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  • Durante su periodo fundacional, sólo se fabricaba con la importación de materias primas bajo cupos de licencias de importación resultado de convenios bilaterales con países del exterior, incluso se importaban las matrices para el prensaje de discos. La obtención de los contratos, para su edición y distribución en exclusiva, de  CBS  y  WEA  que Hispavox editaba cada uno de ellos independientemente, hasta su fusión como  WEA  y que Hispavox siguió explotando junto a otros de menor importancia completando un volumen de negocio que llevó a la compañía a alcanzar un importante puesto entre las  discográficas  españolas. Por la exclusividad de la explotación para  España  de estas dos compañías, consiguió la expansión de su catalogo en todo el mundo:  Latinoamérica ,  EEUU ,  Japón ,  Rusia , etc. Promovió a nivel nacional e internacional todo su catálogo, tanto de  música clásica como de  folclore ,  flamenco  y  canción española ; es decir: cubrió todo el espectro musical. 2 Cabe destacar algunas importantes grabaciones por su excepcionalidad. Por ejemplo, las obras de  Antonio de Cabezón , dirigidas e interpretadas por  Antonio Baciero , que estuvo varios años buceando en los conventos burgaleses buscando datos que le permitieran grabar tan magna obra; las del maestro  Tomás Luis de Victoria ; la "Magna Antología del  flamenco "; la "Antología del  folclore  musical de España "; los  Cantos Gregorianos  grabados en  Silos , 3  que después de los años alcanzarían un éxito enorme en todo el mundo. Con ello se contribuyó a crear un gran acervo cultural para España. La importancia de Hispavox en el mundo, su categoría como marca  discográfica , debe buscarse en los éxitos y mejores cantantes de  música Pop  del momento y la importancia dada a las grabaciones de carácter lírico, sinfónico, popular y flamenco. 2 Como reiteración de lo anterior, las zarzuelas de Sorozábal, las obras del maestro Victoria, las de Antonio de Cabezón, los cantos gregorianos y las antologías, tanto del flamenco como de la música popular española, no tenían un carácter comercial, sino que se emprendieron para que formasen, históricamente, parte del acervo cultural de  España . Su catálogo, con cerca de 2.000 títulos, dice de la gran aportación de esta empresa  discográfica  al mundo de la cultura, y transcurridos los años será un hito histórico cultural.
  • Durante su periodo fundacional, sólo se fabricaba con la importación de materias primas bajo cupos de licencias de importación resultado de convenios bilaterales con países del exterior, incluso se importaban las matrices para el prensaje de discos. La obtención de los contratos, para su edición y distribución en exclusiva, de  CBS  y  WEA  que Hispavox editaba cada uno de ellos independientemente, hasta su fusión como  WEA  y que Hispavox siguió explotando junto a otros de menor importancia completando un volumen de negocio que llevó a la compañía a alcanzar un importante puesto entre las  discográficas  españolas. Por la exclusividad de la explotación para  España  de estas dos compañías, consiguió la expansión de su catalogo en todo el mundo:  Latinoamérica ,  EEUU ,  Japón ,  Rusia , etc. Promovió a nivel nacional e internacional todo su catálogo, tanto de  música clásica como de  folclore ,  flamenco  y  canción española ; es decir: cubrió todo el espectro musical. 2 Cabe destacar algunas importantes grabaciones por su excepcionalidad. Por ejemplo, las obras de  Antonio de Cabezón , dirigidas e interpretadas por  Antonio Baciero , que estuvo varios años buceando en los conventos burgaleses buscando datos que le permitieran grabar tan magna obra; las del maestro  Tomás Luis de Victoria ; la "Magna Antología del  flamenco "; la "Antología del  folclore  musical de España "; los  Cantos Gregorianos  grabados en  Silos , 3  que después de los años alcanzarían un éxito enorme en todo el mundo. Con ello se contribuyó a crear un gran acervo cultural para España. La importancia de Hispavox en el mundo, su categoría como marca  discográfica , debe buscarse en los éxitos y mejores cantantes de  música Pop  del momento y la importancia dada a las grabaciones de carácter lírico, sinfónico, popular y flamenco. 2 Como reiteración de lo anterior, las zarzuelas de Sorozábal, las obras del maestro Victoria, las de Antonio de Cabezón, los cantos gregorianos y las antologías, tanto del flamenco como de la música popular española, no tenían un carácter comercial, sino que se emprendieron para que formasen, históricamente, parte del acervo cultural de  España . Su catálogo, con cerca de 2.000 títulos, dice de la gran aportación de esta empresa  discográfica  al mundo de la cultura, y transcurridos los años será un hito histórico cultural.
  • Durante su periodo fundacional, sólo se fabricaba con la importación de materias primas bajo cupos de licencias de importación resultado de convenios bilaterales con países del exterior, incluso se importaban las matrices para el prensaje de discos. La obtención de los contratos, para su edición y distribución en exclusiva, de  CBS  y  WEA  que Hispavox editaba cada uno de ellos independientemente, hasta su fusión como  WEA  y que Hispavox siguió explotando junto a otros de menor importancia completando un volumen de negocio que llevó a la compañía a alcanzar un importante puesto entre las  discográficas  españolas. Por la exclusividad de la explotación para  España  de estas dos compañías, consiguió la expansión de su catalogo en todo el mundo:  Latinoamérica ,  EEUU ,  Japón ,  Rusia , etc. Promovió a nivel nacional e internacional todo su catálogo, tanto de  música clásica como de  folclore ,  flamenco  y  canción española ; es decir: cubrió todo el espectro musical. 2 Cabe destacar algunas importantes grabaciones por su excepcionalidad. Por ejemplo, las obras de  Antonio de Cabezón , dirigidas e interpretadas por  Antonio Baciero , que estuvo varios años buceando en los conventos burgaleses buscando datos que le permitieran grabar tan magna obra; las del maestro  Tomás Luis de Victoria ; la "Magna Antología del  flamenco "; la "Antología del  folclore  musical de España "; los  Cantos Gregorianos  grabados en  Silos , 3  que después de los años alcanzarían un éxito enorme en todo el mundo. Con ello se contribuyó a crear un gran acervo cultural para España. La importancia de Hispavox en el mundo, su categoría como marca  discográfica , debe buscarse en los éxitos y mejores cantantes de  música Pop  del momento y la importancia dada a las grabaciones de carácter lírico, sinfónico, popular y flamenco. 2 Como reiteración de lo anterior, las zarzuelas de Sorozábal, las obras del maestro Victoria, las de Antonio de Cabezón, los cantos gregorianos y las antologías, tanto del flamenco como de la música popular española, no tenían un carácter comercial, sino que se emprendieron para que formasen, históricamente, parte del acervo cultural de  España . Su catálogo, con cerca de 2.000 títulos, dice de la gran aportación de esta empresa  discográfica  al mundo de la cultura, y transcurridos los años será un hito histórico cultural.
