Elearningadoptionconceptualframework Final
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Elearningadoptionconceptualframework Final

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My Presentation at the ICEL 2008 in Cape Tonw

My Presentation at the ICEL 2008 in Cape Tonw

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  • 1. A conceptual framework for eLearning adoption: The link between the characteristics eLearning and the characteristics of adopters James Kariuki Njenga Louis C H Fourie Department of Information Systems
  • 2. Layout
    • Introduction
    • eLearning characteristics
    • Characteristics of eLearning adopters
    • Conceptual framework for eLearning adoption
    • Ongoing research
  • 3. Introduction Adapted from Rogers(2003), Diffusion of Innovation process
  • 4. Introduction
    • The theories of adoption of innovations are applicable to eLearning adoption
      • Diffusion of Innovation theory
      • Theory of Reasoned Action
      • Theory of Planned Behaviour
      • Technology Acceptance Model
      • Social cognitive theory
      • System Dynamic Models
  • 5. eLearning Characteristics
    • Relative advantage
      • Perceived benefits of eLearning (reliability, effectiveness, cost saving etc)
      • Perceived superiority over preceding modes of teaching and learning
      • Though, even where relative advantages are apparent, they don’t always lead to adoption
  • 6. eLearning Characteristics…
    • Complexity
      • What is the amount of efforts required to learn and use eLearning after the initial awareness?
        • New tools, competencies, learner support
      • If the learning process is broken into manageable units for incremental learning, can this managed the perceived complexity of eLearning use?
  • 7. eLearning Characteristics…
    • Compatibility
      • Consistency with the status quo (values, norms, habits, lifestyle, needs).
      • Measured against the relative advantage of eLearning. If the cost of incompatibility of eLearning is higher than its relative advantage, adoption is unlikely.
      • Can we challenge the status quo?
  • 8. eLearning Characteristics…
    • Observability
      • In terms of observable benefits that are accrued from the results of using eLearning
      • Most educational products have very limited observable results in the immediate future
      • Use of examples from successful projects elsewhere: contextual difference is an issue
  • 9. eLearning Characteristics…
    • Trialability
      • Extent at which users can try the aspects of eLearning – use of “free samples” or “trial versions” or “pilot projects”
      • eLearning being a service oriented innovation, the extent of trialability might be limited to just the technological products.
  • 10. eLearning adopters’ characteristics
    • Attitudes toward eLearning
      • Arising from an individual’s appraisal of the desirability of consequences of using eLearning – favourable or unfavourable
      • An individual’s attitude towards eLearning will have a significant influence on the individual’s adoption of eLearning; Where that attitude towards eLearning is positive, there will be positive influence and vice versa.
  • 11. Adopters’ characteristics…
    • Personal innovativeness
      • The extent to which individuals are willing to use new or improved ideas, concepts, products or services.
      • Personal innovativeness will have positive influence on the decision to adopt eLearning
  • 12. Adopters’ characteristics…
    • Need for innovativeness need
      • Is the purposive behaviour directed toward originality or use, initiation, development or acceptance of new ideas, concepts, products or services.
      • Can be intrinsic (from an individual) or intrinsic (occasioned by availability of external reward systems)
      • Influenced by personal satisfaction or gratification or expectance of positive outcomes
  • 13. Adopters’ characteristics…
    • Need for Innovativeness….
      • individual’s personal satisfaction or gratification on eLearning use will have a positive influence on the individual’s eLearning adoption decision.
      • Individual’s personal outcome expectations on using eLearning will have a positive and significant influence on the individual’s eLearning adoption decision.
  • 14. Adopters’ characteristics…
    • Communication behaviour
      • An individual ’ s exposure to, receipt of, and type of information and media used to relay or transmit information about eLearning.
      • Interpersonal communication about eLearning will be related to higher adoption rates of eLearning.
      • An individual exposure to others engaging in eLearning within higher education will have a positive influence on the individual’s adoption decision.
  • 15. Adopters’ characteristics…
    • Prior Experience
      • An individual’s past knowledge (favourable or unfavourable) about eLearning through interactions with its proponents or similar innovations.
      • An individual’s prior experience with teaching and learning technologies will have a significant effect on the individual’s eLearning adoption decision: where the prior experience was good or satisfactory the influence will be positive, and where the experience was negative the influence will be negative .
  • 16. Framework for eLearning adoption
  • 17. Fit between individual and eLearning Individual Individual-eLearning fit eLearning
    • Attitudes toward eLearning
    • Innovativeness
    • Innovativeness need and motivation
    • Communication behaviour
    • Prior Experience
    • Individual’s knowledge about eLearning
    • Individual’s preferences and lifestyle on using eLearning and related innovation
    • Individual’s perceived need or necessity to use eLearning
    • Individual’s abilities and constraints in using eLearning
    • eLearning functionalities of importance to an individual
    • Individual’s satisfaction and gratification in using eLearning
    • Applications
    • Functionalities
    • Interactivity
    • Availability
    • Response time
    • Relative advantage
    • Complexity
    • Compatibility
    • Trialability
    • Demonstratability
  • 18. Individual eLearning fit: Example 1
    • P i  E i where P i is individual’s knowledge about eLearning, E i is individual’s experience in using eLearning or similar innovation, and  denotes the fit. If the fit is strong, there will be a higher likelihood of eLearning adoption;
  • 19. Individual eLearning fit: Example 2
    • P ci  E ci where P ci are the different personal characteristics, E ci are the characteristics of the different eLearning applications and processes, and  represents the fit. If say an Individual’s lifestyle and attitude have a fit to the characteristics of eLearning (for instance functionality, complexity), then this has a positive influence on eLearning adoption;
  • 20. Individual eLearning fit: Example 3
    • E ci  P ci , that is, if there is a fit between eLearning characteristics and the individual characteristics; this will tend to positively influence the individual’s adoption of eLearning.
  • 21. Ongoing research
  • 22. Questions
  • 23.  
  • 24.
    • James Kariuki Njenga
    • Department of Information Systems
    • University of the Western Cape,
    • jkariuki@uwc.ac.za, jkariuki@gmail.com
    • http://elearningfundi.blogspot.com
    • http://www.elearningfundi.net
    • Louis CH Fourie
    • Department of Information Systems
    • University of the Western Cape,
    • [email_address]