. With such energy consumption dynamics, higher speed of movement is both more energy- and work-efficient. The work limits are not obvious as the robot work requirements depend on the goals of the designer (Spier & Mcfarland, 1986). In the investigation presented in this paper, we use a convenient and natural measurement for the deficit of the work resource – a linear work production decrease from the time point at which the work is “sensed” (the robot is aware of work to be done but cannot presently do it) and increase when it is actually working. In this way the work resource obtains constrained cyclical continuous dynamics similar to a physical resource. Here this is done more naturally than in (McFarland & Spier, 1997) where the robot should “pay” for energy when charging with its work points. In order to define the safety resource dynamics we first define: !"#$%&  !"#!"# = !"##$  ×  !"#$%  !"#$%&%'( (6) The proportionality of safety to human distance is used in almost every measurement for safety hazards (Calinon, Sardellitti, & Caldwell, 2010; Kulić, 2006). The speed of the robot is a main factor for determining the force in an eventual collision so it is also of crucial importance for defining safety hazard (Kulić, 2006). Any time the robot moves, it starts to decrease its safety variable level with the current level of safety hazard. When the robot stops at the charger or because it decided to “gather safety” the safety resource increases in the same constant linear fashion as the work resource. The latter two aspects of the safety dynamics were added mainly in order to obtain the same continuous and cyclical dynamics as the other two resources. More reasonable is that safety just equals the safety hazard. This is planned in the further development of the architecture where safety gathering could also relate to continuously decreasing of speed rather than a complete stop as in the current version. Another possible option of safe gathering behaviour could be the manipulation of joint stiffness, for example, decreasing the stiffness when the safety resource motivation becomes dominant. This will also make the change of safety hazard continuous with naturally constrained upper and lower levels. In the so proposed three-resource problem the choice of right speed of movement is of crucial importance. High speed will decrease the safety. A slowly moving robot, however, will require more time to reach the ball and will reduce the amount of gathered work. A flexible mechanism is required to choose the proper speed at the right time. We suggest the arousal mechanism of our architecture is a suitable modulator of the movement speed for solving the three resource problem and produce sustainable basic cycles. We are primarily interested in the three-resource problem that consists of managing variables for fuel, work and safety needs. However, the proposed architecture, as a basic requirement, should be able to handle the two-resource problem – produce stable basic behavioral activity cycles. Therefore, we first evaluate whether the cueXdeficit strategy is still applicable in the new setup and explore the role of arousal for modulating the robot’s behaviour. In a second experiment we use safety as a third resource and evaluate whether the architecture can maintain sustainable basic cycles in this three-resource problem. Although, as pointed out before, the safety hazard is defined as a reasonable measure the lethal limits of this resource are arbitrarily chosen. To demonstrate that such eventual behavioural stability is not trivial (the safety resource could be depleted in some of the environments) we will compare the performance of two variants of the architecture: ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 22
  • 51. 1. With three resources (work, energy, safety) and 2. With only two – resources (work, energy). In the latter case we still use the same measure for the safety deficit but the architecture is “blind” for this “safety” resource. Although it can never take the decision to “gather safety” it could still “survive” in this case as the robot stops at the charger and also could stop for a shorter period when it is working (the ball is moving slowly). We predict that even if the robot dies in some of the environments in the “two- resource” variant, it can still be viable in the “three- resource” variant – so the average life-time of the “three-resource” robot-architecture system will be longer. If there are only two resources, for the current robot energy consumption dynamics, the robot should go as fast as possible so the arousal mechanism is not so important. When the safety as third resource is announced that makes the problem of right speed non trivial because higher speed will increase the safety deficit. It is worth checking, however, whether the robot moving at the highest possible speed can still provide a solution for the three resource problem. The experiments are performed using 21 runs for each of the two variants of the two architectures in 3 environments (therefore, 7 runs for each environment) for 35000 program cycles (approximately 15 minutes for each run). The detailed description of the used environments is summarized in the annex (table 2). In all environments the ball is moving with a sinusoidal speed on a line in front of the robot. In regular time intervals it disappears. The varied parameters are the speed of movement of the ball and the time it is hidden which are the key factors for environmental complexity. Higher speed of ball movement will require the robot to move more often and at a higher speed so that it will lose more energy and safety. If the ball is visible for a longer period, that will eventually decrease the work deficit if the robot is not succeeding to track it. The continuous pattern of movement is mainly chosen for implementation reasons – the vision module recognizes the ball much more easily when the ball’s position change is continuous with time (without sudden jumps), which actually should be the case if a human moves it. Although this simulated deterministic environment could look different to the unpredictable human behaviour it still has enough complexity, which for a simple reactive robot is not trivial. Extra complexity comes from the noise of vision and control modules. For measuring the agent viability, we use two of the proposed viability indicators in (Avila-García & Cañamero, 2004) – life span and overall comfort: !"#$%&'( = !!"#$ !!"# (6) where !!"#$ is the number of steps when the robot is viable,  !!"#is the maximum number of steps of one run !"#$%&&'()*($+ = (1 − !!) !!"#$ !!! !!"#$ (7) where !!is the mean of the deficit of all resources The particular robotic implementation used for the experiments here uses the iCub robot (Sandini, Metta, and Vernon 2007). Most of the data presented here is collected in the iCub simulator. Some demonstrative results with the real robot are shown in the discussion section. For emotion recognition with the simulated robot the video stream of the web-camera instead of the cameras in the eyes of the simulated iCub is sent to the face emotion expression recognition module. Figure 3 An iCub robot following a red ball – real (left) and simulated (right). The distance to the work and energy resource is calculated by using the Euclidian distance from the current hand position to the ball and the charger position. There is not any particular physical object representing “the charger” but we assume that the agent knows its state through proprioception. The following modules from the iCub repository are used for the particular implementation of the vision, physiology and the control modules of the architecture: - pf3dtracker – detects a single coloured ball and returns its coordinates in a 3D robot-centric reference frame - ICartesianControl – moves the hand to a desired position for a desired time - controlBoardDumper – logs the current consumption of the individual motors. Each value is time stamped, so the user can process them offline to compute the instantaneous power consumption - emotion interface – controls patterns of LED on the face of the robot producing human-like facial expressions. The last two modules are available only for the real robot and are not relevant for the following results with the simulated robot. Results Experiment 1: Arousal & the two-resource problem The robot-architecture system ‘survived’ all the trials – it didn’t cross the lethal limits during the runs in this particular set of environments. That shows that cueXdeficit strategy is still viable strategy in our two-resource problem framework. In order to explore the role of the arousal mechanism we compare one of the runs in a more challenging environment (where the ball is shown for a longer period of time – environment 3 – see annex) and one in the least challenging (environment 1 – see annex). ECAL - General Track 23 ECAL 2013
