Social media comes with a new set of characteristics and behaviours, not least of these being the very active involvement of the audience. This requires new ways of thinking about planning and evaluating media activity.
SOCIAL MEDIA /METHODS & METRICS 2008A Report for Contagious by
social media / index / p.02 INDEX / ABOUT THE AUTHORS / SOCIAL MEDIA / METHODS & METRICSCHAPTERS / 01 / page 03 Ryan*MacMillan is a social media agency. We use social01 / media to understand, amplify and influence the conver-SUMMARY EXECUTIVE SUMMARY sations around our clients products and services.02 /INTRO 02 / pages 04-05 To make this happen we provide:03 / INTRODUCTIONPLANNING - Situation analysis: understanding and quantifying the04 / effect social media marketing can have on the brandMEASURING 03 / pages 06-15 and sales05 / PLANNING - Research in social media environments: monitoringMETHODS audience conversations about the brand or product06 / 04 / pages 16-40 and understanding their effect: what theyre saying,EMERGING MEASURING why and where theyre saying it07 /DEFINITIONS - Product development: creating social media products 05 / pages 41-84 that engage the brands audience and can generate08 /RESOURCES SOCIAL METHODS revenues - Marketing campaigns: driving interest and considera- 06 / pages 85-89 tion of brands by listening to audience needs and SOCIAL MEDIA / EMERGING TRENDS responding to them with content, dialogue and functionality. 07 / pages 90-91 DEFINITIONS 08 / pages 92-93 RESOURCES
social media / executive summary / p.03 01 / page 03 EXECUTIVE SUMMARYCHAPTERS / 02 / Introduction new set of tools for evaluating it. This section gives is a fast moving world and in order to be ready for01 / An overview of the report; why we have done it, an overview of how audience needs are impacted its next evolution we have taken a look into theSUMMARY what it includes, who it is aimed at and what we by social media. It then looks at what tools are future. This essay looks sideways at what is02 / hope the reader will get out of it. available for measuring it and what this means in emerging from current trends and what will haveINTRO terms of economic value. an impact on marketing in social media in the near03 / 03 / Planning future.PLANNING Social media comes with a new set of characteris- 05 / Social Methods04 / tics and behaviours, not least of these being the This is a constantly evolving space and it produces 07 / DefinitionsMEASURING very active involvement of the audience. This new ways for audiences and brands to engage New areas, especially in marketing and technology,05 / requires new ways of thinking about planning and with each other. Each new way has its own have a charming habit of breeding a whole new setMETHODS evaluating media activity. In this section Mark strengths and pitfalls; this section provides an of neologisms. We have collected some of the06 / Palmer provides an unsettling view of some of the introduction to each of the major areas: blogging, more useful definitions together for the readersEMERGING shortfalls of how we currently measure media. We online conversations, brand utility, brand content reference and convenience. also introduce KUDOS, a framework for managing and narrowcasting. It includes an overview of each07 /DEFINITIONS the new paradigms and ambiguities thrown up by with some expert points of view. It also provides 08 / Resources social media. case studies of how the KUDOS planning frame- This report attempts to cover a lot of ground. By08 /RESOURCES work can be used in each area as well as guides to necessity some topics have required a light touch 04 / Measuring making the most of these activities. or a brief mention. This set of links to research, The measurement of social media differs from articles, blogs and actual examples of activity will traditional media in both its impact and how the 06 / Social media / emerging trends enable the reader to further their knowledge and value of that impact can be determined. This While this report draws on the most recent exam- experience of social media beyond the confines of requires a different view of measurement and a ples and current technologies in social media, this this document.