  • Durante su periodo fundacional, sólo se fabricaba con la importación de materias primas bajo cupos de licencias de importación resultado de convenios bilaterales con países del exterior, incluso se importaban las matrices para el prensaje de discos. La obtención de los contratos, para su edición y distribución en exclusiva, de  CBS  y  WEA  que Hispavox editaba cada uno de ellos independientemente, hasta su fusión como  WEA  y que Hispavox siguió explotando junto a otros de menor importancia completando un volumen de negocio que llevó a la compañía a alcanzar un importante puesto entre las  discográficas  españolas. Por la exclusividad de la explotación para  España  de estas dos compañías, consiguió la expansión de su catalogo en todo el mundo:  Latinoamérica ,  EEUU ,  Japón ,  Rusia , etc. Promovió a nivel nacional e internacional todo su catálogo, tanto de  música clásica como de  folclore ,  flamenco  y  canción española ; es decir: cubrió todo el espectro musical. 2 Cabe destacar algunas importantes grabaciones por su excepcionalidad. Por ejemplo, las obras de  Antonio de Cabezón , dirigidas e interpretadas por  Antonio Baciero , que estuvo varios años buceando en los conventos burgaleses buscando datos que le permitieran grabar tan magna obra; las del maestro  Tomás Luis de Victoria ; la "Magna Antología del  flamenco "; la "Antología del  folclore  musical de España "; los  Cantos Gregorianos  grabados en  Silos , 3  que después de los años alcanzarían un éxito enorme en todo el mundo. Con ello se contribuyó a crear un gran acervo cultural para España. La importancia de Hispavox en el mundo, su categoría como marca  discográfica , debe buscarse en los éxitos y mejores cantantes de  música Pop  del momento y la importancia dada a las grabaciones de carácter lírico, sinfónico, popular y flamenco. 2 Como reiteración de lo anterior, las zarzuelas de Sorozábal, las obras del maestro Victoria, las de Antonio de Cabezón, los cantos gregorianos y las antologías, tanto del flamenco como de la música popular española, no tenían un carácter comercial, sino que se emprendieron para que formasen, históricamente, parte del acervo cultural de  España . Su catálogo, con cerca de 2.000 títulos, dice de la gran aportación de esta empresa  discográfica  al mundo de la cultura, y transcurridos los años será un hito histórico cultural.
  • A partir del año  1977 , aproximadamente, se hizo cargo de la dirección de Hispavox José Luis Gil, y le dio un gran impulso, pero después dimitió y dejó a esta compañía en un momento delicado por diversas causas: que se hubieran terminado las licencias de  CBS  y  WEA  y estas compañías se hubieran instalado directamente en  España , el aumento de la piratería, las inmediatas renovaciones de artistas y la falta de ayuda económica de los accionistas eran signos que preveían un futuro incierto para la compañía  discográfica . Todo ello redujo considerablemente el volumen de negocio.
  • 1887-1919 Whatever the culture, whatever the society, wherever there are people, there is music. Throughout most of history, music could only be heard by those immediately around the musician. Music was a live, transient art form. Then, just before the end of the nineteenth century, everything changed. In 1887, Emile Berliner, a largely self-educated, German-born American, who had previously developed the microphone for Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone, invented his ‘Gramophone’ method of recording and reproducing sound using discs, a process that would revolutionise the way music was heard and experienced. EMI’s history starts at one of the companies that Berliner formed: The Gramophone Company in London. Established in 1897, the company took the lead in bringing together the new sound recording technology and musicians. Previously, in the brief history of recorded music, the medium had largely been shunned by established stars. Many saw it as something of a gimmick. The Gramophone Company knew that contemporary artists were the key to introducing people to recorded music, and so it was the first record company to forge relationships with stars of the day. Within a few years its roster of artists included the sopranos Adelina Patti,  Nellie Melba , Emma Calve and, most significantly, Italian tenor  Enrico Caruso , who is widely considered to have been one of the greatest tenors of the twentieth century. Caruso’s first recording session was on the afternoon of April 11, 1902. In just two hours he recorded 10 songs. Over the course of his career, The Gramophone Company released some 240 Caruso records. His substantial sales and resultant fame around the world – not to mention his significant royalty earnings – persuaded many other artists to embrace the new technology. The Gramophone Company was internationally-minded right from the start. Within a year of being formed, subsidiaries were established across much of Europe and just a few years later the company was operating across Europe, Russia and the Middle East as well as in Australia, India, China and parts of Africa. By 1906, less than 10 years after starting up, over 60 per cent of the company’s revenues came from outside the UK. The Gramophone Company wasn’t the only music company formed in London in 1897. In the same year the Columbia Phonograph Company opened for business. Established by the American Columbia Phonograph Company General, Columbia traded in cylinder records and the ‘graphophones’ that played them. For the first few years of the music industry these cylinders outsold Berliner’s flat gramophone records before the tide began to turn in favour of discs towards the end of the century’s first decade. Columbia too expanded rapidly overseas, doing business across Europe and in Egypt by 1903. By 1914 The Gramophone Company was selling nearly four million records a year, but the outbreak of the First World War that same year caused serious disruption to its and Columbia’s business as their factories were largely turned over to the manufacture of munitions. By the end of the war The Gramophone Company had lost its sizeable German business and was unable to regain control of it (it is still operating today as the classical label Deutsche Grammophon). The company also lost all of its operations in Russia due to the war and the Russian Revolution.