  • 52. Figure 4. Arousal level of the robot in an “easy” environment – (green) and a “hard” (red). The time is program cycles. Figure 5. Basic cycles of a robot in an “easy” environment (green) and a “hard” one (red). The axes are also the lethal limits lines for the energy and work resources. We can see that in the ‘easy’ environment arousal remains relatively low and the corresponding basic cycles are further from the lethal limits than in the more challenging environment where greater arousal is needed to produce behavioural stability. Figure 6. Dynamics of some of the essential variables in a short time window of a run of the architecture in environment 3. It is interesting to question why the robot doesn’t go into ‘over-opportunism’ (consuming a resource until it dies from the deficit of another resource) in this scenario where the consuming of the resources doesn’t deplete as in ethological experiments with wheeled robots. If a resource is not disappearing, that makes its cue value in the moment of gathering the highest possible value and an agent using a cueXdeficit strategy could become almost blind to the rising of the deficit of the other resource. But as one can see in Figure 6 the robot still chooses to charge although the ball is present and very close to the hand if the energy deficit becomes considerably higher than the work deficit. One of the factors facilitating this is that the highest received cue value of the work is not maximum (at 1) but a little bit lower which is a side effect of the particular “embodiment” of the architecture (control module accuracy parameters and the dynamics of the tracking motion process). The periods with fixed cue of 0.2 (the ambient cue level) is when the ball disappears. In our scenario the ambient cue could be of benefit in the periods when the ball is missing for a certain short period but there is very high work deficit. In this case, the robot could still stay nearby “waiting” instead of starting to go to the charger. Although the robot is not over-opportunistic it still shows opportunism and persistence - it doesn’t switch to collect the other resource immediately as the deficit drops lower. Experiment 2: Safety & the three-resource problem Firstly, we tested the three-resource variant of the architecture without arousal mechanisms but moving at highest possible speed. The architecture still survived the easy environment (1) but died in all the trials in the harder environments (2 and 3). Secondly, we performed tests with the proposed arousal mechanisms for modulating the speed. The basic cycles in the 3D space of the three resources’ deficit for one of the “viable” runs of the 3-resource architecture are shown in Figure 7. One can observe the cycle’s sustainability – the robot is not crossing any of the three lethal limits planes. Figure 7. State space trajectory of a run of the "3 resource" system. The three planes 0 values provide lethal limits. A comparison of the viability indicators of the “two resource” and “three resource” architecture is shown in Figure 8. Figure 8. Viability indicators for the architecture with or without safety as the third resource. The graphs show the mean value of all (21) runs and standard error of the mean. ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 24
  • 53. We performed one-tailed t-test in order to compare the life span in the two conditions (as we had hypothesized better performance in the three resource variant) and a two-tailed t- test for the overall comfort. There is no significant difference in the overall comfort - p = 0.26765. The life span however is significantly different at the 0.01 level of significance (p = 0.000235). This result shows that the proposed 3-resource problem is not trivial (the robot dies before the end of the trial in the 2 resource case in 6 of the runs crossing its safety lethal limit) and succeeds in adapting (prolonging its life-time) when the architecture is extended for handling the three resources. In Figure 9 the average deficit of safety is plotted. A one- tailed t-test for the mean safety shows the three-resource runs’ safety significantly increases at the 0.01 level of significance (p = 0.000539). This combined with the fact that overall comfort remains relatively the same shows that generally the new architecture compensates the pressure of having a new resource to handle with lowering the efficiency of gathering the other two resources – work and energy. Figure 9. Average safety deficits with standard error for all the test cases Discussion One possible criticism about the presented results with safety is that having such a flexible decision strategy regarding safety is not an appropriate way to deal with such an important issue as safe HRI. Usually industrial robots are programmed to completely stop whenever a human is detected in their workspace. That is a reasonable for robots with rigid bodies, big mass and high speed of movement because danger of injury in any collision between robots and humans is too big and should be avoided at any price. This is not the case however when the robots are “soft”. For example iCub has ImpendanceControl mode, which can be run parallel with CartesianControl. In this mode robot react to any external force and this could dampen a collision with human. The current version of iCub is still made of rigid material but future service robots could be made of soft materials so any possible collision with humans will not be damaging because of the soft robot body. When the robots have such “soft” properties the collision with humans is not something which should be avoided at any cost but could still be an unpleasant experience. Therefore, it could be flexibly balanced with the other requirements such as work and energy efficiency. One of the main differences of our arousal mechanism with the hormone mechanism used in the competitive two-resource problem in (Avila-García, 2004) is the “inertial” dynamics of arousal in connection with environmental changes. WASABI engine has its “internal inertia” – the arousing events need little time before the arousal becomes high and more time to cool down. The advantage of this inertia has not been demonstrated here but this could be done in experiments when the “dangerous” (arousal causing) event are not uniformly distributed but are grouped in time. Another advantage of such a property is that it is closer to the arousal dynamics in the biological systems. There are several studies showing that other people’s emotional states tend to induce similar ones in human inter- actors (Hatfield, Cacioppo, & Rapson, 1994). A more aroused human when the robot is moving faster and calmer when there is no urgency would tend to increase safety within the interaction. Further experiments, however, with