social media / planning / KUDOS as a framework p.06 03 / pages 06-15 PLANNINGCHAPTERS / 03.01 / KUDOS: A framework for planning ing in vision and originality. As it happens, nothing could social media / be further from the truth. The Marketing Director only01 /SUMMARY By Leo Ryan & Dan OConnor, Ryan*MacMillan needs to provide her audience with the proof to put this lie to bed. But what is the best way to let her audience02 / The advertising and marketing press are filled with sto- know about the planned new line of products? SheINTRO ries of the end of advertising as we know it. The root of could produce a weekly podcast about the companys03 / the cause apparently sits with the rise of blogs and product innovation. She could have the articulate HeadPLANNING social media and with the fragmentation of audiences of Product Development start a blog. She could release04 / and media. Its not our place here to analyse the causes. a series of white papers detailing the raft of experimentsMEASURING Its sufficient to acknowledge that the role of traditional behind the product innovation. Or all of these. However,05 / media is changing as the size and influence of social she has limited resources so she has to make a decisionMETHODS media grows. As that change occurs, brands are about which of these activities to engage in. After six06 / responding by increasing their budgets and activity in month of trialling two of them, she needs to be able toEMERGING the new and exciting areas of social media. There are, make some kind of comparison. however, concerns that this is still very much an experi-07 /DEFINITIONS mental area and not one from which brands are neces- As the Marketing Director is planning these activities sarily expecting tangible results. she also needs to recognise and satisfy dual agendas.08 /RESOURCES On the one hand she has the brand that is supporting A lack of standards the activity. On the other, there is the audience who is One of the obstacles to serious investment in this area expected to engage with it. Failure to materially satisfy is the lack of standardisation. Each of the many ways either agenda is going to make someone unhappy. Illustration / Chellie Carroll / www.chelliecarroll.co.uk / that a brand can use social media is measured differently. Podcasts, blogs, Wikis, social networking sites etc. KUDOS and Social Capital each have their own particularities. This all makes plan- The directors of Ryan*MacMillan have been focusing on ning and measuring activity in this area a dark art at best social media and how to resolve such dilemmas since and guess work at worst. If brands are going to make 2005. Weve developed a framework for managing the serious forays into social media, there needs to be some ambiguities of both the planning and measurement of consistency across the various channels and how they social media activity. KUDOS (meaning fame, glory, are planned and assessed. renown) is an acronym that reminds us of what attrib- An example of the dilemma utes a piece of social media activity should display if it is to be successful. It should be Knowledgeable, Useful, A typical situation might look like this; an esteemed Desirable, Open and Shareable. And it needs to British brand is much loved for its traditional values and achieve this for both the audience and the brand. quality products. Its audience, however, thinks it is lack-
social media / planning / KUDOS as a framework p.07 KUDOS is based on the concept of Social Capital provision of utility beyond a brands basic products and (SC). SC is essential to our understanding of the way in services. which online social networks (OSN) work. It is a way of talking about how valuable our online social networks are. Having SC refers to the actual SC of a brand, thus It is a way of thinking about what we are able to do with describing a brands ability to employ its online socialCHAPTERS / them, how we can maintain, expand and develop them. connections in order to (positively) affect its environ- ment, i.e. increase sales, promote awareness, amelio-01 /SUMMARY SC is similar to regular, economic capital; the more you rate sentiment. have the more easily you can alter your environment. It Sharing SC refers to the ways in which a brand can02 /INTRO describes both the inclination of members of a network increase the SC of other individuals within a given OSN, (or the entire network) to do things for each other and the i.e. how a connection to the brand increases the ability of03 /PLANNING resulting ability of an individual (or brand) to positively an individual to (positively) affect their environment. Once affect their environment via the in/direct deployment of a brand has shared its social capital with its customers, it04 /MEASURING those networks. is crucial for the success of the activity that the cus- tomers, in turn, can and do pass it on.05 / The four qualities of Social CapitalMETHODS The similarity to economic capital only goes so far. SC Measuring Social Capital06 / has the following four qualities: Any planned social media activity by a brand within anEMERGING OSN must be measurable by the way in which it increas-07 / Utility through Accumulation: Like economic cap- es or depletes the brands SC. Measuring a brands SC,DEFINITIONS ital, the more SC an individual accumulates, the more particularly in reference to their online SC, can be08 / easily that individual is able to affect their environment. achieved