Report on interpersonal communication

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  • 1. InterpersonalCommunicationPrepared by:Karla Maolen VisbalMA in Speech CommunicationUniversity of the PhilippinesDiliman
  • 2. What is InterpersonalCommunication? InterpersonalCommunication came from the Latin word “inter”, meaning between. Itpertains to relations between persons. [] “The dyad [or communication between two people] is the building block of human social interaction.” [Zimmerman, Owen and Seibert, 1986]
  • 3. What is InterpersonalCommunication? “Interpersonal Communication is a selective, systemic, unique and on-going process of interaction between people, who reflect and build personal knowledge of one another and create shared meanings.”[Wood, 2002]
  • 4. Why do we communicateto form relationships?
  • 5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs “There are many reasons why we seek interaction, and we meet many human needs by communicating.” [Maslow, 1968] “Communication is a primary means of meeting our needs at each level in the hierarchy.” [Wood, 2002]
  • 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization Most Abstract Self-Esteem Needs Belonging Needs Safety and Protection Needs Most Basic Physical Needs for Survival
  • 7. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physical Needs for Survival Atthe most basic level, human needs air, food and water in order to survive. We rely on communication to communicate what we need (e.g. a baby crying for milk) or if something is amiss (e.g. when we are in pain)
  • 8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Safety and Protection Needs We meet safety needs by communicating what we need (e.g. fix a leaking roof, report threats to police or authority, etc.) News announcements are also made if food threats or natural calamities are taking place.
  • 9. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Belonging Needs Thismay also refer to social needs. We want other people’s acceptance and affirmation. We want to be included in groups. Our fear of rejection prevents us from disclosing information about ourselves [Powell, 1969]
  • 10. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Esteem Needs Value that we give ourselves and value other people gives us. Derived from positive evaluation of other people.
  • 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- Actualization The most abstract human need. “It is defined as the fully using and developing our unique talents, capacities and potentials.” [Maslow, 1970]
  • 12. Adler and Towne, 1987 We like people who are similar to us. We like people who are different from us. We like people who like us. We are attracted to people who can help us. We like competent people. We like people who discloses themselves to us. We feel strongly towards people we encounter often.
  • 13. A CommunicationContinuum
  • 14. Interpersonal vs. Impersonal Allcommunication happens between people yet many interactions don’t involve us personally [Wood, 2002] When we talk about interpersonal communication, we are referring to the quality of interaction between individuals [Adler & Towne, 1987]
  • 15. Interpersonal vs. Impersonal Inimpersonal interactions, we tend to classify the other person by using labels. [Adler & Towne, 1987] I-IT relationship  We do not acknowledge the humanity of other people, sometimes not even their existence. [Buber, 1970].
  • 16. Interpersonal vs. Impersonal The degree to which the communicators rely socially constructed rules to interact with other people determine the degree of our relationship with other people. [Adler & Towne, 1987] I-You relationships  We don’t look at other people as objects, but we don’t see them as unique individuals either. [Buber, 1970].
  • 17. Interpersonal vs. Impersonal The amount of information the communicators have about each other also determines the level of their relationship with one another. [Adler & Towne, 1987] I-Thou relationships  The rarest kind of relationship…the highest form of human dialogue because each person affirms the other as cherished and unique. [Buber, 1970]
  • 18. Self-Disclosure inRelationships
  • 19. Self-Disclosure “Itis the process of deliberately revealing information about oneself that is significant and that would not normally be known by others” [Adler & Towne, 1987]
  • 20. Levels of Self-Disclosure Cliché Facts OpinionsFeelings
  • 21. Stages of InterpersonalRelationships
  • 22. Stages of InterpersonalRelationships
  • 23. Initiating To show that you are interested in making contact and to show that you are a person worth talking to.
  • 24. Experimenting Initially, people tend to look for a common ground. The hallmark of this stage is small talk. “Small talk is like Listerine: we don’t like it but we get a doze of it everyday” Mark Knapp
  • 25. Intensifying The amount of personal information disclosed increases. Forms of addresses become more informal.
  • 26. Integrating As the relationship strengthens, the parties begin to take on an identity as a social unit. [Adler & Towne, 1987]
  • 27. Bonding Atthis stage, parties make symbolic public gestures to show the world of the relationship.