human participants and iCub are needed to validate that assumption. In order to express robots’ emotional states three different sets of LED face patterns corresponding to the current level of arousal are used. In (Paterson, 2002) it is shown that people assess the level of arousal based on the corresponding speed of movement. The emotion expression of the real iCub serves as extra emotional feedback. From another angle, recognizing the emotional state of the human in a cooperative task could also be of crucial importance. Human arousal could be a fast heuristic of anticipated danger. A robot could detect the arousal and adopt its behaviour appropriately before the human becomes aware of the anticipating event (Rani et al., 2004). Multimodal emotion expression recognition based on the face expression recognition module and touch pattern classification is being developed. The system can distinguish two-different types of facial expressions and three touch patterns in real time. Future experiments are planned which will prove the role of human emotion state recognition benefits for resource managing in HRI. Conclusion In this paper a particular two- and three-resource problem setup for humanoid robots in a scenario suitable for service robotics tasks is reported. In addition to that mainly exploited in other similar studies – task switching – the concept of ‘effort’ is emphasized here, which is essential for two- resource problems and is studied separately from the action selection. A bio-inspired affective architecture, for solving the multiple resource problems, is presented. We show that the proposed architecture preforms stable basic cycles – a measure for behaviour stability for two-resource (work, energy) problem. The role of ‘safety’ as a necessary third importance resource in HRI is presented. The safety and work efficiency although being high-level entities dependent on designer requirements are successfully incorporated in the architecture in the same way as a physically constrained resource such as the battery energy level. We show that with a reasonable safety measure the architecture can handle the three-resource problem. The arousal, used for maintaining the right effort of movement, is an important modulator of the cueXdeficit action selection mechanisms in the two and three resource problems. ECAL - General Track 25 ECAL 2013
  • 54. Acknowedgements This research has been supported by the EU project ROBOT- DOC under G.A. 235065 from the 7th Framework Programme Marie Curie Action ITN (http://www.robotdoc.org). References Avila-García, O., & Cañamero, L. (2004). Using hormonal feedback to modulate action selection in a competitive scenario. From Animals to Animats: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of Adaptive Behavior, 243–252. Bar-On, R., & Parker, J. (Eds.). (2000). The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence  : Theory, Development, Assessment, and Application at Home, School and in the Workplace (p. 544). Jossey-Bass. Becker-Asano, C. (2008). WASABI: Affect Simulation for Agents with Believable Interactivity - Volume 319 Dissertations in Artificial Intelligence (Dissertationen Zur ... in Artificial Intelligence). IOS Press. Calinon, S., Sardellitti, I., & Caldwell, D. G. (2010). Learning-based control strategy for safe human-robot interaction exploiting task and robot redundancies. 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (pp. 249–254). IEEE. Dautenhahn, K., Ogden, B., & Quick, T. (2002). From embodied to socially embedded agents – Implications for interaction-aware robots. Cognitive Systems Research, 3(3), 397–428. Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1994). Emotional Contagion (Studies in Emotion and Social Interaction). Cambridge University Press. Kiryazov, K., Lowe, R., Becker-Asano, C., & Ziemke, T. (2011). Modelling Embodied Appraisal in Humanoids: Grounding PAD space for Augmented Autonomy. Proceedings of the Workshop on Standards in Emotion Modeling. Kulić, D. (2006,). Safety for human-robot interaction. University of British Columbia. Lowe, R., Montebelli, A., Ieropoulos, I., Greenman, J., Melhuish, C., & Ziemke, T. (2010). Grounding Motivation in Energy Autonomy: A Study of Artificial Metabolism Constrained Robot Dynamics. Artificial Life XII  : Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems. McFarland, D. (2008). Guilty Robots, Happy Dogs: The Question of Alien Minds (p. 256). Oxford University Press, USA. Mcfarland, D., & Spier, E. (1997). Basic Cycles, Utility and Opportunism in Self-Sufficient Robots. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 20, 179–190. Paterson, H. (2002). The perception and cognition of emotion from motion. University of Glasgow. Rani, P., Sarkar, N., Smith, C. A., & Kirby, L. D. (2004). Anxiety detecting robotic system towards implicit human-robot collaboration. Robotica, 22(1), 85–95. Sibly, R. (1975). How incentive and deficit determine feeding tendency. Animal Behaviour, 437–466. Spier, E., & Mcfarland, D. (1986). Possibly Optimal Decision-Making Under Self-sufficiency and Autonomy. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 189, 189–317. Spier, E., & McFarland, D. (1996). A Finer-Grained Motivational Model of Behaviour Sequencing. From animals to animats 4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, 255–263. Thill, S., & Lowe, R. (2012). On the Functional Contributions of Emotion Mechanisms to (Artificial) Cognition and Intelligence. In J. Bach, B. Goertzel, & M. Iklé (Eds.), Artificial General Intelligence SE - 33 (Vol. 7716, pp. 322–331). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Wawerla, J., & Vaughan, R. T. (2009). Robot task switching under diminishing returns, 5033–5038. Annex 1 The main parameters of the architecture for the presented results are summarize in the table below: Table 1 architecture parameters Parameter Value Maximum of work 1770 Maximum of energy 1 Maximum of safety 470 Distance to the ball when “work is consumed” 0.11 m Time of standing still when “safety is consumed” 3.5 sec Ambient work cue value 0.2 Ball position is controlled by equations of time shown below. Coordinates of points are in robot-centric coordinate system with a centre on the floor below the legs of the robot. The ball is hidden in regular time patterns in order for the environment to not be too hard to live in. Table 2 Environment properties (ball movement patterns) Environment index Ball movement pattern 1 Ball position = A + (cos (t/4)/2 + ½) * B t- current time in seconds A (0,1,0.3), B (0,0.87,0.4) Ball is hidden every 50 sec for 50 sec 2 Ball position = A + (cos (t/3.5)/2 + ½) * B t- current time in seconds A (0,1,0.3), B (0,0.87,0.4) Ball is hidden every 50 sec for 50 sec 3 Ball position = A + (cos (t/4)/2 + ½) * B t- current time in seconds A (0,1,0.3), B (0,0.87,0.4) Ball is hidden every 60 sec for 40 sec ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 26