through analysis of online sentiment and influ-RESOURCES Inequality of Distribution: Like economic capital, ence. This in effect is a measure of the tone of voice that SC is differently available. Some individuals have a lot, online conversations about a brand have. others less. Expiration through Under-Use: Unlike economic Sentiment metrics describe the level of the stock- capital, which expires through over-use, SC expires pile of trust which constitutes SC: how trustworthy is the through under-use. Use it or lose it. brand understood to be, and how useful or desirable is its Based Upon Trust: Regular capital is merely the content or activity? exchange of agreed values as guaranteed by a central Influence metrics describe the efficacy with which authority. SC, however, is a stockpile of trust, which is a brand is able to make use of that trust in order to (pos- guaranteed only by the exercise of reciprocal actions itively) affect their environment: how easily is a brand between diffuse individuals within a social network. able to share its knowledge around its social networks? Having and Sharing Social Capital The outcome of any social media activity should be, in short, more SC. Online, brands can accumulate social There are two ways in which SC is important to our under- capital by being connected to individuals who have standing of how brands can successfully undertake already accumulated large amounts of SC, i.e. by seeking social media activities, such as the fuelling of online con- endorsements from influential network members. versations, engagement in those conversations, or the
social media / planning / KUDOS as a framework p.08 However, the brand must also ensure that the connection is prof- The KUDOS Attributes itable for the influential individual. This is achieved by sharing SC Knowledgeable / and making it work for them. If it does not, it is unlikely a) that the Does the activity demonstrate knowledge on the part of the connection will be maintained by the individual and b) that the indi- brand? Is it knowledge that is unique to your brand, product or vidual will go on to share the knowledge being redistributed throughCHAPTERS / service? Is it something your audience needs or want to know? the activity. Thus a brands SC will deplete through under-use.01 / Are you increasing their knowledge or just telling them some-SUMMARY KUDOS: A framework for managing social media thing they already know or could have gained elsewhere?02 / KUDOS is a rubric to help brands manage their social media activities,INTRO Useful / and so maximise their social capital. The process of thinking through Not all social media activity is useful to the brands audience. Not03 / the KUDOS attributes helps a brand decide what channels it is goingPLANNING all dissemination of knowledge is actually useful to the brand. It to use and how it is going to use them. It can check and balance the needs of both brand and audience. It can also establish what it is might be commercially sensitive. It might promote an out of stock04 /MEASURING going to measure so that it can assess the success or otherwise of the product or a discontinued service. The best-case scenario is when activity. The best way to illustrate this is by actual example. an activity is useful to both the brand and the audience.05 /METHODS BRAVIA Balls as an example Desirable /06 /EMERGING In 2005, Sony Consumer Electronics launched a new television Desirable is a step on from useful. By desirable we mean that brand; BRAVIA. Unheard of at the time of launch, it represented a both the brand and the audience actively want it. Think of eating07 /DEFINITIONS step-change in technology and TV quality and was integral to the your greens; useful but not that desirable. If something is desir- success of Sonys business globally. able, really tasty-cant-get enough-of-it-desirable to your audi-08 /RESOURCES ence, youll know it. The advert for the launch was an extravaganza of colour featuring 300,000 bouncy rubber balls being shot out of cannons and tipped Open / down the hills of San Francisco. The net savvy and technically literate Open means honest and transparent. Not just about the parts of residents of San Francisco took photos and video of the event and the message that are desirable to the brand, but about the whole posted them on Flickr and Google Video. lot, warts and all. An audience will respond very actively and Back in London the digital planning team (Fred Whitton from negatively when they believe a brand has been dishonest with OMD and Leo Ryan) picked up on this interest and the positive com- them. It doesnt even require active dishonesty - just a lack of mentary it was generating. We decided that wed fuel the conversa- intent to be completely open. tion by giving them more of what they were looking for; videos, photos, Shareable / background interviews, screensavers and wallpapers. The result was that in the following five months the advert was seen online more than It is as important as being open that brands actively encourage seven million times with no media expenditure. The audience did all of sharing. Are the materials easily downloadable? Can they be the distribution and promotion themselves. linked to or have you gone and wrapped them up in a big Flash movie that no one can link to? Have you acknowledged standard protocols that enable sharing and added a simple Digg this but- ton or a downloadable Zip file of assets?
