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  • 1. Drinking water & Lead Contamination Kari Knisely , Austin Atkins , Jeff Cunningham 1 2 3 1. Sligh Middle School; 2. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida 3. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida Abstract Approach ConclusionsIn Madagascar only 47% of the population has access to clean drinking 3 Methods tested After researching the different methods displayed inwater. In the Eastern part of the island, local artisans dig shallowdrinking water wells and install locally manufactured pumps. Lead 1.Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) the table, the ASV has proven to be consistent in itsfrom old batteries is used for various parts of these pump systems as 2.Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV) results while the Colorimetry methods have been veryfloats and as solder on the screen in contact with the water. 3.Field Kit - Colorimeter inconsistent.Preliminary sampling of wells in 2010 and analysis for lead using ICP-MS at the University of South Florida (USF) indicated that there weresome wells with lead levels above safe limits of 10 ug/L as set by the 7 Concentration Levels made to be tested The Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV), clearly is theWorld Health Organization. Through the Master’s International •1 mg/L best and most reliable method for accurate readings ofprogram in Civil and Environmental Engineering at USF, our team •150 μg/L lead contaminations less than 100 μg/L. It is unclear atcurrently has a member on the ground in Madagascar who wishes to •100 μg/L this time, what method is most accurate andtest these levels in the field. This research compared the effectiveness •50 μg/L recommended for concentration levels over 100 μg/L,of different analytical methods to measure the level of lead •10 μg/L but will continue to be researched. The ASV iscontamination in drinking water. The mobile/portable analyticalmethods include Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV) and Colorimetry •5 μg/L lightweight, easy to use, and does not requirewith various reagents for color development. Analysis via lab based •1 μg/L electricity as well as fairly accurate when used to testmethods like the Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy the lead levels in the standards.(GFAAS) were used to compare with the field based kits. The resultsfrom this work will be used to identify the most suitable method ofanalysis for field measurements of lead in drinking water in Results At this time, it will be recommended that USF select the ASV as the measurement method to be used in theMadagascar.  The AA requires electricity, gas, and is not a mobile method field in Madagascar to measure the lead concentration  The ASV was extremely self explanatory, accurate, the fastest Background method, lightweight and mobile requiring 4 AA batteries levels in the drinking water supplies.While traveling to Madagascar, USF identified a major  The Colorimeter was not consistent in its readings, the chemicalhealth risk for the residents of the under developed testing process was extremely complicated and time consuming, butthird world country. The most common source was very lightweight and mobile requiring batteries.currently used in most villages to retrieve drinkingwater is being made out of melted lead. Theassumption is that the level of lead found in theirdrinking water pumped from these units contain an The table below demonstrates the readings each method displayed each time it was tested. The closer to the standard the more accurate the Referencesunhealthy concentration of lead posing even more test. Standard Method 1 Method 2 Method 3 Method 3  All photos taken from google images or personalserious health risks to the country already struggling Levels AA ASV Field Kit- Colorimeter Field Kit – Colorimeter camerato survive many water borne illnesses. USF is seeking w/ HACH Chemicals w/ Leadquick Chemicalsto identify which method would be most efficient yet 1 mg/L TBA Not in range Not attempted Not attemptedeffective to use in the field where electricity is usuallynot available. 150 μg/L TBA Not in range 123 100, 55, 75 100 μg/L TBA 95 Not attempted 63, 55, 43Objective 50 μg/L 10 μg/L TBA TBA 44, 42, 49, 44 30 7, 3 Not attempted 34, 29, 32 <3, <3, <3To compare results given by 3 different methods on the 7 different leadconcentration levels in drinking water and conclude which method is 5 μg/L TBA 6, 5 Not attempted <3, <3, <3most effective to be used in the field in Madagascar. 2 μg/L TBA 14, 20 Not attempted Not attempted 0 μg/L TBA 48, 14 Not attempted <3, <3, <3 For more information about the program visit: http://wareret.net. The Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) is funded by the National Science Foundation under award number 1200682.