  • 55. Simulating Sleeping Sickness: a two host agent-based model Simon Alderton, Dr. Jason Noble & Prof. Peter Atkinson Institute for Complex Systems Simulation University of Southampton simon.alderton@soton.ac.uk Abstract Agent-based modelling is useful for policy evaluation in fields such as epidemiology. The current paper presents a model of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleep- ing sickness: a disease which is becoming increasingly prominent due to recent epidemics. Associated medication is often scarce, whilst diagnosis through blood screening is not always effective. Current modelling methodology uses simple reaction-diffusion models to predict future epidemics, but this makes policy at the village level difficult to evalu- ate. Agent-based, object-oriented simulation provides a sim- ple means of adding complexity to models of sleeping sick- ness, allowing the easy incorporation of spatial and vector data. We present an exploratory two-host agent-based simula- tion for humans and cattle, applying known values for sleep- ing sickness infection rate, before evaluating the model’s pol- icy implications and suggesting steps for future improvement. Introduction Agent-based modelling (ABM) in artificial life has long been used to examine fundamental questions in areas such as the evolution of cooperation or communication. However, ABMs have also been used in a pragmatic way in disciplines such as anthropology (e.g. Gumerman et al., 2003; Lansing and Kremer, 1993), conservation biology (e.g. Watkins et al., 2011), and epidemiology (e.g. Muller et al., 2004; Auchin- closs and Diez Roux, 2008). In this latter tradition, we will focus here on an agent-based model of Human African Try- panosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness. Our goal is to show how an ABM approach can improve on con- ventional modelling methods in assessing the likely success of different policies for managing the disease. HAT is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) (Simarro et al., 2010) and one of the most common conditions affecting the poorest 500 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa (Hotez and Kamath, 2009). Sleeping sickness is a vector- borne, parasitic disease which is transmitted to humans by the bites of the tsetse fly from the genus Glossina. The dis- ease is caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma bru- cei - namely the sub-species T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhode- siense (F`evre et al., 2008) and, as of 2005, was responsible for an estimated 100,000 deaths every year (Picozzi et al., 2005). In recent years, the potential for a spatial cross-over of the two forms of the disease has been heightened due to the continued northward spread of Rhodesian HAT in Uganda (Batchelor et al., 2009). This would be particularly signif- icant as Gambian and Rhodesian HAT require different di- agnosis and treatment, and any overlap would compromise previous disease characterisation based on knowledge of the geographical distributions of the diseases. The resettlement of communities in response to epidemics in the 1900s and 1940s had aided the control of the dis- ease. However, a large volume of uncontrolled movements through tsetse infested bush following a further large out- break in 1971, combined with a lack of resources and trained personnel, meant that mitigation efforts were hindered in a time of political and economic unrest (e.g. Matovu, 1982; Okiria, 1985). As a result of the poor control measures, the T. b. rhodesiense form of the disease spread northwards to- wards the Tororo district in 1984 (Mbulamberi, 1989), be- fore reaching the Soroti district on the north west shores of Lake Kyoga in 1998 (F`evre et al., 2004), and the Kabera- maido district in 2004 (F`evre et al., 2005). At present, with cases of T. b. rhodesiense being diag- nosed as far north as the Ugandan district of Lira, there is a distance of only 150 km separating the active foci of Rhodesian sleeping sickness to the north of Lake Kyogo, and the Gambian form of the disease towards the north west of Uganda and south Sudan (Figure 1). The vector Mitigation techniques for sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa often focus on the reduction or the removal of the tsetse fly, which carries the disease. For example, while the burning of tsetse infested bush has fallen out of favour due to the associated environmental damage, other effective techniques have incorporated community led ‘vector trap- ping’ to reduce the concentration of the flies (Joja and Okoli, 2001). The associated research concluded that the integra- tion of public participation aided community learning and ECAL - General Track 27 ECAL 2013
  • 56. Figure 1: The conversion of Rhodesian (red) and Gambian (orange) sleeping sickness between 1985 and 2005. After Picozzi et al. (2005). made the volunteers much more open to mass blood screen- ing programmes. An alternative approach to vector control has been re- searched in the field of molecular genetics. With the lack of a mammalian vaccine and affordable drugs making dis- ease control difficult, Aksoy (2003) notes that the future of vector control may be the genetic disruption of the para- site transmission cycle in the invertebrate. While this re- quires a full understanding of the relationship between tsetse and trypanosome, the replacement of susceptible insect phe- notypes with anti-pathogenic properties could result in de- creased transmission. Accompany these vastly different mitigation strategies with the application of insecticides such as deltamethrin (e.g. Torr et al., 2007a; Hargrove et al., 2012) to grazing cattle, and a focus on preventative measures which manage tsetse fly population sizes can be identified. Agent-based modelling Lambin et al. (2010) review the merits of using multi-agent simulations (MAS) to model disease transmission, conclud- ing that the technique is a good method of acquiring prelimi- nary knowledge of a disease system, and that the representa- tion of the dynamics of people-vector contacts in space and time are ideal to investigate scenarios that have not previ- ously been observed or explored. Similarly, the modelling of people-vector contacts is of particular significance given that the majority of current mit- igation strategies focus on the control of tsetse fly move- ment and density. Lambin et al. (2010) also consider the incorporation of geographical information in epidemiologi- cal models through the use of MAS, such as the impact of land-use and land cover change. The report suggests that the benefits include an increased knowledge of transmis- sion cycles, allowing the construction of ‘pathogenic land- scapes’ which can subsequently provide an early warning of increased transmission risk. The benefits of incorporating geographical data into epidemiological models can be ob- served widely in the literature. For example, Raffy and Tran (2005) note that landscape features largely control the con- nectivity between hosts and vector habitats, inhibiting move- ment, and ultimately modifying disease risk. One of the least well integrated factors in traditional landscape epidemiology is human behaviour (Lambin et al., 2010). Despite this, dif- ferent risk perception between men and women, and also by permanent and part-time residents of endemic areas, has been shown to influence the adoption of preventative mea- sures and ultimately vary transmission risk (e.g. Stjernberg and Berglund, 2005). We therefore saw an opportunity to build an ABM that in- cluded the disease vector (tsetse flies) and both host species (humans and cattle) interacting in a common geography so that we could assess the likely costs and benefits of widely differing management strategies for HAT. ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 28