  • 1887-1919 Whatever the culture, whatever the society, wherever there are people, there is music. Throughout most of history, music could only be heard by those immediately around the musician. Music was a live, transient art form. Then, just before the end of the nineteenth century, everything changed. In 1887, Emile Berliner, a largely self-educated, German-born American, who had previously developed the microphone for Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone, invented his ‘Gramophone’ method of recording and reproducing sound using discs, a process that would revolutionise the way music was heard and experienced. EMI’s history starts at one of the companies that Berliner formed: The Gramophone Company in London. Established in 1897, the company took the lead in bringing together the new sound recording technology and musicians. Previously, in the brief history of recorded music, the medium had largely been shunned by established stars. Many saw it as something of a gimmick. The Gramophone Company knew that contemporary artists were the key to introducing people to recorded music, and so it was the first record company to forge relationships with stars of the day. Within a few years its roster of artists included the sopranos Adelina Patti,  Nellie Melba , Emma Calve and, most significantly, Italian tenor  Enrico Caruso , who is widely considered to have been one of the greatest tenors of the twentieth century. Caruso’s first recording session was on the afternoon of April 11, 1902. In just two hours he recorded 10 songs. Over the course of his career, The Gramophone Company released some 240 Caruso records. His substantial sales and resultant fame around the world – not to mention his significant royalty earnings – persuaded many other artists to embrace the new technology. The Gramophone Company was internationally-minded right from the start. Within a year of being formed, subsidiaries were established across much of Europe and just a few years later the company was operating across Europe, Russia and the Middle East as well as in Australia, India, China and parts of Africa. By 1906, less than 10 years after starting up, over 60 per cent of the company’s revenues came from outside the UK. The Gramophone Company wasn’t the only music company formed in London in 1897. In the same year the Columbia Phonograph Company opened for business. Established by the American Columbia Phonograph Company General, Columbia traded in cylinder records and the ‘graphophones’ that played them. For the first few years of the music industry these cylinders outsold Berliner’s flat gramophone records before the tide began to turn in favour of discs towards the end of the century’s first decade. Columbia too expanded rapidly overseas, doing business across Europe and in Egypt by 1903. By 1914 The Gramophone Company was selling nearly four million records a year, but the outbreak of the First World War that same year caused serious disruption to its and Columbia’s business as their factories were largely turned over to the manufacture of munitions. By the end of the war The Gramophone Company had lost its sizeable German business and was unable to regain control of it (it is still operating today as the classical label Deutsche Grammophon). The company also lost all of its operations in Russia due to the war and the Russian Revolution.
  • The Gramophone Company wasn’t the only music company formed in London in 1897. In the same year the Columbia Phonograph Company opened for business. Established by the American Columbia Phonograph Company General, Columbia traded in cylinder records and the ‘graphophones’ that played them. For the first few years of the music industry these cylinders outsold Berliner’s flat gramophone records before the tide began to turn in favour of discs towards the end of the century’s first decade. Columbia too expanded rapidly overseas, doing business across Europe and in Egypt by 1903. By 1914 The Gramophone Company was selling nearly four million records a year, but the outbreak of the First World War that same year caused serious disruption to its and Columbia’s business as their factories were largely turned over to the manufacture of munitions. By the end of the war The Gramophone Company had lost its sizeable German business and was unable to regain control of it (it is still operating today as the classical label Deutsche Grammophon). The company also lost all of its operations in Russia due to the war and the Russian Revolution. 1920-1929 By the 1920s, the music industry was back on track and was soon booming as consumers bought more and more music. Columbia had recording contracts with some of the top conductors of the day including  Sir Thomas Beecham , Sir Henry Wood ,  Bruno Walter ,  Igor Stravinsky  and  Gustav Holst , whilst over at The Gramophone Company, their leading artist of the time was the British composer and conductor  Sir Edward Elgar . The company also produced recordings from the great orchestras such as the  Berlin Philharmonic  and the Vienna Philharmonic. In 1926, The Gramophone Company released its first million seller: ‘O For The Wings of a Dove’ from Mendelssohn’s ‘Hear My Prayer’, sung by 14-year-old Ernest Lough on the HMV label. During the decade, Columbia expanded through a number of acquisitions of record companies in Europe, including Odeon in Germany, Pathe in France and, in 1926, the  Parlophone  label in London. Parlophone had an impressive roster of classical artists including one of the leading tenors of the time, Richard Tauber, and today it is still one of EMI’s most important labels. The decade saw further important developments in the technology of recording and producing records. In the mid-1920s the Gramophone Company began releasing double-sided discs and, in 1926, electrical recording was introduced for the first time, with consequent dramatic improvements in quality.
  • 1930-1949 Everything was on a steady upward curve for the Gramophone Company and Columbia until the 1930s when the Great Depression hit the recording industry, as most others, like a tidal wave. Before the decade was out, sales of records had plummeted by over 80%. In response to this new business climate, in 1931 The Gramophone Company and The Columbia Graphophone Company, as it was then called, agreed to a merger. The new company was called Electric and Musical Industries, or EMI as it quickly became known.
