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Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction
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Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction

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A brief introduction to FOSS for business

A brief introduction to FOSS for business

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  • 1. Free and Open Source Software for Business: An Introduction James Kariuki Njenga Department of Information Systems University of the Western Cape Introduction to general concepts, and business ideas of FOSS
  • 2. James Kariuki Njenga University of the Western Cape [email_address] ; [email_address] http://www.elearningfundi.net http://www.uwc.ac.za Introduction to general concepts, and business ideas of FOSS
  • 3. About Me <ul><li>Born 4 ones, 1 zero years ago
  • 4. Lecturer in Information Systems
  • 5. eLearning consultant </li><ul><ul><li>www.elearningfundi.net </li></ul></ul><li>?? FOSS entrepreneur??? </li></ul>
  • 6. Your Expections <ul><li>Given the title “ An introduction to general concepts and business ideas of FOSS ”, what would you like to achieve from it? </li></ul>
  • 7. Objectives <ul><li>By the end of the session, you should be able to </li><ul><li>Define floss
  • 8. Explain the different freedoms as enshrined in the FOSS
  • 9. Differentiate between FOSS and Proprietary software
  • 10. Identify some FOSS business cases in your context
  • 11. Identify some FOSS software that you could make business with </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Module 1.1 General FLOSS Concepts
  • 13. What is FLOSS <ul><li>Free/Libre and Open Source Software
  • 14. “It is all about FREEDOM”: It can be: </li></ul>What is FOSS to you? <ul><ul><li>A business model
  • 15. An industry
  • 16. A philosophical argument
  • 17. A social movement
  • 18. A development methodology
  • 19. A service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An ethical choice
  • 20. A resource
  • 21. A better alternative
  • 22. An enemy
  • 23. Just another jargon
  • 24. An ideal </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Freedoms in Free Software <ul><li>&quot;Free software&quot; is a matter of liberty , not price. To understand the concept, you should think of &quot; free &quot; as in &quot; free speech ,&quot; not as in &quot; free beer &quot; </li><ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Stallman </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>freedom 0:Run the program, for any purpose.
  • 26. freedom 1:study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs.
  • 27. freedom 2: Redistribute copies to help others.
  • 28. freedom 3: improve the program, and release your improvements to the public </li></ul>What are the preconditions to freedoms 1 & 3?
  • 29. Preconditions for Freedom: Licensing <ul><li>Access to source code is fundamental in FOSS
  • 30. There are a number of FOSS licenses ....
  • 31. .... which are *almost* similar on practical terms </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of FOSS Licenses: </li><ul><li>GNU General Public License (GPL)
  • 32. BSD-style licenses
  • 33. Mozilla Public License (MPL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does providing source code make a software Open Source? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 34. FOSS vs Proprietary <ul><li>FOSS: </li><ul><li>community benefit motive
  • 35. Access to source code
  • 36. Freedom to modify
  • 37. Freedom to redistribute
  • 38. Freedom to study
  • 39. Freedom to use it for any purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proprietary software: </li><ul><li>commercial benefit motive
  • 40. No/Limited access source
  • 41. You may not modify
  • 42. You may not redistribute
  • 43. You may not study it
  • 44. You may not use for any other purpose other than the one it was made for. </li></ul></ul>Can you make money in FOSS as you can in proprietary?
  • 45. The Linux Story - Movie <ul><li>Watch the first 19.41 minutes of the movie “Revolution OS”: </li><ul><ul><li>http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=7707585592627775409 </li></ul><li>Identify the key learning points based on the following: </li><ul><li>Motivation for establishing a FOSS project
  • 46. Requirements of a hacker
  • 47. What is the FOSS hacker philosophy
  • 48. Role of Management
  • 49. Role of community
  • 50. Access to computing resources and the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 51. The Linux story <ul><li>Page 8 of your module reader:
  • 52. Key learning points: </li><ul><ul><li>GPL
  • 53. Access to the internet
  • 54. Minimal resources
  • 55. Good management
  • 56. ..... ..... .... </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 57. FOSS vs Proprietary – a bizview Access code, 'free' download, reuse Buy – don't build or code Freedom to modify Vendor locking Customize to one's needs Lack of customisable features Ease of localization Deployed for limited locale(regions & languages) Extrinsic & Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Generation of shared knowledge 4 common good Generate knowledge for competitive advantage Distributed support 'Singularity' in support Ease of compliance Difficult to comply What feature/attribute will be more appealing for your business?