  • 57. Figure 2: The simulated environment; description in text. The Model The simulation incorporates an abstract spatial map and three interacting agents: tsetse flies, humans and cattle, al- lowing the influence of agent interaction in disease transmis- sion to be explored. The model includes two simple daily tasks for farmer and non-farmer agents: farmers must drive their cattle to the river to drink, before grazing and returning home. Non-farmers must collect water from the river and return it to their settlement. Tsetse flies are assumed to have a natural habitat on, or near the river. Interactions between flies and the ground-based agents occur when the daily tasks take place, and humans and cattle enter the high risk, tsetse infested river area. We begin with a simple, abstract terrain representing an area of 30 km by 20 km. The simulated land includes a river (blue) at the centre of the canvas, with flood plains either side (green), and the remaining land representing general pasture. Black icons represent small settlements or home bases for human and cattle agents (figure 2). Within the model, time steps are grouped into the phases ‘night’ (7 pm - 5 am), ‘morning’ (5 am - 8 am), ‘day’ (8 am - 4 pm) and ‘evening’ (4 pm - 7 pm), simulating a day with 240 time steps. These phases govern agent activity and vary exposure to the disease vector, ensuring that farmers drive their cattle to and from the river each day before grazing and returning to their settlement. Humans are depicted in the graphical output as orange circles and are divided into farmers and non-farmers. This distinction dictates their movement pattern to and from the river. At setup, all humans are randomly assigned a settle- ment as a home base, with the initial cattle population ran- domly assigned a farmer as an owner. During the morning and day phases, all humans are required to have left their home settlements and begun either making a trip to the river to collect water (non-farmers), or driving their cattle to water before grazing (farmers). During the morning phase, there is an initial probability (10%) for each individual leaving their home per time step. When the day phase is reached, any person not to have left home yet is forced to leave. Movement is governed using a cell desirability function, such that the rows of the map are assigned integer values which are high at the river, and decay to the edges of the ECAL - General Track 29 ECAL 2013
  • 58. map. People move from home to the river by selecting a desirable cell from a list of their neighbouring locations. When a movement probability is exceeded for each individ- ual, there is a 66% chance they will move to a cell with a higher value (closer to the river), and a 33% chance they will either move closer to the river or make a lateral move- ment, simulating different routes taken, and the subsequent spreading out of agents. Non-farmers move directly to their homes when the river has been reached. However, if the people are farmers, a ran- dom movement element has been included to simulate the grazing of cattle. Once the cattle have been driven to the river (and whilst still in the day phase) this ‘grazing’ oc- curs with a probability per time step of going home (ini- tially 1%). When the evening phase is reached, all remain- ing farmers drive their cattle to the home settlement. By the ‘night’ phase, all people and their cattle will have returned to their home settlement and remain there until the next morn- ing phase, when the cycle begins again. Should people get bitten and become infected with the disease, when they return home, they stay there, and do not resume with the next daily cycle. This simulates the debil- itating nature of the disease, preventing people from under- taking their everyday duties. As previously mentioned, cattle (blue circles) are as- signed an owner at initialisation, and are programmed to fol- low the movement pattern of their keeper. The exception to the rule is when owners become infected and subsequently stay at home for the duration of the simulation. Under these circumstances, the cattle of the infected farmer are redis- tributed to uninfected people at the same home settlement, during the night phase, so that they can still be driven to the river. The redistributed cattle can be infected or uninfected and this redistribution can continue as more people become ill, until there are no longer any healthy humans in the home settlement. At this point all cattle stay at home, whether in- fected or not, as there are no healthy human agents to drive the cattle to water. Tsetse flies are represented as green icons. They stay close to the river and flood plain areas which represent the natural habitat of the species. This behaviour is imple- mented by assigning each cell on the grid an integer value, with the central 10 rows having a uniformly high value, decaying north and south of the river so that the extreme four rows have values of 0. Tsetse flies have a lower initial movement threshold than humans to simulate faster move- ment.The random and directed elements of fly movement are not separated to reflect a daily routine as found with hu- mans. Instead, flies are initially set to have a 70% chance of moving using the ‘fly suitability rating’ of the cells around them (i.e., moving to the neighbouring cell with the highest value). The alternative is a completely random move to any of the agent’s 8 neighbouring cells. This movement regime means that, while the majority of flies will stay close to the river and its banks, some spread is observed as stray flies can move away from their natural habitat and towards the settlements. In this simulation, flies have a 100% chance of contracting the disease if they bite an infected cow or human, however, if the fly does not bite an infected agent for their first blood meal, the fly is re-spawned at the river to represent the re- moval and replacement of that agent. This action simulates the finding that flies that don’t become infected on their first blood meal are much less likely to contract, and therefore, transmit the disease (e.g. Walshe et al., 2011; Aksoy, 2003). Additionally, once a fly has become infected, there is a 15- 30 day delay before it becomes infective, incorporated to reflect a real life incubation period for the disease (Muller et al., 2004). The transmission of the disease between agents is gov- erned by a bite and infection probability, using values ex- tracted from the literature. At the beginning of each simu- lation, a single fly is infected with sleeping sickness. Trans- mission occurs from the point of view of the tsetse fly. For every time step, each fly has a ‘potential victim’ list, made up of all the human and cow agents in the same cell. If this list is populated, and a randomly generated number is less than the chosen bite probability value, the fly randomly chooses one of the agents in the list as a victim. Whether or not the bite successfully infects the human or cow agent is governed by another pair of probabilities. As humans and cows are widely considered to be differen- tially susceptible to T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense (e.g. F`evre et al., 2006), different infection probabilities are incorporated for the different types of agents. The values associated with these three probabilities vary in the litera- ture, due in part to the small sample sizes in data collection, and the complexity involved in the transmission of the dis- ease and vector-host interaction. For example, Torr et al. (2007b) find that cattle bite rates vary with cattle age and herd size, suggesting that mean fly feeding probability can increase from 54% to 71% with an increase in herd size from 1 to 12. We take our infection probabilities from the work of Hide (1999), reporting on the dynamics of transmission of sleeping sickness during the 1988 to 1990 sleeping sickness epidemic. Hide (1999) reports a cattle infection probability of 0.0115, and a human infection probability of 0.006, based on data for the frequency of infected hosts in the population during this period in Uganda. Consequently, the basic bite probability under investiga- tion will be 0.54, while infection rates of 0.115 and 0.06 will be used to reflect the susceptibility of cows and hu- mans respectively. This uses the same ratios as Hide (1999), however the values have been increased by a factor of 10 to compensate for the unrealistically small population sizes we have used (typically 100 humans, 320 cows and 100 flies). Smaller population sizes have been used as it would be computationally inefficient to attempt to simulate every ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 30
