Nanomedicine

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Uses of Nanotechnology:
1- Diagnosis and treatment of cancer

According to the US National Cancer Institute (OTIR, 2006) “Nanotechnology will
change the very foundations of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention”. We have
already seen how nanotechnology, an extremely wide and versatile field, can affect many
of its composing disciplines in amazingly innovative and unpredictable ways.

Q- what is cancer ?

Cancer is a disease caused by normal cells changing them so that they grow in an uncontrolled way.
The uncontrolled growth can cause problems in one or more of the following ways:
-spreading into normal tissues nearby.
-causing pressure on other body structure.
-spreading to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or blood stream.

The word cancer was first applied to the disease by Hippocrates (460–370 B.C.), the
Greek philosopher, who used the words carcinos and carcinoma to refer to non-ulcer
forming and ulcer forming tumors. The words refer to a crab, probably due to the
external appearance of cancerous tumors, which have branch-like projections that
resemble the claws of a crab.

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Nanomedicine

  1. 1. Karim El-Sayed El-Abassiry
  2. 2. Nanotechnology is the science that deals with the processes that occur at molecular level and of nanolength scale size. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology embraces applications of nanoscience to pharmacy as nanomaterials, and as devices like drug delivery, diagnostic, imaging and biosensor. Introduction
  3. 3. Apoptosis Genetics of cancer
  4. 4. Insertion Mutation
  5. 5. Shape of the protein
  6. 6. Growing older Tobacco Sunlight radiation Certain chemicals and other substances Some viruses and bacteria Certain hormones Family history of cancer Alcohol
  7. 7. Radiation
  8. 8. Cancer treatment Nanomedicine
  9. 9. Diagnosis Quantum dots nanoparticles with quantum confinement properties
  10. 10. Diagnosis Sensor test chips thousands of nanowires
  11. 11. Nanowires
  12. 12. Nanowire sensor composition
  13. 13. Diagnosis Carbon Nano Tubes Used to make DNA biosensors
  14. 14. Carbon Nano Tubes
  15. 15. Diagnosis Nanoscale Cantilevers coated with molecules capable of binding to specific molecules that only cancer cells secrete
  16. 16. Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Many types of nanoparticles are under various stages of development as drug delivery systems, including liposomes and other lipid-based carriers (such as lipid emulsions and lipid-drug complexes), polymer-drug conjugates, polymer microspheres, micelles, and various ligand-targeted products
  17. 17. Liposomes and Other Lipid- based Nanoparticles
  18. 18. ∗ targeted to the internalizing antigen CD44 on B16F10 melanoma cells showed enhanced intracellular drug uptake from the targeted liposomes when compared with the free form of DOX. The enhanced uptake was correlated with enhanced cell killing efficacy. A liposomal formulation of cisplatin that lacked efficacy demonstrated encouraging therapeutic results when delivered in an immunoliposome targeted to an internalizing antigen. Recently, promising results were reported from a Phase I clinical study that evaluated the effect of MCC-465, a PEGylated liposomal formulation containing DOX targeted with an F(ab')2 fragment of a human mAb named GAH, in patients with metastatic stomach cancer study of a liposome formulation of doxorubicin (DOX)
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