  • That same year, 1931, saw another major development for EMI when the company opened the world’s first custom-built recording studio at  Abbey Road  in London. The legendary studios were  opened on November 12, 1931  with a  historic recording in Studio One  by the London Symphony Orchestra of ‘Land Of Hope And Glory’,  conducted by its composer Sir Edward Elgar . Both The Gramophone Company and Columbia had their own research and development departments. Not long after the formation of EMI,  Alan Blumlein , a remarkable EMI scientist who had joined the company from Columbia, developed the world’s first system for recording and playing stereo, ‘binaural’ sound, which allowed the creation of stereo records and stereo films as well as surround sound. However, given the depressed nature of the market, stereo recordings would not be widely commercially available for another 25 years. As well as stereo technology, under the genius of Blumlein the EMI labs also gave birth to electrical television (allowing the UK to be the first country in the world to launch a public television service) and radar, which would be of great benefit to the Allied effort during World War II. Blumlein’s career was tragically cut short due to his untimely death in a plane crash in 1942. There is much secrecy surrounding the crash as Blumlein and his colleagues were working on the top-secret radar project at the time. When he died Alan Blumlein was 38. He received no obituary and still does not appear in the UK’s Who’s Who directory. However Blumlein’s legacy, both for the Allies during World War II and for the music industry all around the world ever since, is beyond question. Many people, not least everyone who enjoys music today, owes a huge debt to the genius of Alan Blumlein. After the end of the war, further technological developments were introduced into the industry. For the first time magnetic tape recorders became available for studios, allowing artists to perform several takes of any given song instead of having to make the recording all at once as before. Tape also made live performances outside the studio much easier to record. EMI’s research labs were very involved in the development of tape and the company started designing and selling its own models. Another key development came in 1948 when the first vinyl 33rpm LP was released in the US. Together with the new 45rpm singles, these formats were cheaper, lighter and more durable than the old 78rpm shellac records. An LP could also hold 25 minutes of music on each side, much more than a 78. Both were instantly popular and dramatically expanded the market for music. 1950-1959 At this time, EMI was the licensee for the major record companies RCA Victor and Columbia Records (the US-based descendant of the original parent company of Columbia Graphophone) outside of North and South America. Among the artists on RCA was a young singer from Mississippi called  Elvis Presley . His first records outside the Americas, starting with ‘Heartbreak Hotel’ in 1956, were released by EMI on its HMV Pop label. Over the next two years EMI released a dozen or so of the first Elvis hits including ‘Blue Suede Shoes’, ‘Love Me Tender’, ‘Hound Dog’ and his first UK number one, ‘All Shook Up’. However the license agreement between EMI and RCA ended in 1957 when RCA established its own office in London. Columbia similarly decided to self-market its releases itself internationally and ended its agreement with EMI in 1952. Together Columbia and RCA were supplying most of EMI’s US music, so EMI went looking for American artists of its own. In 1955 it bought one of the largest US record companies,  Capitol Records . Capitol, based on the West Coast of America, had an impressive roster of artists including  Frank Sinatra ,  Nat King Cole ,  Peggy Lee , Dean Martin ,  Les Paul  and  Gene Vincent . As well as developing its roster of American artists, EMI increased its investment in UK talent such that within a decade EMI releases accounted for about 40 per cent of the UK pop music chart. Artists signed to EMI in the 1950s included  Adam Faith ,  Shirley Bassey , Frankie Vaughan,  Max Bygraves and  Alma Cogan , all of whom enjoyed considerable success and were leaders of a British pop explosion. Alongside these UK artists on EMI’s roster was the most successful of them all,  Cliff Richard . After his first record, ‘Move It‘, was released by EMI in 1958, Cliff would go on to become one of the most successful and enduring artists in British pop music history and to this day is  still releasing new recordings with EMI . 1960-1969 If the 1950s saw British pop music grow, in the 1960s it exploded, and EMI was right at the forefront, not least due to a new band that had just signed to the company’s  Parlophone  label. When Brian Epstein met with Parlophone head George Martin in 1962 to play him a tape of a new band, he didn’t mention that every other record company had heard the band and rejected them. Fortunately for the band, their fans, EMI, and indeed anyone who has ever had anything to do with music, Martin was intrigued and agreed to sign the band. Four months later, in October 1962, The Beatles  released their first single, ‘Love Me Do’. It only reached number 17 in the UK charts but it didn’t take long for British record-buyers to realise what they were missing. The follow-up, ‘Please, Please Me’, went to number two and the world of popular music has  never been the same since . ‘ Please, Please Me‘ was released in January 1963. Before the year was out The Beatles released ‘From Me To You‘, ‘She Loves You’ and ‘I Want To Hold Your Hand‘. All three topped the charts – the first of their 17 UK number ones. The following year it was  America’s turn to experience ‘Beatlemania’ . Within three months of their chart debut in the US, The Beatles held the top five singles, plus another 11 songs on the charts, and had the two best selling albums in the country. In less than eight years, The Beatles recorded and released albums such as  ‘Rubber Soul’ ,  ‘Revolver’ ,  ‘Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band’ ,  ‘Abbey Road’  and ‘The Beatles’ (which became known as  ‘The White Album‘ ). The Beatles have no equal in the history of music and their recordings are as  relevant and successful today as ever . Epstein didn’t just bring The Beatles to EMI but a whole host of talented Liverpudlian musicians including  Gerry and the Pacemakers ,  Cilla Black and  Billy J. Kramer & The Dakotas  who all became leading lights in what was known as ‘Merseybeat’. With the success of The Beatles and other EMI artists, the company became the label of first choice for any ambitious British artist and the EMI roster soon contained the cream of UK talent. In one year, 1963, EMI releases accounted for 15 out of the 19 number one singles. The following year eight EMI artists held the number one position in the British singles chart for a total of 41 weeks. It wasn’t only great British talent that found a home at EMI. Across the Atlantic, Capitol Records  signed  The Beach Boys  in 1962. The Californian quintet became one of the most successful American bands of all time thanks to hits including ‘Surfin’ USA’, ‘I Get Around’, ‘California Girls’ and, their biggest,‘Good Vibrations’, plus a string of acclaimed albums including their groundbreaking 1966 release ‘Pet Sounds‘ – the name refers to the songs on the album, The Beach Boys’ ‘pet sounds’. Meanwhile on the other side of the USA, EMI concluded a license deal with a new record label in Detroit – Tamla Motown. The agreement meant that EMI would market and distribute Motown releases outside the US. The company’s roster during the 1960s and 1970s was simply incredible – Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder ,  Diana Ross and the Supremes , the Jackson Five,  The Temptations ,  Smokey Robinson … the list goes on. By the 1970s, EMI could rely on two out of every three Motown releases being a hit, an unheard of success rate in the music business.