social media / planning / KUDOS as a framework p.09 Attribute For Sony For Sony’s audience Metric Knowledgeable / The raging debate around was it CGI or The assets and information on the site Inbound links: approx 19,000; not showed that Sony BRAVIA was an gave visitors behind the scenes or SERP: number one result for Google searches interesting intelligent brand who was insider information about an advert on “BRAVIA advert”, and “colour advert”;CHAPTERS / pushing the envelope of visual effects. that was being discussed. Technorati: 2394 blog reactions for01 / No CGI had been used, demonstrating “bravia-advert.com”;SUMMARY that Sony knew a lot about the impact of Blogpulse: 341 sites with links (Feb 2008)02 / colour and motion by doing it for real. ItINTRO was a real life demonstration of Colour03 / Like No Other.PLANNING Useful / The activity was useful to Sony in that it By having access to this material the Browser profiles changed from Safari and04 /MEASURING repositioned them at a time when they early adopters could demonstrate Firefox (early adopters) to IE (mass audiences) were suffering at the hands of early that they knew about something cool over time. IE % growth:05 /METHODS adopters; the online community was in early on, as could later audiences. 39.2% (2 Nov 2005) an uproar over Sony Root Kit. Early adopters and early mass were 56.73% (29 Nov 2005)06 /EMERGING all made to look good.07 / Desirable / Sony wanted to get their new brand The audience loved it. It satisfied a As of March 2006 (five months into campaign):DEFINITIONS BRAVIA out into the mind of the public. desire to be entertained and to tell minimum views: 7,123,225;08 / This advert, its related assets and the their friends about something enter- 1,800,000 online advert views atRESOURCES way it was picked up and disseminated taining. They deemed it very desirable, BRAVIA-advert.com; got a new brand name in everyones downloading it and watching it on 3,305,203 BRAVIA items viewed on YouTube; minds in a positive and cost effective YouTube and Google video. Google Video figures estimated at 1,983,122 way. It was the first example of a (source Hitwise March 2006); i-Film views: Consumer Distributed Advert. advert: 23.367; amateur video: 34,350 Open / The assets came from the shoot as well The assets were available for stream- As of March 2006 (five months): as the finished product. There was no ing and download. The video, wallpa- 35,900 downloads from BRAVIA-advert.com. pretence that this was anything other pers and screen savers were down- than a piece of marketing material - one loadable and the photo gallery was in a that was handmade in San Francisco. zip file for ease of download. Shareable / As soon as the public showed interest in Each new asset posted was a separate YouTube: 43 user uploaded videos; Flickr: 237 this activity the brand posted behind the blog post; easy to link to and fast to photos tagged “bravia advert”; 211 photos scenes footage, still shots from the publish. The assets were made avail- tagged “bravia ad”; 2,519 photos tagged shoot and eventually the finished advert able for easy download and were sub- “bravia”; Del.icio.us: saved by 9,408 people; before it was scheduled to air on TV. sequently reposted numerous times. Digg: 5,643 collective ‘diggs’ on “bravia ad”.
social media / measuring / measuring KUDOS within communities p.26 04.03 / Measuring KUDOS within communities / The main components for calculating the Social Media Comment Value By Joel Davis, agency:2 of each post in descending order of importance are: For brands to be accepted within communities they need to add value 1. Search Ranking to the debate or chat. For some brands this means being a thought (using the Google page rank as a guide)CHAPTERS / leader and being useful by sharing knowledge. For others it might be more about facilitating leisure time. In either case, the more a brand is 2. Hyper link01 / able to help its audience to spend their time or waste their time, the more (i.e. does the post have an active link to the brands destination)SUMMARY social capital it can gain.02 / 3. A measure of how targeted the audience isINTRO How we attribute KUDOS in communities (purely subjective)03 /PLANNING Knowledgeable and Useful / If a brands activity is deemed useful, 4.The nature of any feedback users will respond by positively ranking their comments and thanking (positive, neutral or negative)04 / them. If brands are not adding value they could be banned.MEASURING 5.Thread Popularity05 / Desirable / The number of visitors from a forum, along with any feed- (measuring the volume of traffic and the nature of activity, i.e. doMETHODS back on the postings, are some of the clearest indications of whether users just visit the thread