InterpersonalCommunicationPrepared by:Karla Maolen VisbalMA in Speech CommunicationUniversity of the PhilippinesDiliman
What is InterpersonalCommunication? InterpersonalCommunication came from the Latin word “inter”, meaning between. Itpertains to relations between persons. [dictionary.com] “The dyad [or communication between two people] is the building block of human social interaction.” [Zimmerman, Owen and Seibert, 1986]
What is InterpersonalCommunication? “Interpersonal Communication is a selective, systemic, unique and on-going process of interaction between people, who reflect and build personal knowledge of one another and create shared meanings.”[Wood, 2002]
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs “There are many reasons why we seek interaction, and we meet many human needs by communicating.” [Maslow, 1968] “Communication is a primary means of meeting our needs at each level in the hierarchy.” [Wood, 2002]
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization Most Abstract Self-Esteem Needs Belonging Needs Safety and Protection Needs Most Basic Physical Needs for Survival
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physical Needs for Survival Atthe most basic level, human needs air, food and water in order to survive. We rely on communication to communicate what we need (e.g. a baby crying for milk) or if something is amiss (e.g. when we are in pain)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Safety and Protection Needs We meet safety needs by communicating what we need (e.g. fix a leaking roof, report threats to police or authority, etc.) News announcements are also made if food threats or natural calamities are taking place.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Belonging Needs Thismay also refer to social needs. We want other people’s acceptance and affirmation. We want to be included in groups. Our fear of rejection prevents us from disclosing information about ourselves [Powell, 1969]
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Esteem Needs Value that we give ourselves and value other people gives us. Derived from positive evaluation of other people.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- Actualization The most abstract human need. “It is defined as the fully using and developing our unique talents, capacities and potentials.” [Maslow, 1970]
Adler and Towne, 1987 We like people who are similar to us. We like people who are different from us. We like people who like us. We are attracted to people who can help us. We like competent people. We like people who discloses themselves to us. We feel strongly towards people we encounter often.
Interpersonal vs. Impersonal Allcommunication happens between people yet many interactions don’t involve us personally [Wood, 2002] When we talk about interpersonal communication, we are referring to the quality of interaction between individuals [Adler & Towne, 1987]
Interpersonal vs. Impersonal Inimpersonal interactions, we tend to classify the other person by using labels. [Adler & Towne, 1987] I-IT relationship We do not acknowledge the humanity of other people, sometimes not even their existence. [Buber, 1970].
Interpersonal vs. Impersonal The degree to which the communicators rely socially constructed rules to interact with other people determine the degree of our relationship with other people. [Adler & Towne, 1987] I-You relationships We don’t look at other people as objects, but we don’t see them as unique individuals either. [Buber, 1970].
Interpersonal vs. Impersonal The amount of information the communicators have about each other also determines the level of their relationship with one another. [Adler & Towne, 1987] I-Thou relationships The rarest kind of relationship…the highest form of human dialogue because each person affirms the other as cherished and unique. [Buber, 1970]
Initiating To show that you are interested in making contact and to show that you are a person worth talking to.
Experimenting Initially, people tend to look for a common ground. The hallmark of this stage is small talk. “Small talk is like Listerine: we don’t like it but we get a doze of it everyday” Mark Knapp
Intensifying The amount of personal information disclosed increases. Forms of addresses become more informal.
Integrating As the relationship strengthens, the parties begin to take on an identity as a social unit. [Adler & Towne, 1987]
Bonding Atthis stage, parties make symbolic public gestures to show the world of the relationship.
Differentiating After both parties have established their commonality, they now seek to re-establish their individual identities. Thekey to successful differentiation is the need to maintain commitment to a relationship while creating the space for members to be individuals as well. [Adler & Towne, 1987]
Circumscribing The communication concentrates more on superficial and public topics with less breadth or depth Communicationdecreases in amount and becomes more restricted to certain "safe" topics
Stagnating Communication about the relationship ceases Participants may sit in each others presence for long periods without communicating There is a great amount of tension in the relationship and it is evident the relationship is in jeopardy. [Thomlison, 2000]
Avoiding Parties in the relationship begin to put distance between each other, sometimes in guises of excuses or more direct “I don’t want to be with/see you today”. [Adler & Towne, 1987] Includes avoidance of physical contact as well as ignoring the other nonverbally and verbally when they are in the same physical space [Thomlison, 2000]
Terminating Thisfinal stage may include dialogues of where the relationship has gone and the desire to disassociate [Adler & Towne, 1987] Open access ceases and it is clear the relationship, in its current form, no longer exists [Thomlison, 2000]
Interpersonal Communicationis in-escapable We constantly communicate with others. Gestures,posture, facial expressions, clothing, etc. play a role in substituting spoken language in its absence People are judged by behaviour, not by intent.
Interpersonal Communicationis irreversible Messages cannot be taken back once uttered or shown. Actionsand spoken messages make an impression that cannot be erased.
Interpersonal Communicationis complicated No form of communication is simple. Thenumber of variables involved can make the simplest requests complex
Interpersonal Communicationis complicated There are 6 people involved when we communicate: Who you think you are Who you think the other person is Who you think the other person thinks you are Who the other person thinks he/she is Who the other person thinks you are Who the other person thinks you think he is
Interpersonal Communicationis contextual Communication does not happen in isolation; it occurs in different contexts at the same time. Psychological Context Relational Context Situational Context Environmental Context Cultural Context
ConfucianismA study and theory of relationship within hierarchies. When each person within a society plays his or her part well in the social order, social harmony will be achieved.
Social Exchange Theory “Relationships grow, develop and deteriorate and dissolve as a consequence of an unfolding social-exchange process…” [Huston & Burgess, 1979] Alsoknown as the “Theory of Interdependence” [Thibaut and Kelley,1959]
Social Penetration Theory Itis customary for the individuals within the relationship to undergo the process of self- disclosure [Ledbetter, 2012] Example: A facebook user’s profile The user’s level of self-disclosure is directly related to the level of interdependence with other people.
References Looking Out/Looking In, by Ronal Adler and Neil Towne, Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1987, p. 16-19, p. 278-2-97 Interpersonal Communication: An Everyday Encounter, by Julia Wood, Wadsworth Group, 2002, p. 12-18, p. 28-33 Speech Communication: A Contemporary Introduction, by Gordon Zimmerman, James Owen & David Seibert, West Publishing Company, 1986, p. 205-207
References An interpersonal primer with implications for public relations by T. Dean Thomlison 2000 Social Intercourse: From Greeting to Goodbye, by Mark L. Knapp, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1978, p. 33 Social Behavior as Exchange, by George Homans, 1958, p. 4 "Attitudes Toward Online Social Connection And Self-Disclosure As Predictors Of Facebook Communication And Relational Closeness.“ by Andrew M. Ledbetter, 2012
References: "Confucius". iep.utm.edu. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved July 25, 2012. http://www.pstcc.edu/facstaff/dking/interp r.htm. Retrieved July 27, 2012