  • That same year, 1931, saw another major development for EMI when the company opened the world’s first custom-built recording studio at  Abbey Road  in London. The legendary studios were  opened on November 12, 1931  with a  historic recording in Studio One  by the London Symphony Orchestra of ‘Land Of Hope And Glory’,  conducted by its composer Sir Edward Elgar . Both The Gramophone Company and Columbia had their own research and development departments. Not long after the formation of EMI,  Alan Blumlein , a remarkable EMI scientist who had joined the company from Columbia, developed the world’s first system for recording and playing stereo, ‘binaural’ sound, which allowed the creation of stereo records and stereo films as well as surround sound. However, given the depressed nature of the market, stereo recordings would not be widely commercially available for another 25 years. As well as stereo technology, under the genius of Blumlein the EMI labs also gave birth to electrical television (allowing the UK to be the first country in the world to launch a public television service) and radar, which would be of great benefit to the Allied effort during World War II. Blumlein’s career was tragically cut short due to his untimely death in a plane crash in 1942. There is much secrecy surrounding the crash as Blumlein and his colleagues were working on the top-secret radar project at the time. When he died Alan Blumlein was 38. He received no obituary and still does not appear in the UK’s Who’s Who directory. However Blumlein’s legacy, both for the Allies during World War II and for the music industry all around the world ever since, is beyond question. Many people, not least everyone who enjoys music today, owes a huge debt to the genius of Alan Blumlein. After the end of the war, further technological developments were introduced into the industry. For the first time magnetic tape recorders became available for studios, allowing artists to perform several takes of any given song instead of having to make the recording all at once as before. Tape also made live performances outside the studio much easier to record. EMI’s research labs were very involved in the development of tape and the company started designing and selling its own models. Another key development came in 1948 when the first vinyl 33rpm LP was released in the US. Together with the new 45rpm singles, these formats were cheaper, lighter and more durable than the old 78rpm shellac records. An LP could also hold 25 minutes of music on each side, much more than a 78. Both were instantly popular and dramatically expanded the market for music. 1950-1959 At this time, EMI was the licensee for the major record companies RCA Victor and Columbia Records (the US-based descendant of the original parent company of Columbia Graphophone) outside of North and South America. Among the artists on RCA was a young singer from Mississippi called  Elvis Presley . His first records outside the Americas, starting with ‘Heartbreak Hotel’ in 1956, were released by EMI on its HMV Pop label. Over the next two years EMI released a dozen or so of the first Elvis hits including ‘Blue Suede Shoes’, ‘Love Me Tender’, ‘Hound Dog’ and his first UK number one, ‘All Shook Up’. However the license agreement between EMI and RCA ended in 1957 when RCA established its own office in London. Columbia similarly decided to self-market its releases itself internationally and ended its agreement with EMI in 1952. Together Columbia and RCA were supplying most of EMI’s US music, so EMI went looking for American artists of its own. In 1955 it bought one of the largest US record companies,  Capitol Records . Capitol, based on the West Coast of America, had an impressive roster of artists including  Frank Sinatra ,  Nat King Cole ,  Peggy Lee , Dean Martin ,  Les Paul  and  Gene Vincent . As well as developing its roster of American artists, EMI increased its investment in UK talent such that within a decade EMI releases accounted for about 40 per cent of the UK pop music chart. Artists signed to EMI in the 1950s included  Adam Faith ,  Shirley Bassey , Frankie Vaughan,  Max Bygraves and  Alma Cogan , all of whom enjoyed considerable success and were leaders of a British pop explosion. Alongside these UK artists on EMI’s roster was the most successful of them all,  Cliff Richard . After his first record, ‘Move It‘, was released by EMI in 1958, Cliff would go on to become one of the most successful and enduring artists in British pop music history and to this day is  still releasing new recordings with EMI . 1960-1969 If the 1950s saw British pop music grow, in the 1960s it exploded, and EMI was right at the forefront, not least due to a new band that had just signed to the company’s  Parlophone  label. When Brian Epstein met with Parlophone head George Martin in 1962 to play him a tape of a new band, he didn’t mention that every other record company had heard the band and rejected them. Fortunately for the band, their fans, EMI, and indeed anyone who has ever had anything to do with music, Martin was intrigued and agreed to sign the band. Four months later, in October 1962, The Beatles  released their first single, ‘Love Me Do’. It only reached number 17 in the UK charts but it didn’t take long for British record-buyers to realise what they were missing. The follow-up, ‘Please, Please Me’, went to number two and the world of popular music has  never been the same since . ‘ Please, Please Me‘ was released in January 1963. Before the year was out The Beatles released ‘From Me To You‘, ‘She Loves You’ and ‘I Want To Hold Your Hand‘. All three topped the charts – the first of their 17 UK number ones. The following year it was  America’s turn to experience ‘Beatlemania’ . Within three months of their chart debut in the US, The Beatles held the top five singles, plus another 11 songs on the charts, and had the two best selling albums in the country. In less than eight years, The Beatles recorded and released albums such as  ‘Rubber Soul’ ,  ‘Revolver’ ,  ‘Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band’ ,  ‘Abbey Road’  and ‘The Beatles’ (which became known as  ‘The White Album‘ ). The Beatles have no equal in the history of music and their recordings are as  relevant and successful today as ever . Epstein didn’t just bring The Beatles to EMI but a whole host of talented Liverpudlian musicians including  Gerry and the Pacemakers ,  Cilla Black and  Billy J. Kramer & The Dakotas  who all became leading lights in what was known as ‘Merseybeat’. With the success of The Beatles and other EMI artists, the company became the label of first choice for any ambitious British artist and the EMI roster soon contained the cream of UK talent. In one year, 1963, EMI releases accounted for 15 out of the 19 number one singles. The following year eight EMI artists held the number one position in the British singles chart for a total of 41 weeks. It wasn’t only great British talent that found a home at EMI. Across the Atlantic, Capitol Records  signed  The Beach Boys  in 1962. The Californian quintet became one of the most successful American bands of all time thanks to hits including ‘Surfin’ USA’, ‘I Get Around’, ‘California Girls’ and, their biggest,‘Good Vibrations’, plus a string of acclaimed albums including their groundbreaking 1966 release ‘Pet Sounds‘ – the name refers to the songs on the album, The Beach Boys’ ‘pet sounds’. Meanwhile on the other side of the USA, EMI concluded a license deal with a new record label in Detroit – Tamla Motown. The agreement meant that EMI would market and distribute Motown releases outside the US. The company’s roster during the 1960s and 1970s was simply incredible – Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder ,  Diana Ross and the Supremes , the Jackson Five,  The Temptations ,  Smokey Robinson … the list goes on. By the 1970s, EMI could rely on two out of every three Motown releases being a hit, an unheard of success rate in the music business.