or do they actually add to it)06 / the activity is thought Desirable.EMERGING 6. A depreciation of the posting over time Open / Ironically, Open can be measured by looking at instances (to acknowledge the user perception that the older the post the less07 /DEFINITIONS in forums where brands have been banned or where they get flamed useful it might be) and become the unhappy recipients of a disproportionate amount of08 / negative comment. Each component has a different value weighting based on impact.RESOURCES Once the figures are plugged in we get the Social Media Comment Shareable / By understanding where traffic originates and its volume Value and the all-important ROI calculation of a post and hence the over time brands can get an idea of the reach that their contributions overall campaign. achieve as well as the speed with which they spread. There are a variety of tools to help track this, including internal data such as the sites own The Social Media Comment Value acts as a key part of the social web logs as well as third party solutions such as Hitwise and media dashboard. The dashboard also includes a monthly look at the Nielsen BuzzMetrics. views and interaction directly associated with the activity, competitive share of voice and an overview of the percentage of traffic social Social Media Value: Measuring and optimising activity in forums media sites contribute to the total referral traffic. We can only manage what we can measure; this includes brands These trends along with the Social Media Comment Value calculation involvement in online communities. To date, there has not been an can give marketers the measurement tools needed to manage their agreed way to calculate the ROI on social media community activity. To commenting campaigns in forums, chat rooms and blogs. address this, agency:2 have created and actively use a dashboard that monitors brands social media programmes and calculates the Social Joel Davis is CEO of social media agency agency:2 Media Comment Value of such activity. www.agency2.co.uk
social media / methods / introduction p.42 05 / pages 41-84 SOCIAL METHODSCHAPTERS / 05.01 / Overview / By Dan OConnor, Ryan*MacMillan01 /SUMMARY In this report so far we have covered the principles of social media and02 / hopefully given the reader a grounding in understanding what can beINTRO measured and what these measurements mean. It is understandable03 / if at this point marketers would like to start getting their hands dirty andPLANNING to see how these activities actually work.04 /MEASURING To help you, this section organises the vast array of possible social media activities into five main groups; blogging, online conversations,05 /METHODS brand utility, brand content and narrowcasting. While there are certainly overlaps between these categories, we feel that the principles and the06 / potential of each make most sense in these groupings.EMERGING07 / Based on this, we have provided an overview of each area andDEFINITIONS looked at how the principles of social capital and the KUDOS frame- Source: Jared Tarbell / http://flickr.com/photos/generated/1545620972/08 / work apply to each group. These have been illustrated with examplesRESOURCES of where they have been used well, and some not so well. Each activity area also includes a case study from a leading brand. We have assessed the example using the KUDOS framework, exam- ining how it has delivered for both the brand and the audience and selecting some key metrics to underpin our understanding of the activitys value. Weve given each KUDOS requirement a qualitative score of 1 - 5 (5 being the best) depending on how well the activity has met the requirement. Each section includes guides to best practice. These have been developed over the past two years and are based on our consultancy with our own clients as well as observations of what has worked and flopped in the market place. It is not possible to provide a definitive guide in such a fast moving discipline, however we hope these guides provide a useful starting point to marketers actually trialling some of these activities.