  • 59. fly present in an area this size. To simplify the simulation, and consider worst case epi- demic scenarios, recovery from the disease is absent from the model. While an ideal model would incorporate some form of recovery factor, the degree of variability in diagno- sis and treatment rates would be a difficult thing to include in a spatially and culturally abstract simulation. Results Figure 3 shows the progression of transmission of the dis- ease in this abstract environment with 100 humans (includ- ing 80 farmers), 320 cattle, and 100 flies over a 6 month period. 6 months was chosen as, in an environment where there is no recovery, this is how long it takes for the disease to affect the vast majority of the population, given the human infection rate of 0.06, and a cow infection rate of 0.115. Bite rate is set at an intermediate value of 0.54, thought to be sig- nificant in cattle herds (after Torr et al., 2007b). Figure 3: Progression of sleeping sickness over 6 simulated months (240 time step days); from single infected fly to complete epidemic. (Bite probability = 0.54, cow infection probability = 0.115, human infection probability = 0.06). The six month run of the simulation shows that the fly population is the first to reach complete infection, and as suggested above, the fastest rate of cow infection occurs be- tween months 1 (7200 time steps) and 2 (14400 time steps), once fly infection reaches approximately 50%, and sick hu- mans start to be taken out of the equation by staying at home. The simulation shows that although fly infection occurs for 100% of the population, there are approximately 40 cows and under 10 people which are not infected after 6 months. These remaining cows are at a significantly reduced risk of infection as the simulation progresses as it is possible that all people from a certain settlement become ill, meaning that uninfected cows can be left at home with no fit human to take them to water. Even before this occurs, if it is left to Figure 4: Infection rates of cattle driving farmers and water retrieving children (non-farmers). one fit person to take an entire settlement’s cow population to water, the spatial coverage of this herd is low, the chance of each individual being bitten is low, and a large propor- tion of the herd may already be infected, reducing the prob- ability of new infections even further. Similarly, the healthy human that drives this large body of cattle is at a signifi- cantly reduced risk as the potential victim list for each fly will be more heavily populated. In this sense, even a sim- ple, spatially abstract simulation such as this can help re- late to certain theories of transmission, such as that of Torr et al. (2007b), who suggest that although bite probability in- creases in larger herds, there may be a degree of ‘safety in numbers’. Figure 4 shows the progression of the disease amongst the 80 farmers and 20 non-farmers in the simulation. Prior to running the simulation, one prediction may have been that the infection would propagate at a faster rate among non- farmers than farmers due to the fact that they have no cattle, and therefore when they encounter an infected fly, they are the only potential victim. As the rate of infection for each sub-class appears to be comparable for the first ten victims, this theory appears to be accurate, particularly as there are only 20 non-farmers in the population, compared to 80 farm- ers. Figures 5 and 6 show the results from a series of two- month simulations where the ratio of cattle to farmers is sys- tematically increased from 1:1 (80 farmers and cows) up to 1:7 (80 farmers, 560 cows). As before, the infection rates are a scaled representation of those found in the 1988 Ugan- dan sleeping sickness epidemic (Hide, 1999). These values of 0.115 for cow infection, and 0.06 for human infection, suggest the propagation of a disease which is reflective of the Rhodesian form of sleeping sickness, where cattle are the main reservoir (Batchelor et al., 2009). ECAL - General Track 31 ECAL 2013
  • 60. Figure 5: Mean human infection (25 repeat runs) while vary- ing the cow population. T. b. rhodesiense infection rate (Bite probability = 0.54, cow infection probability = 0.115, human infection probability = 0.06). Figure 6: Mean cow infection while varying the cow popu- lation. T. b. rhodesiense infection rate (as figure 5). With a 1:1 farmer to cow ratio (80 cows), overall infection is comparable between the two agent types by the end of the two month period. This is likely to be a product of the low total population, and a slower spread of the disease as a re- sult. In a scenario where a fly meets a farmer and his cow in a grid square, there is a 50% chance of selecting either, and the bite probability is the same for both (0.54). Therefore, the only factor promoting infection in cows over humans is the infection rate, which is approximately double, but still only represents a 1 in 10 chance of infection. As a result, flies are less likely to meet infected cows or humans at the earlier stages of this two month simulation and, at this time scale, there is little promoting infection in either agent type Figure 7: Example of a two month run where human and cow populations are both 80. (see, for example, figure 7). By the end of the simulation almost all flies are infected (graph not shown) yet the rela- tive sparsity of the human and cow populations means that disease propagation is inhibited. When the cow population is increased to 160, mean hu- man infection also increases, despite the greater proportion of cows to humans. This is likely to be a result of the in- creased rate at which the disease is transmitted, given that infection amongst the cow population significantly increases from a mean of 50 infections to a mean of 100. Although the mean increase in human infection is slight, it suggests that the idea of ’safety in numbers’ does not apply for this pop- ulation ratio. However, subsequent increases in the cattle population seem to create this effect, with mean human in- fection reaching a lower limit of 21 when the human to cow ratio is 1:7. At this point, it appears as though the number of new infections that can occur with an increasing cow popu- lation has peaked. This is likely to mean that the cow popu- lation is no longer the limiting factor in increasing infection, and instead the fly population is. Indeed, at this point the fly to cow ratio is also 1:7, and therefore a two month pe- riod may not be long enough for the vector to have a greater impact on the total population. Figures 8 and 9 illustrate the results of a similar simula- tion with the infection probabilities reversed (cows = 0.06, humans = 0.115). This scenario may be expected to produce infection data representative of the Gambian form of sleeping sickness, where humans are the primary reservoir, and cattle are af- fected to a lesser extent. While there are on average more infections per 100 of the human population than for the cow population, there are a few interesting points to note. Firstly, the range of mean human infection across all initial cow pop- ulations is 30-50 people. Compare this to the human infec- ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 32
