Egypt Media Presentation


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The first ever randomly sampled media measurement surveys of the populations of two major cities of Egypt indicate strong but different relationships between media type, its source or origin and how much it is trusted by the population of each city. The implications for those involved in the business and use of media in Egypt are great.

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Egypt Media Presentation

  1. 1. The Changing Face of News Reporting In Egypt; Media, Sources and Trust Presentation at WAPOR/AAPOR 2008 New Orleans May 15, 2008
  2. 2. Methodologies <ul><li>MDP Audience Measurement Survey Cairo: n=3,000 from April 4 to May 6, 2007. Margin of sampling error is +/- 1.8%. </li></ul><ul><li>MDP Audience Measurement Survey Alexandria: n=1,500 Egyptians from April 5 to May 6, 2007. Margin of sampling error is +/- 2.5%. </li></ul><ul><li>BBC World Service Poll “World Divided On Press Freedom”: Alexandria, Cairo, Giza, and Shobra Al Khema, n=504 from October 22 to October 27, 2007. Margin of sampling error is undisclosed. </li></ul><ul><li>Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) Poll “Freedom of the Media”: Alexandria, Cairo, Giza, and Shobra Al Khema, n=600 persons from January 17 to January 27, 2008. Margin of sampling error is +/- 4.1%. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Egyptian Media Choices & Influences <ul><li>CHOICES </li></ul><ul><li>Television, satellite, cable and aerial </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>SMS </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbors, community members, religious leaders </li></ul><ul><li>INFLUENCES </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Language Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Disposable Income </li></ul><ul><li>Habit </li></ul><ul><li>Social Identity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cities Have Different Media Usage Patterns <ul><li>Formal sources used are similar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TV (aerial, Egyptian and international satellite, wasla) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usage of sources is different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexandrians generally use more sources more frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexandrian rely heavily on satellite of all kinds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cairenes rely heavily on state television and radio channels </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Q: For each one of the sources I read, please tell me how often you use that source to get news and information about current events. Note: The first sample size ( n ) presented is for Cairo, followed by the n for Alexandria. MDP Audience Measurement Surveys Cairo & Alexandria, 2007
  6. 6. Usage And Trust <ul><li>Variably dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Cairenes usage appears independent of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandrians highly dependent on trust </li></ul><ul><li>True for aerial television, newspapers, magazines and Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests Cairenes consume for different reasons than Alexandrians, or are more cynical about news reporting generally </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aerial Television ( n =2053 Cairo), ( n =752 Alexandria) MDP Audience Measurement Surveys Cairo & Alexandria, 2007
  8. 8. Newspapers ( n =1192 Cairo), ( n =758 Alexandria) MDP Audience Measurement Surveys Cairo & Alexandria, 2007
  9. 9. No Usage And Trust Relationship <ul><li>Reliability does not correlate in either city for Egyptian radio, cable television and international non-Arabic television </li></ul><ul><li>Low numbers of frequent users for cable and non-Arabic TV. May explain lower frequent user counts. </li></ul><ul><li>May not be primary news sources in Alexandria </li></ul>
  10. 10. Egyptian Radio ( n =1862 Cairo), ( n =823 Alexandria) MDP Audience Measurement Surveys Cairo & Alexandria, 2007
  11. 11. Exceptional International News Sources <ul><li>International Arabic-language TV and international radio are exceptions to these patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Both have strong relationships between frequency of use and reliability in both cities. </li></ul><ul><li>International Arabic-language TV has a strong following. International radio has a much smaller frequency of use. </li></ul>
  12. 12. International Arabic-Language Television ( n =1690 Cairo), ( n =1156 Alexandria) MDP Audience Measurement Surveys Cairo & Alexandria, 2007
  13. 13. Al-Jazeera Dominates <ul><li>Egyptians rely on outside sources for news </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By far the most frequently consumed news source is Al-Jazeerah’s Arabic broadcast from Doha, Qatar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International radio rates highly with English speakers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domestic and foreign source preferences differ between Alexandria and Cairo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cairenes consume state sources despite thinking them unreliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexandrians consume foreign and domestic sources they think are reliable </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Q: Which television newscast do you trust the most? First Choice. (Those that use at least once a week. ) ( n =2848 Cairo), ( n =1462 Alexandria) MDP Audience Measurement Surveys Cairo & Alexandria, 2007
  15. 15. Nile News ERTU (Channel 1 & 2)
  16. 16. Egyptian Newspapers v. Arabic Television <ul><li>Egyptian newspapers primarily compete with Al-Jazeera and other television stations </li></ul><ul><li>In Alexandria especially this competition is related to trust in content </li></ul><ul><li>Cairenes may find this equally important, since their pattern of trust for international Arabic-language television is different and more related to trust than other sources. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Impact Of Print Advertising <ul><li>As many Egyptians believe print advertising cannot be trusted as those who believe it can. </li></ul><ul><li>This is more pronounced in Alexandria than Cairo. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of Cairenes and Alexandrians both believe that trustworthiness of print ads reflects the reputation of a paper generally. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Print Ads Affect Paper Reputation ( n =1346 Cairo), ( n =790 Alexandria) MDP Audience Measurement Surveys Cairo & Alexandria, 2007
  19. 19. Trust And Print Content <ul><li>In a 2007 BBC World Service Poll, majorities of Egyptians in urban areas reported they believe their own press is free and that media managers do not dictate messages. </li></ul><ul><li>In a 2008 PIPA poll Egyptians indicated their press was somewhat or very free (94%), but would like to see more press freedom (64%). </li></ul><ul><li>While we cannot attribute these findings to levels of trust, it would suggest that lower levels of trust in their own print media are not so much based on state control of what is published as on the degree of news coverage, the nature of content and its accuracy. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusions <ul><li>Alexandria and Cairo media markets are different. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust and reliability play a role in both for choices of most frequently used news sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper reliability is negatively impacted by advertising practices. </li></ul><ul><li>The most frequently used and a trusted source in both cities is an international Arabic television station; Al-Jazeera. </li></ul><ul><li>Any media organization active in Egypt; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must position itself in relationship to Al-Jazeera television in all cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should use different business strategies in different cities </li></ul></ul>