social media / methods / blogging / referral stats are your friend p.47 05.02.03 / Referral Statistics Are Your Friend / By Tim Ireland, bloggerheads.com The one thing youll want to keep a sharp eye on during any online networking exercise is your referral statistics.CHAPTERS / If youre doing it right, your online networking should be a sincere01 /SUMMARY exercise in reaching like-minded people via the use of comments, track- back, hyperlinks and search engines. Keeping an eye on your referral stats02 /INTRO is the best way to track growth and get better at promoting same.03 / If you want to learn about basic principles of networking growth, oftenPLANNING it pays to use page tagging as well as log analysis software. The better04 / page tagging solutions allow you to watch growth and spread as itMEASURING happens, which is as close as youre going to get to honing your craft in Illustration / Chellie Carroll / www.chelliecarroll.co.uk /05 / front of a live audience.METHODS When watching inbound traffic live, you actually get to see inbound06 /EMERGING links spread from site to site. This allows you to learn more about how certain influential bloggers interact. The subtleties of many relationships07 / can pass you by if youre getting this data 24 hours later, and one of theDEFINITIONS big secrets in online networking is knowing your audience.08 /RESOURCES Using your chosen traffic tracking package - if its a good one - youll be able to see an overview of referrals combining traffic via other web- sites and via search engines, and will have the capacity to drill down to determine how search engines are bringing you new traffic (i.e. via which keyword phrases). After all, the self-publishers out there arent your entire audience; they are instead an influential audience, and your gateway to a much, much wider audience. Cumulative inbound links from self-publishers improve your search results. Your referral statistics are the best way you have of tracking the latter and learning more about the former. links / [For those who care, I personally prefer Statcounter (live) and www.bloggerheads.com Google Analytics (24 hour lag) for page tagging, and AWStats for www.statcounter.com web log analysis. I did not use the full and correct term web log analysis www.google.com/analytics software above in order to avoid confusion with weblogs.] http://awstats.sourceforge.net/
social media / methods / utility / hints & tips p.70 BRAND UTILITY / HINTS & TIPSCHAPTERS / It should be simple: produce a tool or application that your audience Turn testers into seeders /01 /SUMMARY will find useful. But its not always easy to know what it is people want Provide information and materials to allow these positive, interested - and whether theyll take kindly to it coming from your brand. The fol- parties to become online advocates.02 / lowing tips on creating tools and applications that extend your brandsINTRO utility are unashamedly common sense in their approach, but have Develop quickly - you can evolve it later /03 / often been learnt the hard way. Let go of the age-old habit to only launch your application when it is aPLANNING perfect, shiny, gleaming reflection of the brand. Youre competing for04 / Stay on brand / your audiences attention with bedroom developers who can put outMEASURING Just because your target audience has a need, doesnt mean its in a new version of their tool, in response to user feedback, within hours.05 / your interests to fulfil it. The social media space is one which expects and tolerates ongoingMETHODS tinkering and improvement. Initial audience research is crucial /06 /EMERGING There are no excuses for not knowing exactly what your audiences Embrace open standards and APIs /07 / functional and rational needs are within the social media space. Use Allow users to adapt your application to suit their own needs, makingDEFINITIONS conversation monitoring tools throughout the development process it do what they want. to listen to what your audience is saying.08 /RESOURCES Be prepared to keep supporting the application / Collaboration will create the best ideas / Depending on the permanence of the audience need the tool is The best ideas will occur when clients, consultants, researchers, answering, it may require long-term support and commitment from developers all sit round the same table, developing ideas together. the brand. It may fit into a product lifecycle, rather than a marketing campaign plan. When you budget and plan, remember that the initial Make sure the product itself encourages collaboration / soft launch is simply the end of the beginning… Ahem. A good social media tool will ensure that the more people use the tool, and use it collaboratively, the more they will achieve. Dont expect an instant hit / If a tool is truly useful, its usage should grow virally rather than as a result Let your advocates be your product testers / of a big marketing campaign. It took a few years before the likes of Flickr Develop closed groups of alpha testers whose enthusiasm for the and Facebook jumped the chasm from early adopters to early majority. brand will make them an excellent external testing group. Open up the development process / Blog the development process. Let people know what youre doing. Invite their feedback. And respond to it. Make sure your team has enough resources to listen, engage and respond to these interested parties.