  • 61. Figure 8: Mean human infection (25 repeat runs) while vary- ing the cow population. Reversed infection rate (Bite proba- bility = 0.54, cow infection probability = 0.06, human infec- tion probability = 0.115). Figure 9: Mean cow infection (25 repeat runs) while varying the cow population. Reversed infection rate (as figure 8). tion range in figure 5, which is 21-49, and changing the in- fection rate of humans between simulations appears to have had little effect, particularly as the shape of the plots is very similar. Although there are significantly fewer cow infec- tions observed in figure 9 than figure 6, the data suggests that human to cattle population ratios and human infection numbers alone cannot be used to distinguish between two distinct infection rate scenarios. While only a simple sim- ulation at this point, one can see how this may have some bearing in the real world, where knowledge of cow infection data would be very useful, but may not be widely available, or easy to collect. Conclusion This report has outlined a growing problem in sub-Saharan Africa: the re-emergence of sleeping sickness at epidemic levels during the 2000s, and the risk that two distinct forms of the disease, T.b. rhodesiense and T.b. gambiense, may no longer be spatially discrete in the near future. Combine this with inaccurate diagnosis techniques and scarcely avail- able, outdated treatment, and there are urgent reasons to in- vestigate new means of mitigating the disease. Agent-based modelling appears to be a tool which can aid this mitigation, particularly as a significant amount of focus has been given to controlling the spread and density of the disease vector, the tsetse fly. The results from our model do not yet consti- tute firm predictions as there are several key parameters on which we would like to get improved data, and we have so far used a spatially abstract simulation. However, the project has conveyed the potential for the technique to incorporate a degree of spatial complexity which would be extremely difficult in a purely traditional epidemiological susceptible- infected-susceptible (SIS) model. While the future spread of sleeping sickness appears un- certain in the affected areas, the exploration of a number of potential scenarios with agent-based modelling appears to be a sensible step in the future study of the epidemiology of the disease. Improvements that we plan to make in the second it- eration of this model include a move away from an abstract gridworld in favour of GIS-derived maps of real Ugandan landscapes, allowing the identification of habitats suitable for tsetse flies, suitable watering holes for cattle, and herd- ing routes for farmers. This incorporation of detailed maps (especially at different times of year) will allow exploration of the connectivity between host and vector habitat, which may vary seasonally due to the drying out of lakes, and the associated modification of the tsetse fly risk zone. In addition, more attention will be given to the possibili- ties of ABMs for the rich representation of human daily rou- tine and decision-making on key aspects of behaviour that can affect disease transmission. Parameters to explore may include behaviour towards the sick, the distribution of daily tasks amongst the household, the availability/successful un- dertaking of preventative measures, and the decision to go to a market town despite the risk of infection. Acknowledgements SA was supported by the UK’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council via Southampton’s Institute for Complex Sys- tems Simulation and doctoral training centre. JN provided support in the construction of the simulation, the interpretation of results, and the formulation of this paper. Thanks to Prof. Peter Atkinson and Prof. Seth Bullock for their constructive feedback on the work. References Aksoy, S. (2003). Control of tsetse flies and trypanosomes us- ing molecular genetics. Veterinary Parasitology, 115(2):125– 145. ECAL - General Track 33 ECAL 2013
  • 62. Auchincloss, A. H. and Diez Roux, A. V. (2008). A new tool for epidemiology: the usefulness of dynamic-agent models in un- derstanding place effects on health. American journal of epi- demiology, 168(1):1–8. Batchelor, N. A., Atkinson, P. M., Gething, P. W., Picozzi, K., F`evre, E. M., Kakembo, A. S. L., and Welburn, S. C. (2009). Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanoso- miasis (sleeping sickness) prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda. PLoS ne- glected tropical diseases, 3(12):e563. F`evre, E. M., Coleman, P. G., Welburn, S. C., and Maudlin, I. (2004). Reanalyzing the 1900-1920 sleeping sickness epi- demic in Uganda. Emerging infectious diseases, 10(4):567– 73. F`evre, E. M., Picozzi, K., Fyfe, J., Waiswa, C., Odiit, M., Coleman, P. G., and Welburn, S. C. (2005). A burgeoning epidemic of sleeping sickness in Uganda. Lancet, 366(9487):745–7. F`evre, E. M., Picozzi, K., Jannin, J., Welburn, S. C., and Maudlin, I. (2006). Human African trypanosomiasis: Epidemiology and control. Advances in parasitology, 61:167–221. F`evre, E. M., Wissmann, B. V., Welburn, S. C., and Lutumba, P. (2008). The burden of human African trypanosomiasis. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 2(12):e333. Gumerman, G. J., Swedlund, A. C., Dean, J. S., and Epstein, J. M. (2003). The evolution of social behavior in the prehistoric American southwest. Artificial life, 9(4):435–444. Hargrove, J. W., Ouifki, R., Kajunguri, D., Vale, G. A., and Torr, S. J. (2012). Modeling the control of trypanosomiasis using trypanocides or insecticide-treated livestock. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 6(5):e1615. Hide, G. (1999). History of sleeping sickness in East Africa. Clin- ical microbiology reviews, 12(1):112–25. Hotez, P. J. and Kamath, A. (2009). Neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribu- tion, and disease burden. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 3(8):e412. Joja, L. L. and Okoli, U. A. (2001). Trapping the vector: com- munity action to curb sleeping sickness in southern Sudan. American journal of public health, 91(10):1583–5. Lambin, E. F., Tran, A., Vanwambeke, S. O., Linard, C., and Soti, V. (2010). Pathogenic landscapes: interactions between land, people, disease vectors, and their animal hosts. International journal of health geographics, 9:54. Lansing, J. S. and Kremer, J. N. (1993). Emergent Properties of Balinese Water Temple Networks: Coadaptation on a Rugged Fitness Landscape. American Anthropologist, 95(1):97–114. Matovu, F. S. (1982). Rhodesian sleeping sickness in South- Eastern Uganda: (the present problems). East African medi- cal journal, 59(6):390–3. Mbulamberi, D. B. (1989). A review of human African trypanoso- miasis (HAT) in Uganda. East African medical journal, 66(11):743–7. Muller, G., Gr´ebaut, P., and Gouteux, J.-P. (2004). An agent-based model of sleeping sickness: simulation trials of a forest focus in southern Cameroon. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 327(1):1– 11. Okiria, R. (1985). The prevalence of human trypanosomiasis in Uganda, 1970 to 1983. East African medical journal, 62(11):813–816. Picozzi, K., F`evre, E. M., Odiit, M., Carrington, M., Eisler, M. C., Maudlin, I., and Welburn, S. C. (2005). Sleeping sickness in Uganda: a thin line between two fatal diseases. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 331(7527):1238–41. Raffy, M. and Tran, A. (2005). On the dynamics of flying insects populations controlled by large scale information. Theoreti- cal population biology, 68(2):91–104. Simarro, P. P., Cecchi, G., Paone, M., Franco, J. R., Diarra, A., Ruiz, J. A., F`evre, E. M., Courtin, F., Mattioli, R. C., and Jannin, J. G. (2010). The Atlas of human African trypanoso- miasis: a contribution to global mapping of neglected trop- ical diseases. International journal of health geographics, 9(1):57. Stjernberg, L. and Berglund, J. (2005). Tick prevention in a popu- lation living in a highly endemic area. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 33(6):7. Torr, S. J., Maudlin, I., and Vale, G. A. (2007a). Less is more: restricted application of insecticide to cattle to improve the cost and efficacy of tsetse control. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 21(1):53–64. Torr, S. J., Prior, A., Wilson, P. J., and Schofield, S. (2007b). Is there safety in numbers? The effect of cattle herding on biting risk from tsetse flies. Medical and veterinary entomology, 21(4):301–11. Walshe, D. P., Lehane, M. J., and Haines, L. R. (2011). Post eclo- sion age predicts the prevalence of midgut trypanosome in- fections in Glossina. PloS one, 6(11):e26984. Watkins, A., Noble, J., and Doncaster, C. P. (2011). An agent- based model of jaguar movement through conservation corri- dors. In Lenaerts, T., Giacobini, M., Bersini, H., Bourgine, P., Dorigo, M., and Doursat, R., editors, Advances in Artifi- cial Life, ECAL 2011: Proceedings of the Eleventh European Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Sys- tems., pages 846–853. MIT Press. ECAL - General Track ECAL 2013 34
