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Elearningadoptionconceptualframework Final


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My Presentation at the ICEL 2008 in Cape Tonw

My Presentation at the ICEL 2008 in Cape Tonw

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    • 1. A conceptual framework for eLearning adoption: The link between the characteristics eLearning and the characteristics of adopters James Kariuki Njenga Louis C H Fourie Department of Information Systems
    • 2. Layout
      • Introduction
      • eLearning characteristics
      • Characteristics of eLearning adopters
      • Conceptual framework for eLearning adoption
      • Ongoing research
    • 3. Introduction Adapted from Rogers(2003), Diffusion of Innovation process
    • 4. Introduction
      • The theories of adoption of innovations are applicable to eLearning adoption
        • Diffusion of Innovation theory
        • Theory of Reasoned Action
        • Theory of Planned Behaviour
        • Technology Acceptance Model
        • Social cognitive theory
        • System Dynamic Models
    • 5. eLearning Characteristics
      • Relative advantage
        • Perceived benefits of eLearning (reliability, effectiveness, cost saving etc)
        • Perceived superiority over preceding modes of teaching and learning
        • Though, even where relative advantages are apparent, they don’t always lead to adoption
    • 6. eLearning Characteristics…
      • Complexity
        • What is the amount of efforts required to learn and use eLearning after the initial awareness?
          • New tools, competencies, learner support
        • If the learning process is broken into manageable units for incremental learning, can this managed the perceived complexity of eLearning use?
    • 7. eLearning Characteristics…
      • Compatibility
        • Consistency with the status quo (values, norms, habits, lifestyle, needs).
        • Measured against the relative advantage of eLearning. If the cost of incompatibility of eLearning is higher than its relative advantage, adoption is unlikely.
        • Can we challenge the status quo?
    • 8. eLearning Characteristics…
      • Observability
        • In terms of observable benefits that are accrued from the results of using eLearning
        • Most educational products have very limited observable results in the immediate future
        • Use of examples from successful projects elsewhere: contextual difference is an issue
    • 9. eLearning Characteristics…
      • Trialability
        • Extent at which users can try the aspects of eLearning – use of “free samples” or “trial versions” or “pilot projects”
        • eLearning being a service oriented innovation, the extent of trialability might be limited to just the technological products.
    • 10. eLearning adopters’ characteristics
      • Attitudes toward eLearning
        • Arising from an individual’s appraisal of the desirability of consequences of using eLearning – favourable or unfavourable
        • An individual’s attitude towards eLearning will have a significant influence on the individual’s adoption of eLearning; Where that attitude towards eLearning is positive, there will be positive influence and vice versa.
    • 11. Adopters’ characteristics…
      • Personal innovativeness
        • The extent to which individuals are willing to use new or improved ideas, concepts, products or services.
        • Personal innovativeness will have positive influence on the decision to adopt eLearning
    • 12. Adopters’ characteristics…
      • Need for innovativeness need
        • Is the purposive behaviour directed toward originality or use, initiation, development or acceptance of new ideas, concepts, products or services.
        • Can be intrinsic (from an individual) or intrinsic (occasioned by availability of external reward systems)
        • Influenced by personal satisfaction or gratification or expectance of positive outcomes
    • 13. Adopters’ characteristics…
      • Need for Innovativeness….
        • individual’s personal satisfaction or gratification on eLearning use will have a positive influence on the individual’s eLearning adoption decision.
        • Individual’s personal outcome expectations on using eLearning will have a positive and significant influence on the individual’s eLearning adoption decision.
    • 14. Adopters’ characteristics…
      • Communication behaviour
        • An individual ’ s exposure to, receipt of, and type of information and media used to relay or transmit information about eLearning.
        • Interpersonal communication about eLearning will be related to higher adoption rates of eLearning.
        • An individual exposure to others engaging in eLearning within higher education will have a positive influence on the individual’s adoption decision.
    • 15. Adopters’ characteristics…
      • Prior Experience
        • An individual’s past knowledge (favourable or unfavourable) about eLearning through interactions with its proponents or similar innovations.
        • An individual’s prior experience with teaching and learning technologies will have a significant effect on the individual’s eLearning adoption decision: where the prior experience was good or satisfactory the influence will be positive, and where the experience was negative the influence will be negative .
    • 16. Framework for eLearning adoption
    • 17. Fit between individual and eLearning Individual Individual-eLearning fit eLearning
      • Attitudes toward eLearning
      • Innovativeness
      • Innovativeness need and motivation
      • Communication behaviour
      • Prior Experience
      • Individual’s knowledge about eLearning
      • Individual’s preferences and lifestyle on using eLearning and related innovation
      • Individual’s perceived need or necessity to use eLearning
      • Individual’s abilities and constraints in using eLearning
      • eLearning functionalities of importance to an individual
      • Individual’s satisfaction and gratification in using eLearning
      • Applications
      • Functionalities
      • Interactivity
      • Availability
      • Response time
      • Relative advantage
      • Complexity
      • Compatibility
      • Trialability
      • Demonstratability
    • 18. Individual eLearning fit: Example 1
      • P i  E i where P i is individual’s knowledge about eLearning, E i is individual’s experience in using eLearning or similar innovation, and  denotes the fit. If the fit is strong, there will be a higher likelihood of eLearning adoption;
    • 19. Individual eLearning fit: Example 2
      • P ci  E ci where P ci are the different personal characteristics, E ci are the characteristics of the different eLearning applications and processes, and  represents the fit. If say an Individual’s lifestyle and attitude have a fit to the characteristics of eLearning (for instance functionality, complexity), then this has a positive influence on eLearning adoption;
    • 20. Individual eLearning fit: Example 3
      • E ci  P ci , that is, if there is a fit between eLearning characteristics and the individual characteristics; this will tend to positively influence the individual’s adoption of eLearning.
    • 21. Ongoing research
    • 22. Questions
    • 23.  
    • 24.
      • James Kariuki Njenga
      • Department of Information Systems
      • University of the Western Cape,
      • Louis CH Fourie
      • Department of Information Systems
      • University of the Western Cape,
      • [email_address]