  • 58. Extreme imaginations, demystifying the myths (1) <ul><li>It's a Linux vs Window thing </li><ul><ul><li>> 400, 000 FOSS projects </li></ul></ul><li>Floss is not reliable or supported </li><ul><ul><li>More reliable, better supported especially in major FOSS solutions </li></ul></ul><li>Big companies don't use FLOSS </li><ul><ul><li>HP, SUN, IBM, Oracle, UWC, UEM...... promote FOSS </li></ul></ul><li>FLOSS is hostile to IP </li><ul><ul><li>Licenses are based on copyright law(s) </li></ul></ul><li>There is no money to be made in FOSS </li><ul><ul><li>Get facts right – HP $2.5B in 2003, Redhat $400M in 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 59. Extreme imaginations, demystifying the myths (2) <ul><li>FLOSS movement is unfair and unsustainable </li><ul><ul><li>>50% of FOSS developers are paid others are intrinsically motivated </li></ul></ul><li>If you start a FOSS project, many developers will work for you for nothing </li><ul><ul><li>Community growth requires significant investment </li></ul></ul><li>FLOSS is for the geeks, the programmers </li><ul><ul><li>Never, it is for solving real problems for ordinary people </li></ul></ul><li>FLOSS is always steps behind proprietary software </li><ul><ul><li>Innovative index is almost parallel at 12%, probably more for FOSS at the user level </li></ul></ul></ul>What are some of the myths about FOSS being propagated in your environment?
  • 60. Exercise One: Examples of FOSS <ul><li>Visit the Free Software Portal's Category section and list at least five categories of software that you have used or heard of in the last year.
  • 61. In each category, list at least one software you would want to use before the end of the training period </li><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Free_software/categories </li></ul></ul>What software categories do you think would be suitable for your context? why?
  • 62. Module 1.2 FlOSS Business Globally
  • 63. FOSS as an Industry/Business <ul><li>Driven by profits or generating revenue (How) </li><ul><li>Contracted product support e.g. Mail Server support for an organization, Linux support
  • 64. Contracted software development e.g. by governments
  • 65. Consulting
  • 66. Data handling and management
  • 67. Hosting
  • 68. Training
  • 69. Certification
  • 70. Migration
  • 71. And many more.... </li></ul></ul>What other ways can you use FOSS to generate revenue?
  • 72. FOSS for e-Learning – A case <ul><li>Pre-production
  • 73. Production
  • 74. Post-production
  • 75. Distribution </li></ul>
  • 76. Pre-production <ul><li>Office Suites </li><ul><ul><li>OpenOffice
  • 77. NeoOffice (for Mac) </li></ul></ul><li>Mind Mapping </li><ul><ul><li>Freemind </li></ul><li>Browser </li><ul><li>Firefox </li></ul><li>Email Client </li><ul><li>Thunderbird </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 78. Producton <ul><li>Audio recording </li><ul><ul><li>Audacity </li></ul></ul><li>Video recording </li><ul><ul><li>VirtualDub
  • 79. Blender (for linux) </li></ul></ul><li>Content Authoring </li><ul><ul><li>ExeLearning </li></ul><li>Image editing </li><ul><li>GIMP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 80. Post-Production <ul><li>CD Compilation </li><ul><ul><li>cdrtools </li></ul></ul><li>Video Encoder </li><ul><ul><li>Media Coder </li></ul></ul><li>PDF </li><ul><ul><li>PDFCreator, PDFedit, PdfTeX, Pdfrecycle, Pdftk, Pdftotext </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 81. Distribution <ul><li>Wikis </li><ul><ul><li>MediaWiki </li></ul></ul><li>Learning Management Systems </li><ul><ul><li>Moodle, Sakai, KEWL, Dokeos </li></ul></ul><li>Podcasts </li><ul><ul><li>Miro(democracy) </li></ul></ul><li>Bittorrents </li><ul><ul><li>qBitorrent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 82. Help??
  • 83. Opportunities/Areas in FOSS Biz <ul><li>Selection/integration
  • 84. Migration/Substitution
  • 85. New Deployment
  • 86. Selling services
  • 87. Selling products </li></ul>
  • 88. Service Matrices and Configurations <ul><li>Horizontal
  • 89. Vertical
  • 90. Hybrid? Eclectic? pragmatic? </li></ul>
  • 91. Horizontal OpenOffice Freemind Firefox Thunderbird Development Installation Integration X X X X Maintenance & Support Training Certification Migration
  • 92. Vertical Audacity VirtualDub eXe GIMP Development X Installation X Integration X Maintenance & Support X Training X Certification X Migration X
  • 93. Eclectic MediaWiki Moodle Miro qBitorrent Development X X Installation X X X X Integration X Maintenance & Support X Training X X Certification X Migration X
  • 94. Exercise Two: Group Case <ul><li>Just like the cases identified for use of in eLearning, identify an industry that can use a 'cocktail' of FOSS projects/software in its different phases or departments or functional areas.
