Debriefing—has the connotation of having survived a crisis.
Students--Student characteristics: Teacher characteristics: Sim staff— Visitors—aware of the objectives of the simulation, sign an agreement to maintain student confidentiality, no war stories, not in sim room
Planning is when the clinical decision making is happening. Much of the learning happens during guided reflection.
Assign issues for later discussion or reflective journaling, link theory to simulation experience to practice. Delay can enhance learning because it allows for individual cognitive restructuring, and review.
Develop and strengthen habits in pausing to think, asking questions, articulation of thoughts, providing feedback to others.
but remember there is no single truth in a scenario. There will probably be unintended consequences. Take notes based on objectives, rubric, checklist, Watch for the unexpected.
Students are tuned into what the instructor thinks whether it is positive or negative. Try not to share a judgment but share a viewpoint of an issue that can lead to further discussion.
Cognitive structuring—how a memory is organized. usually an individual student activity, Instructor evaluates this verbally when meeting one-on-one, or in reflective journals and assignments.
Feedback—cite a standard, use a rubric for self grading, have student think aloud, have student tell you what their mental process is, Encourage collaboration among learners. Promote communication among team members—focus on capabilities, strengths, and weaknesses with the participants. Learning to share constructive feedback is an important part of the simulation experience.
Student may do additional reflection in their journaling. Academic voice can help student to recall and organize information.
Debriefing—dealing with knowledge, thoughts, and feelings after a crisis
If it were real I would have done it differently I would have had X available in a real situation. The simulator did not have (some important aspect of assessment—pupils, movement, quick verbal responses.) I don’t believe Mocking or humiliating actors Focusing on one aspect or detail excessively or flitting from issue to issue without depth
Examples—Air embolism check list, Clinical Competency Scale, SimMan lives or dies
Examples—Air embolism check list, Clinical Competency Scale, SimMan lives or dies RCT’s about 5 that I can find see Melnyk article.
The philosopher would probably agree that the circle of knowing and doing is helped along by reflection with a guide especially with an expert.