The early translations used in Arabic are
dated back to the time of the Syrians.
According to Addidaoui, Jarjas was one of
the best Syrian translators. He translated
Aristotle‟s book In The World.
The time of Prophet Mohamed is of
importance for translation history.
One of the most famous translators of the
time is Zaid Ibnu Thabet.
Another era that knew significant changes
in Arabic translation was related to the
translation of the Koran.
Despite the proliferation of the Koran
translations, this matter was and is still the
point of many debates and conflicts in the
The core of the conflicts that existed and
still exist in the translation of Koran is
related to the reason behind translation
itself, whether to use the translation as a
way to teach the principles of Islam or to
use it in praying and legislation was the
difficult choice that faced translators.
1st Abbasid period
Translation knew an enhancement with the
Caliph Al-Mansour, who built the city of
Baghdad. It was also developed in the
time of the Caliph Al-Ma‟moun, who built
„Bait Al Hikma‟, which was the greatest
institute of translation at that time.
One of the greatest theorists in translation
“The translator should know the structure
of the speech, habits of the people and
their ways of understanding each other.”
Stressed the importance of revision after
distinguished two famous methods in
1. Yohana Ibn Al-Batriq and Ibn Naima
- literal translation
2. Hunayn Ibn Ishaq Al-Jawahiri
- sense-for-sense translation
The proliferation of studies in the domain
helps in the development of translation
and the birth of new theorists.
Translation in the Arab world also benefits
from the use of computers, digital
materials and the spread of databases of
terminologies that offer translators a
considerable amount of dictionaries.
a genre of literary creativity in which a
work written in one language is re-created
languages and furthers the understanding
of human beings across national borders
History of Literary Translation
The first important translation in the West
was that of the Septuagint, a collection of
Jewish Scriptures translated into early
Koine Greek in Alexandria.
Latin was the lingua franca of the Western
Alfred the Great, King of Wessex in
England, was far ahead of his time in
commisioning vernacula Anglo-Saxon
translations of Bede‟s Ecclesiastical
History and Boethius‟ Consolation of
The Christian Church frowned on even
partial adaptations of St. Jerome‟s
Vulgate, the standard Latin Bible.
In Asia, the spread of Buddhism led to
large-scale ongoing translation efforts
spanning well over a thousand years.
The Arabs undertook large-scale efforts at
translation. They made Arabic versions of
its philosophical and scientific works.
First fine translations into English were
made by Geoffrey Chaucer
The first great English translation was the
Wycliffe Bible which showed the
weaknesses of an underdeveloped
The great age of English prose translation
began with Thomas Malory‟s Le Morte
Darthur- an adaptation of Arthurian
The first great Tudor translations are the
Tyndale New Testament (1525) which
influenced the Authorized Version (1611),
and Lord Berners‟ version of Jean
Froissart‟s Chronicles (1523-25).
A new period in the history of translation
had opened in Florence with the arrival of
the Byzantine scholar Georgius Gemistus
A translation of Plato‟s works
undertaken by Marsilio Ficino.
Non-scholarly literature continued to rely
on adaptation. France‟s Pleiade, England‟s
Tudor poets, and the Elizabethan
translators adapted themes by Horace,
Ovid, Petrarch and modern poetic writers.
saw considerable progress beyond mere
paraphrase toward an ideal of stylistic
equivalence but there was no concern for
The watchword of translators was ease of
reading. Whatever they did not understand
in a text, or thought might bore readers,
brought new standards of accuracy and
Edward Fitzgerald‟s Rubaiyat of Omar
Khayyam was considered to be the
a new pattern was set in 1871 by
Benjamin Jowett who translated Plato into
simple, straightforward language