  • 95. Tabulate the service configuration matrix that you think would fit into the industry given the software you have selected
  • 96. Present your table- with reasons for your selection(s). </li></ul>
  • 97. Module 1.3 Evolution of FLOSS Communities and Software Markets
  • 98. FLOSS and Communities <ul><li>Is there FLOSS without a community?
  • 99. How does FLOSS communities change the costs of development, production, copying and distribution?
  • 100. What is the value of the network effects?
  • 101. What are the challenges of incompatibility in the network? </li></ul>
  • 102. <ul>Is there FLOSS without a community? </ul>
  • 103. <ul>How does FLOSS communities change the costs of development, production, copying and distribution? </ul><ul><li>Take the example of an Operating System and do a costing based on: </li><ul><ul><li>Lines of code(LOC)
  • 104. $$/LOC
  • 105. LOC/Developer
  • 106. Cost of distribution
  • 107. Cost of copyng
  • 108. Cost of training and modifications
  • 109. ..................
  • 110. ................... </li></ul></ul><li>How has all this changed? </li></ul>
  • 111. <ul>What is the value of the network effects? </ul>
  • 112. <ul>What are the challenges of incompatibility in the network? </ul>
  • 113. Software market <ul><li>Do you think the software markets are saturated?
  • 114. Where are the gaps/opportunities in the software market? </li></ul>
  • 115. <ul>Do you think the software markets are saturated? </ul>
  • 116. <ul>Where are the gaps/opportunities in the software market? </ul>
  • 117. Exercise Three: Describe how the project admin can benefit from the community from the diagram below
  • 118. Module 1.4 FLOSS Licensing models
  • 119. Common Licenses <ul><li>The four basic freedoms </li><ul><ul><li>freedom 0:Run the program, for any purpose.
  • 120. Freedom 1:study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs.
  • 121. freedom 2: Redistribute copies to help others.
  • 122. freedom 3: improve the program, and release your improvements to the public </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 123. Terminology <ul><li>License or grant license
  • 124. Licensor
  • 125. Licensee
  • 126. Copyright
  • 127. Copyright holder
  • 128. Copyleft
  • 129. End User License Agreement (EULA) </li></ul>
  • 130. Applying Licenses to FLOSS works <ul><li>Develop a software
  • 131. Assert copyright (“ © James Njenga 2009”)
  • 132. Decide on HOW to distribute it (As FLOSS)
  • 133. Select a FLOSS license that suits you (and your work)
  • 134. You distribute your software </li><ul><ul><li>Either gratis or for a fee </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 135. Basic Types of FLOSS Licenses <ul><li>Public domain software </li><ul><ul><li>Copyright expired
  • 136. Not originally copyrighted
  • 137. Author abandoned copyright </li></ul></ul><li>Permissive Licenses </li><ul><ul><li>Author retains copyright solely to disclaim warranty
  • 138. Require proper attribution of modified works
  • 139. Permits redistribution and modification, even proprietary </li></ul></ul><li>Copyleft e.g GNU GPL </li><ul><ul><li>Author retains copyright
  • 140. Permits redistribution and modification (Under the same licenses) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 141. Dual Licensing <ul><li>License interoperability
  • 142. Commercial use of code/software </li><ul><ul><li>e.g. MySQL </li></ul></ul><li>Flexibility vs “watering down” original FLOSS licenses
  • 143. Always look for license that allows for the broadest distribution of your work! </li></ul>
  • 144. Group Exercise Four <ul><li>Visit the link: http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/
  • 145. Read on the different kinds of licenses.
  • 146. Write a paragraph summary on your understanding of (one per group): </li><ul><ul><li>GPL-Compatible Free Software Licenses
  • 147. GPL-Incompatible Free Software Licenses
  • 148. Non-Free Software Licenses </li></ul></ul><li>Additional resource: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/FOSS_A_General_Introduction/Intellectual_Property_Rights_and_Licensing </li></ul>
  • 149. Module 1.5 Leading FLOSS resources for keeping yourself updated on the current FLOSS eco-system
  • 150. Exercise Five: Finding resource <ul><li>Pages 30-31 of you module notes provides three categories of resources: </li><ul><ul><li>News, interviews and conferences on FLOSS and business
  • 151. Finding and selecting applications
  • 152. FLOSS related networks/institutions </li></ul></ul><li>In the software you identified in exercise two (Exercise Two: Group Case), search for at least two of the software, search for news related to them, and any other information about them, and write 5 bullet points on each of them. </li></ul>
  • 153. Contact me James Kariuki Njenga Department of Information Systems University of the Western Cape Tel: +27 21 959 3243 Fax: +27 21 959 3522 jkariuki@gmail.com; jkariuki@uwc.ac.za http://www.elearningfundi.net http://www.uwc.ac.za
  • 154. The University of the Western Cape

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