social media / emerging trends p.85 06 / pages 85-89 SOCIAL MEDIA / EMERGING TRENDS / By Leo Ryan and Dan O’Connor, Ryan*MacMillanCHAPTERS / Throughout this report, weve been examining What might we choose to keep in this profile? Credit the current social media landscape and asking rating, sexual preference, search history, privacy set-01 / tings, music taste. And where might it follow us? NotSUMMARY just how we can measure the types of activities just across social networking sites, but across all sites02 / that are going on there. In looking at this world that provide some level of interaction based on who weINTRO of blogs, podcasts, forums, wikis, crowd- are and what we want. Our profiles will have elements03 / sourcing, and endless conversations, it is that are maintained as we do our banking, add friends toPLANNING possible also to detect some new develop- MySpace and as we slay a few enemies in World of04 / Warcraft. We will be able to manage our profiles as weMEASURING ments. In this concluding essay, we identify these emerging trends - which are the sort of see fit - presenting different identities to the online05 / world depending on the context. Friends will see a dif-METHODS phenomena that well be applying our social ferent profile to business associates. However, for this06 / media metrics to in the future. to work properly, there will need to be some significantEMERGING improvements in how our data is collected, stored and 06.01. / Persistent profiles07 / used. In the same way that the web is teaching us toDEFINITIONS Our online profile is a representation of ourselves doubt the veracity of all information, so it will also erode08 / online. Profiles can vary from a username in a forum to our naivety about all degrees of privacy unless those weRESOURCES an avatar in Second Life. Increasingly it can be a social trust with our privacy prove to be worthy of it. network profile. Who we are, how we present the 06.02 / Aggregated intelligence Jared Tarbell / http://flickr.com/photos/generated/416810/ aspects of ourselves and how we maintain control over that is an increasingly key issue in social media. One The online environment has made it easier for large way that we think this is going to develop is in the con- groups of widely dispersed individuals to express ideas, solidation of profiles and possibly the creation of con- vote for an outcome or give something a rating. It also sistent or persistent profiles. Googles OpenSocial makes it easier for these expressions to be aggregated. presages such a development. It is comprised of three This aggregated intelligence has been termed the elements; Profile Information (me), Friends Information wisdom of crowds or collective intelligence and the (my friends) and Activities (things that happen). The process of harnessing it; crowdsourcing is on the rise. principle of OpenSocial means that as a user moves an The web audience is already familiar with sites that har- application or widget between different social network- ness the collective intelligence. Old favourites Wikipedia, ing platforms their profile is maintained. So my contacts Flickr and del.icio.us are being joined by new ones such on my industry network (www.vbma.net) dont have to as the Encyclopaedia of Life. If collective knowledge is be all uploaded again to my Bebo profile. The applica- what we are seeing now - the harbingers of the next tion I add to my LinkedIn profile will also work on my stage; collective action are already starting to emerge. Plaxo network.
social media / credits p.94 page 94 CONTAGIOUS CREDITS SPECIAL REPORTSCHAPTERS / Produced by Contagious Communications Cover Illustration by This report is part of a series of Special Reports01 / Chellie Carroll / www.chelliecarroll.co.uk produced by Contagious Communications.SUMMARY Editorial Director Paul Kemp-Robertson Other Illustrations by The series also includes reports on Mobile02 /INTRO Chellie Carroll / www.chelliecarroll.co.uk Marketing, Branded Entertainment, Gaming and Series Editor Love Everyday / www.love-everyday.co.uk Social Networking.03 /PLANNING Georgia Malden Assorted members of Flickr / www.flickr.com iStockphoto / www.istockphoto.com For more information, can Gual or Harry04 / Report authors on +44 20 7575 1886/1822MEASURING or visit www.contagiousmagazine.com/shop Leo Ryan, Iain MacMillan, Dan OConnor, Design05 / Ben Bland, Maggie Walsh / FLOK / www.flokline.comMETHODS Ryan*MacMillan06 / T: +44 (0) 20 7193 4556 Contagious CommunicationsEMERGING www.rmmlondon.com 45 Fouberts Place, London, W1F 7QH07 / T: +44 (0) 20 7575 1981DEFINITIONS With thanks to our contributors www.contagiousmagazine.com08 / Alex Burmaster / www.nielsen-online.comRESOURCES Joel Davis / www.agency2.co.uk Published in partnership with Branded Entertainment / Graham Hansell / www.sitelynx.com Xtreme Information / www.xtremeinformation.com Tim Ireland / www.bloggerheads.com Justin Kirby / www.dmc.co.uk Xtreme Information is the market leader in the pro- Flemming Madsen / www.onalytica.com vision of media Intelligence and competitive Mark Palmer / http://maverickplanet.co.uk/ advertising monitoring from around the world. Nigel Shardlow / www.zygocommunications.com Xtreme works with the majority of FTSE 100 and Fortune 500 multinational companies, and with Edited by every major advertising and media agency. The Gaming / Emily Hare company is backed by leading US media investors, Veronis Suhler Stevenson. Additional Research Report published April 2008 Giacomo Bracci, Katrina Dodd, Will Sansom, Piers Young No parts of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted in any form or by any means stored in any information storage or retrieval system without the pub- lisher’s written permission. Where source material has been reproduced the copy- Production right remains the property of the copyright owner and material may not be repro- Social Networking / Ellie Kilburn duced in any form whatsoever without the owner’s prior consent.