  • 1970-1979 EMI had always been a very international company with offices all over the world, but it had mostly been the company’s classical records that had sold overseas. The huge explosion in pop music led by  The Beatles  and the other British (mostly EMI-signed) bands who followed in their wake changed everything and gave the company an unprecedented global outlook. In the late 1960s, a new kind of music began to emerge – ‘progressive’ rock. EMI established a dedicated label to cater specifically for this more left field, underground style of music: Harvest. By the early 1970s the Harvest roster was made up of the cream of progressive rock including  Deep Purple ,  Roy Harper , the  Edgar Broughton Band , the Electric Light Orchestra, and the most influential and popular of all,  Pink Floyd . Formed in 1965, Pink Floyd signed to EMI two years later and had two UK hit singles and a hit album in 1968: ‘Piper At The Gates of Dawn’. The same year there was a change of line-up as original member Syd Barrett left. New recruit David Gilmour joined the other three members of the band – Roger Waters, Nick Mason and Rick Wright – and the quartet went on to be one of the most successful bands of all time. Pink Floyd’s 1973 album, the seminal ‘Dark Side of the Moon’, was lauded by fans and critics at the time and still is today. The album remained on the UK charts for six years and spent more time on the Billboard album charts in the US than any other, before or since – 741 weeks. It has since taken up residence in the Billboard catalogue chart, where it remains to this day. ‘Dark Side of the Moon’ is nearly 40 years old, but it remains an incredibly influential album to musicians and fans all over the world, selling hundreds of thousands of copies every year, adding to a total so far of around 35 million. As well as ‘Dark Side of the Moon’, Pink Floyd’s catalogue includes the massively successful ‘The Wall’, ‘Wish You Were Here’, ‘Animals’ and ‘A Momentary Lapse of Reason’. Four decades on and Pink Floyd remain as influential as ever and  continue to innovate to reach music fans everywhere .  The year before ‘Dark Side of the Moon’, EMI signed its first deal with  Queen . With the release of their debut album, ‘Sheer Heart Attack’, in 1974, it was instantly clear that Freddie Mercury, Brian May, Roger Taylor and John Deacon were not like other bands. With their intricately written songs and Mercury’s outrageous flamboyance, Queen sold millions of records and firmly established their reputation as one of the best live acts in the world. Queen’s 1975 single, ‘Bohemian Rhapsody’, was, and remains, one of the most extraordinary and exceptional number one records. It also jump-started the music video era. In the following decade, Queen’s performance at Live Aid in 1985 was considered by many to be the outstanding highlight of the 16-hour concert. In 1977 EMI signed another great rock band, in fact the world’s greatest: the Rolling Stones . Stones albums released through EMI included ‘Some Girls’, ‘Emotional Rescue’ and ‘Tattoo You’. The band left EMI in the 1980s but in 1991 they signed up with Virgin Records which was subsequently acquired by EMI. On the business side, the 1970s saw EMI acquire the cream of UK music publishing. The company already had a small publishing operation called Ardmore and Beechwood which began expanding with the acquisition of the Keith Prowse and Central Songs catalogues in 1969 and the Affiliated Music Publishers group in 1973. Renamed  EMI Music Publishing  in 1974, the division expanded further in 1976 with the purchase of the Screen Gems and Colgems libraries from Hollywood studio Columbia Pictures, giving EMI a major presence in film music. In 1979, US record label Liberty/United Artists was acquired by EMI. The company included the storied  Blue Note Records , the most famous and influential label name ever in jazz music. From its unrivalled roster to its photography and design,  Blue Note is a musical icon . Established in 1939, the Blue Note catalogue includes jazz greats such as  Miles Davis , Thelonious Monk ,  Bud Powell ,  Sonny Rollins,   Horace Silver ,  Art Blakey  and  Clifford Brown , all of whom made their most important recordings on the label. 1980-1991 As the 1980s began, the record industry was suffering from a severe sales decline, exacerbated by the end of the disco phenomenon. This left the field wide open for new genres to emerge. Loudly announcing its arrival was one that had evolved out of the ’70s rock of bands like Deep Purple and Led Zeppelin. Heavy metal. One of the first heavy metal bands to make an impression on the charts was the EMI-signed  Iron Maiden . Their self-titled debut was released in 1980 and ever since then the band have been extremely prolific and regularly tour all over the world. Thirty years on and the band are still recording for EMI, still tour relentlessly, and are leading a new generation of rockers all over the world as shown by their most recent album, 2010′s ‘The Final Frontier’, which  debuted at number one in 28 countries . Other genres of music emerging at this time were electronic and sample-based, such as house and techno and hip-hop. Arguably the most influential band for all these, constantly name-checked by the sounds’ pioneers, is Kraftwerk , a quartet from Dusseldorf in Germany who began experimenting with computers and electronic music in the 1970s. After signing to EMI in 1978 they released a series of seminal albums with futuristic songs that sounded completely unlike anything else that was being released by anyone, anywhere. Their 1981 single, ‘Computer Love/The Model’,was the first ever German record to top the UK charts. Other successful artists for EMI at the start of the 1980s included  Kate Bush , who had joined EMI in 1977 after being spotted by Pink Floyd’s David Gilmour, Sheena Easton ,  Thomas Dolby  and  Duran Duran  who were the leading lights of a new British musical invasion that swept into the US with their hugely successful albums such as ‘ Rio ‘ and ‘ Seven And The Ragged Tiger ‘. The late 1980s and early 1990s were a period of huge change for EMI. Having released its first recordings on the new CD format in 1983, by the start of the 1990s the shiny silver discs accounted for the majority of albums sold by EMI. Around this time EMI also embarked on a series of business deals that would transform the company. In 1989 SBK Entertainment World, a music publishing company whose catalogue included ‘Singin’ In The Rain’, ‘Wizard of Oz’ and‘Santa Claus Is Coming To Town‘, was acquired, making  EMI Music Publishing  the undisputed world leader. In the same year, EMI acquired a 50% stake in Chrysalis Records. Formed in 1969, Chrysalis Records was the company behind artists ranging from  Jethro Tull  to  Blondie  and  Spandau Ballet  to  Sinead O’Connor . EMI Music Publishing expanded further in 1990 with the acquisition of the Filmtrax catalogue, extending EMI’s leadership in music publishing. The following year, EMI bought the remaining 50% of Chrysalis Records, taking full ownership of the label. 1992-1999 1992 was a ymusic company in the world. Virgin had a major roster of artists including  Janet Jackson ,  Lenny Kravitz ,  Peter Gabriel ,  Smashing Pumpkins , Massive Attack  and the  Rolling Stones , and a significant music publishing business. Together with the other  business deals in the previous years , the acquisition of Virgin Music saw EMI undergo a huge transformation and the company headed into the decade re-energised and with new momentum. There were a number of key signings at this time as many of today’s best known artists began their careers.  