  • 63. Cell Division Behaviour in a Heterogeneous Swarm Environment Adam Erskine, J. Michael Herrmann The University of Edinburgh, School of Informatics, IPAB, 10 Crichton Street, Edinburgh EH8 9AB, U.K. a.erskine@sms.ed.ac.uk Abstract We present a system of virtual particles that interact using simple kinetic rules. It is known that heterogeneous mixtures of particles are producing particularly interesting behaviours. Here we present a two-species swarm in which a behaviour emerges that resembles cell division. We show that the dividing behaviour exists across a narrow but finite band of parameters and for a wide range of population sizes. In a two dimensional environment the swarm’s characteristics and dynamism manifests differently from those observable in a three dimensional environment. In further experiments we show that repeated divisions can occur if the system is extended by a biased equilibrium process to control the split of populations. We propose this repeated division behaviour provides a simple model for cell division mechanisms, which relates to discussions of the origin of life and is of interest for the formation of morphological structure and to swarm robotics. Introduction We investigate emergent behaviours found arising from the interactions within a heterogeneous swarm. The interactions are in the manner of that originally described by Craig Reynolds (Reynolds, 1987). He introduced a simple algorithm showing that such a swarm could manifest flocking behaviours. Each particle is influenced only by other particles in its local neighbourhood. Each update of the model represents a discrete time step. On each update every particle is drawn toward the centre of mass of its neighbours, aligns its velocity with its neighbours and is pushed away from any particles too close. Reynold’s swarms were homogeneous. Sayama (2009) extended this approach allowing multiple swarms to interact. Each swarm may have different sets of parameters. A set of parameters may be thought of as defining a species. By mixing two or more species of swarms unusual structures and dynamic behaviours have been seen (Sayama, 2010, 2012b,a). Many swarms could be identified that have a distinct biological look to them: cells, amoebas, diatoms abound. It is tempting to see the dynamics of the so-called swarm chemistry as a simple model for the real life counterparts of these forms. We extend the heterogeneous swarm algorithm to include both growth and biased equilibrium mechanisms. Our explorations have found a set of species that show cell division like behaviour. Density and entropy measures allow us to make broad categorizations of behaviours. Single homogeneous swarm show limited behaviours, but more complex emergent behaviours are apparent with just two interacting species. Our investigations explore the robustness of this behaviour under parametric variation. Specifically we studied: • How cell division is affected by the total size of the swarm and the populations of each subspecies. • The differences in the behaviour exhibited in 2D and 3D environments. • How cell division is affected by variation of several of each swarm’s defining parameters. Structure and form abound in and between biological organisms. Much of this comes about via self organization. One benefit of this is that its resultant emergent forms are, in some sense, available for free. Structure emerges from interactions without the need for it to be explicitly coded. An understanding of these rules and their application allow us the possibility of reusing this free structure in robotic systems. Self-organization of structures, self repair or growth without explicit command and control is beneficial. This approach may provide a model that allow us look at the automatic creation of morphological artefacts and dynamic behaviours. The tendency of many swarms to mirror biological forms, albeit superficially, raises the question of whether they can also be a model of biological processes. Theories on the origin of life often invoke mechanisms to assure that proto-replicators are held in close association: within rock fissures; agglomeration at thermal vents; within the wind blown organic foams formed in the sea. Self-organized structures offer options for such discussions. A similar argument is made (Hutton, 2002) with reference to artificial chemistry. However this model is limited to the organizational dynamics arising from its kinetic interactions. ECAL - General Track 35 ECAL 2013
  • 64. Single cell division and the dynamics of small multicellular groups contain the ebb and flow of chemical gradients, protein interactions and gene expressions. Whilst much is known, the precise chemo-mechanical details are still there for investigation. We propose that the dynamics of our cell division swarms may offer a simple model that allows some of these investigations. In order to allow this we require that a robust repeating cell division like mechanism be implemented. Thus we also look at modifications made to enable the observed cell division behaviour to repeat. Background D’arcy Thompson detailed many roles that physical processes might play in the morphological development of creatures and their artefacts (Thompson, 1917). He saw that the forms that soap bubbles took as their surface energies pulled and found equilibria bore resemblances to biological forms. He believed that this was not mere coincidence. It has been shown that this idea is indeed true — at least in part. Honeycomb, its hexagonal packing and shape of end caps, are both found in bubble foams but are not derived from a bubble formation mechanism (Ball, 2011). However the packing of the four cones in the ommatidia of a fly’s compound eye may be due a mechanism of simple squeezing together like bubbles. Ball also documents work that notes that the spicule structures of sponges appears to form via a mechanism whereby a bubble array is created and then inorganic compounds are allowed to permeate the interstices of the bubble matrix. The creature is leveraging the free structure from what Ball refers to as a fossilized foam. The processes at all scales of life are complex when compared to the simple mechanisms that our model uses. And yet simple processes may shed light on the forms that life can take. Finite subdivision rules have been used to model cell division previously. Reynolds’ flocking algorithm have been subject to numerous variations, adding in: assumed fear, or leadership roles, or desire to stay close to roost sites etc. It has been shown (Feder, 2007) that in starlings it is the number of neighbours (not radius), that is important, and that the influence of neighbours was spatially anisotropic. Nearest neighbour interactions combined with an energy minimization argument has been used to generate line and vee formation flocks (Klotsman and Tal, 2011). These homogeneous swarm algorithms have been further extended by combining multiple ‘species’. We should mention here again the studies of Sayama in particular on the relationship between 2D and 3D species (Sayama, 2012b). An evolutionary approach was adopted to discover interesting heterogeneous swarms (Sayama, 2010, 2012a). Local interactions in biology have been much studied. Quorum sensing, the switching of behaviours due to local