  • 28. Differentiating After both parties have established their commonality, they now seek to re-establish their individual identities. Thekey to successful differentiation is the need to maintain commitment to a relationship while creating the space for members to be individuals as well. [Adler & Towne, 1987]
  • 29. Circumscribing The communication concentrates more on superficial and public topics with less breadth or depth Communicationdecreases in amount and becomes more restricted to certain "safe" topics
  • 30. Stagnating Communication about the relationship ceases Participants may sit in each others presence for long periods without communicating There is a great amount of tension in the relationship and it is evident the relationship is in jeopardy. [Thomlison, 2000]
  • 31. Avoiding Parties in the relationship begin to put distance between each other, sometimes in guises of excuses or more direct “I don’t want to be with/see you today”. [Adler & Towne, 1987] Includes avoidance of physical contact as well as ignoring the other nonverbally and verbally when they are in the same physical space [Thomlison, 2000]
  • 32. Terminating Thisfinal stage may include dialogues of where the relationship has gone and the desire to disassociate [Adler & Towne, 1987] Open access ceases and it is clear the relationship, in its current form, no longer exists [Thomlison, 2000]
  • 33. Four Principles ofInterpersonalCommunication
  • 34. Interpersonal Communicationis in-escapable We constantly communicate with others. Gestures,posture, facial expressions, clothing, etc. play a role in substituting spoken language in its absence People are judged by behaviour, not by intent.
  • 35. Interpersonal Communicationis irreversible Messages cannot be taken back once uttered or shown. Actionsand spoken messages make an impression that cannot be erased.
  • 36. Interpersonal Communicationis complicated No form of communication is simple. Thenumber of variables involved can make the simplest requests complex
  • 37. Interpersonal Communicationis complicated There are 6 people involved when we communicate:  Who you think you are  Who you think the other person is  Who you think the other person thinks you are  Who the other person thinks he/she is  Who the other person thinks you are  Who the other person thinks you think he is
  • 38. Interpersonal Communicationis contextual Communication does not happen in isolation; it occurs in different contexts at the same time.  Psychological Context  Relational Context  Situational Context  Environmental Context  Cultural Context
  • 39. Models of InterpersonalCommunication
  • 40. Linear Models Laswell’s Communication Model  Who?  Says what?  To whom?  In what channel?  With what effect?
  • 41. Linear Models
  • 42. Interactive Models Adopted from Schramm’s Model, 1955
  • 43. Transactional Model
  • 44. Theories on InterpersonalCommunication
  • 45. ConfucianismA study and theory of relationship within hierarchies. When each person within a society plays his or her part well in the social order, social harmony will be achieved.
  • 46. Social Exchange Theory “Relationships grow, develop and deteriorate and dissolve as a consequence of an unfolding social-exchange process…” [Huston & Burgess, 1979] Alsoknown as the “Theory of Interdependence” [Thibaut and Kelley,1959]
  • 47. Social Penetration Theory Itis customary for the individuals within the relationship to undergo the process of self- disclosure [Ledbetter, 2012] Example: A facebook user’s profile The user’s level of self-disclosure is directly related to the level of interdependence with other people.
  • 48. Questions?
  • 49. Thank you!
  • 50. References Looking Out/Looking In, by Ronal Adler and Neil Towne, Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1987, p. 16-19, p. 278-2-97 Interpersonal Communication: An Everyday Encounter, by Julia Wood, Wadsworth Group, 2002, p. 12-18, p. 28-33 Speech Communication: A Contemporary Introduction, by Gordon Zimmerman, James Owen & David Seibert, West Publishing Company, 1986, p. 205-207
  • 51. References An interpersonal primer with implications for public relations by T. Dean Thomlison 2000 Social Intercourse: From Greeting to Goodbye, by Mark L. Knapp, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1978, p. 33 Social Behavior as Exchange, by George Homans, 1958, p. 4 "Attitudes Toward Online Social Connection And Self-Disclosure As Predictors Of Facebook Communication And Relational Closeness.“ by Andrew M. Ledbetter, 2012
  • 52. References: "Confucius". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved July 25, 2012. r.htm. Retrieved July 27, 2012