Blur  released their first album ‘Leisure’ in 1991, while two year’s later  Radiohead ‘s debut, ‘ Pablo Honey ‘, came out on Parlophone. Virgin Records meanwhile was on a roll with albums from its many established artists as well as new bands such as  The Verve  and  The Chemical Brothers . From Cliff Richard onwards, EMI has been the home to the UK’s top music stars. In the 1990s this tradition continued with EMI signing the decade’s most successful British pop band, the  Spice Girls , and the country’s biggest male artist,  Robbie Williams . The Spice Girls formed in 1994, signed to Virgin Records in 1995 and released their first single ‘ Wannabe ‘ in 1996. By the end of that year the band were a cultural phenomenon all over the globe. ‘Wannabe’ reached number one in 31 countries and was the first of nine chart toppers for the Spice Girls in the UK. With sales of 35 million albums and 25 million singles around the world, the Spice Girls completely changed the landscape of pop music, and of female groups in particular. Robbie Williams joined EMI in 1996 and his first album, ‘ Life Thru A Lens ‘, came out the following year. It wasn’t until its 28th week of release that it reached number one in the UK, but from then on it took up almost permanent residence in the top 10, ultimately staying there for 40 weeks. Since then he has sold well over 50 million albums globally and played to sell out crowds all around the world. EMI continueear of huge change for EMI as it was in this year that the company bought the Virgin Music Group, at the time the largest independent d to grow during the 1990s, bringing successful companies and entrepreneurs into the EMI family. Top German independent Intercord became an EMI-owned label in 1994, and two years later 50% of the Jobete music publishing catalogue was acquired by  EMI Music Publishing . This catalogue was established by Motown founder Berry Gordy and includes over 15,000 classic Motown songs including ‘I Heard It Through The Grapevine’, ‘My Girl’, ‘I Just Called To Say I Love You’ and ‘I’ll Be There’. EMI purchased Gordy’s remaining stake in Jobete in 2003 and 2004 and he continues to be involved with this legendary catalogue. In 1996  Priority Records  joined the EMI fold. The Los Angeles-based label is one of the top names in American urban music, releasing records from hugely influential artists such as  Snoop Dogg ,  Cypress Hill ,  Ice Cube  and N.W.A . To help support future generations of musicians, in 1997 EMI established the EMI Music Sound Foundation , an independent music education charity that has distributed over £3.5 million to schools, students and teachers throughout Britain and is now the single largest sponsor of specialist performing arts colleges in the UK. 2000-2011 With roots stretching right back to the  very beginnings of recorded sound and being the company that  invented stereo recording , EMI has stayed at the forefront of technological change in the industry. When digital music began to take off in the 1990s, EMI was well placed to capitalise on the trend. EMI’s first websites went live in 1993 and 1994 and in 1998 EMI streamed the first complete album over the internet, ‘ Mezzanine ‘ by  Massive Attack . The following year EMI was the first company to release a digital album download, David Bowie ‘s ‘…Hours‘ and in 2001 EMI launched the first internet video single, ‘Dig In’ by  Lenny Kravitz . In 2007 EMI became the  first major music company to make its music available without digital rights management (DRM) software  and at a much higher sound quality than before. Today, in addition to EMI’s strong presence in physical music outlets, EMI’s music is available to purchase and enjoy digitally through hundreds of retailers and services around the world. One of the decade’s defining acts signed to EMI’s  Parlophone  label in 1999, releasing their first album in July 2000. As soon as ‘ Parachutes ‘ came out, Coldplay  – Chris Martin, Jonny Buckland, Guy Berryman and Will Champion – were clearly a band to pay attention to. ‘Parachutes’ debuted at number one in the UK album chart and today Coldplay are the biggest band in the world. ‘Parachutes’ was nominated for the UK’s prestigious Mercury Music Prize and in 2002 won the Grammy for Best Alternative Music Album. The follow-up, ‘ A Rush Of Blood To The Head ‘, was an even bigger hit and 2005′s ‘X&Y’ was the  biggest selling album of the year worldwide . They repeated this feat in 2008 when their next album, ‘ Viva La Vida Or Death And All His Friends ‘, sold nearly seven million copies, more than  any other album in the world that year . Their record breaking success continued the following year, 2009, when Coldplay became the  first recording artists to sell more than one million digital albums in the US and two million worldwide . Robbie Williams  continues his reign as the most popular UK solo artist around the world, a remarkable run of success recognised in February 2010 when he was  presented with the Outstanding Contribution To Music award at the Brits 2010 . Other EMI artists building on their international success in the decade include  Depeche Mode ,  Kylie Minogue ,  Massive Attack  and  Pet Shop Boys . Popular and successful new acts broken by EMI in the last 10 years include artists such as  Lily Allen ,  Bat For Lashes ,  Corinne Bailey Rae ,  Eliza Doolittle ,  David Guetta ,  Norah Jones ,  Lady Antebellum ,  Katy Perry , Darius Rucker ,  30 Seconds To Mars ,  Tinie Tempah ,  KT Tunstall , Keith Urban  and the world’s most successful virtual band, the Damon Albarn and Jamie Hewlett-inspired  Gorillaz . Other developments for EMI since 2000 include the outsourcing of CD manufacturing and distribution operations, the acquisition in 2002 of seminal independent label  Mute , home to artists such as  Depeche Mode , Goldfrapp  and  Nick Cave And The Bad Seeds , and, in 2006, the acquisition of the 45% stake in Japanese label Toshiba-EMI held by Toshiba Corporation, bringing EMI’s ownership of the company to 100%. The company now operates as EMI Music Japan. In September 2010 EMI Music and Mute founder Daniel Miller  reached an agreement that saw EMI support Miller in the establishment of his second record label, and the continuation of the Mute brand as an independent recorded music business . In May 2007 leading UK private equity firm Terra Firma announced details of a recommended offer for the shares of EMI and assumed control of the company in August 2007. In February 2011 EMI was  acquired by Citigroup who undertook a successful recapitalization of the company . As always, EMI continues to be a thoroughly international business. The company’s management is multinational, overseeing a business that operates right around the world. In recent years, as well as releasing music from Anglo-American artists such as Norah Jones, Coldplay, Lily Allen, Katy Perry and Robbie Williams, EMI has issued top selling albums by artists such as  Hikaru Utada  from Japan;  Herbert Grönemeyer  and  Wir Sind Helden  from Germany;  Daft Punk ,  Air ,  Renaud ,  Raphael  and  Cali  from France;  Bebe  from Spain;  Mariza  from Portugal;  RBD  and  Belinda  from Mexico;  Marisa Monte  from Brazil; and  Vasco Rossi  and  Tiziano Ferro from Italy, to name but a few. EMI is a business solely focused on music, tracing its history to the  very beginnings of recording . Our  artists and catalogue  are world class and we continue to be a leader in facilitating the creative and commercial success of our artists and songwriters around the globe.

hispavox hispavox Presentation Transcript

  • La historia de EMI e Hispavox QFB Carlos Guillén
  • ¿Quién fue HISPAVOX?
    • Hispavox fue una gran discográfica española de proyección mundial que tuvo solamente 30 años de vida comercial.
  • HISPAVOX
    • Fue fundada por José Manuel Vidal Zapater. En 1956 empezó a editar y fabricar los catálogos franceses Vega y Vogue, así como Discophile Français de música clásica
    • Implantó el sistema microsurco
  • HISPAVOX
    • Obtuvo contratos de edición y distribución exclusivos de CBS, WEA y algunos otros.
    • CBS y WEA tenían exclusividad de explotación para España, lo cual dio a Hispavox la posibilidad de expandir a nivel nacional e internacional su catálogo, el cual alcanzó cerca de 2,000 títulos.
  • Rafael Trabuchelli
    • Rafael Trabucchelli en 1965 sustituye a Enrique Garea como director artístico y productor del sello Hispavox.
    • Pone al servicio de solistas y grupos debutantes al director musical Waldo de los Ríos y al ingeniero de sonido Mike Lewellyn Jones que estaban a la altura de las producciones europeas de la época.
  • Rafael Trabuchelli
    • Uno de los personajes más influyentes de la música española entre 1965 y 1975. Grabó más de 1.300 discos; entre ellos, La yenka o el Himno a la alegría de Miguel Ríos.
    • Tras la mesa de mezclas era un hombre riguroso y detallista.
    • Gran conocedor de pormenores técnicos y acústicos de las grabaciones
  • Rafael Trabuchelli
    • Exprimió al máximo las posibilidades de los nuevos estudios que Hispavox había construido en una nave de 200 m 2 de la calle Torrelaguna.
    • Popularizó la expresión sonido Torrelaguna.
    • En 2003 la Academia de las Artes y las Ciencias de la Música le distinguió con el Premio de la Difusión de la Música.
    • Falleció en Madrid el 28 de septiembre de 2006 a causa de una insuficiencia respiratoria.
  • HISPAVOX
    • José Luis Gil fue director en 1977, dando inicialmente un gran impulso a la compañía, pero después dimitió dejando a la compañía en un momento delicado.
    • Terminaron las licencias de edición y venta a CBS y WEA, que además se instalaron en España.
    • Aumentaron la piratería, las renovaciones de contratos y disminuyó la ayuda de los accionistas.
    • Hubo una gran pérdida de ventas
  • LA VENTA DE LA MULTINACIONAL
    • Hubo que renovar la dirección general.
    • Con el equipo humano que quedaba y con Ángel Recuenco como director general y consejero delegado al frente, evitaron la suspensión de pagos.
    • En 1984 la venta de Hispavox a EMI fue inevitable, hizo posible conservar el catálogo realizado durante 30 años.
  • LA GESTACIÓN DE EMI
    • En 1887, Emile Berliner, Alemán-Americano autodidacta inventó el Gramofono y fundó la Gramophone Company en Londres hacía 1897.
    • Enrico Caruso, uno de los más grandes tenores del siglo XX realizó 240 grabaciones con la Gramophone cuyas ventas otorgaron enormes ganancias.
  • LA GESTACIÓN DE EMI
    • El primer año la compañía abrió subsidiarias a lo largo de Europa, y unos años después en Europa, Russia, Medio Oriente y Australia
    • También en 1897 abrió sus puertas Columbia Phonograph Company con grabaciones en cilindros y grafófonos para tocarlos.
  • LA GESTACIÓN DE EMI
    • En 1914, la primera guerra mundial provocó que ambas compañías se dedicaran a la fabricación de municiones. Al final de la guerra, la Gramophon era incapaz de sostener el control de sus operaciones, pero se recuperó en la década de los 1920’s. Comenzó a vender discos de 2 lados e introdujo la grabación eléctrica.
    • Columbia se expandió adquiriendo Odeon(Alemania), Pathe (Francia)y Parlophone (Londres).
  • Nace EMI
    • En 1931 se fusionan Columbia con la Gramophone para formar
    • Electric Musical Industries
  • Crecimiento de EMI
    • Abrió un estudio en la Abbey Road de Londres en 1931.
    • Adam Blumlein desarrolló el sonido binaural.
    • Contribuyeron al desarrollo de las cintas.
    • Realizo las grabaciones de RCA y Columbia Records hasta que se independizaron.
    • EMI buscó artistas americanos por si misma, compró Capitol Records en 1955.
  • Crecimiento de EMI
    • En 1962 Parlophone firmó con The Beatles y Capitol con The Beach Boys.
    • A finales de los 60’s, crea Harvest, sello dedicado al rock progresivo. Firmaron Pink Floyd, Deep Purple, The Rolling Stones.
    • En 1969 adquiere a Music Publishers, renombrada EMI Music Publishing en el 74.
  • La EMI Actual
    • En 1979 adquirió a la norteamericana Blue Note establecida en 1939.
    • Para 1983 lanza su primera grabación en CD y adquirió a Chrysalis Records y Filmtrax. compró a Virgin Music en 1992.
    • En 1998 publicó un álbum completo por internet
    • En 2007 Terra Firma Asumió el control de la compañía.
    • En 2011 EMI fue adquirida y recapitalizada por Citigroup.
    • ¡Gracias!