Drinking water & Lead Contamina2on Kari Knisely1, Aus2n Atkins2, Jeﬀ Cunningham3 1. Sligh Middle School; 2. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida 3. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida Abstract Approach Conclusions In Madagascar only 47% of the popula+on has access to clean drinking water. In the Eastern part of the island, local ar+sans dig shallow 3 Methods tested Aker researching the diﬀerent methods displayed in drinking water wells and install locally manufactured pumps. Lead 1. Atomic Absorp+on Spectroscopy (AAS) the table, the ASV has proven to be consistent in its from old ba5eries is used for various parts of these pump systems as 2. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV) results while the Colorimetry methods have been very ﬂoats and as solder on the screen in contact with the water. 3. Field Kit -‐ Colorimeter inconsistent. Preliminary sampling of wells in 2010 and analysis for lead using ICP-‐ MS at the University of South Florida (USF) indicated that there were some wells with lead levels above safe limits of 10 ug/L as set by the 7 Concentra+on Levels made to be tested The Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV), clearly is the World Health Organiza+on. Through the Master’s Interna+onal • 1 mg/L best and most reliable method for accurate readings of program in Civil and Environmental Engineering at USF, our team • 150 μg/L lead contamina+ons less than 100 μg/L. It is unclear at currently has a member on the ground in Madagascar who wishes to • 100 μg/L this +me, what method is most accurate and test these levels in the ﬁeld. This research compared the eﬀec+veness • 50 μg/L recommended for concentra+on levels over 100 μg/L, of diﬀerent analy+cal methods to measure the level of lead • 10 μg/L but will con+nue to be researched. The ASV is contamina+on in drinking water. The mobile/portable analy+cal methods include Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV) and Colorimetry • 5 μg/L lightweight, easy to use, and does not require with various reagents for color development. Analysis via lab based • 1 μg/L electricity as well as fairly accurate when used to test methods like the Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorp+on Spectroscopy the lead levels in the standards. Results (GFAAS) were used to compare with the ﬁeld based kits. The results from this work will be used to iden+fy the most suitable method of At this +me, it will be recommended that USF select analysis for ﬁeld measurements of lead in drinking water in the ASV as the measurement method to be used in the Madagascar. u The AA requires electricity, gas, and is not a mobile method ﬁeld in Madagascar to measure the lead concentra+on u The ASV was extremely self explanatory, accurate, the fastest Background method, lightweight and mobile requiring 4 AA ba5eries levels in the drinking water supplies. While traveling to Madagascar, USF iden+ﬁed a major u The Colorimeter was not consistent in its readings, the chemical health risk for the residents of the under developed tes+ng process was extremely complicated and +me consuming, but third world country. The most common source was very lightweight and mobile requiring ba5eries. currently used in most villages to retrieve drinking water is being made out of melted lead. The assump+on is that the level of lead found in their drinking water pumped from these units contain an The table below demonstrates the readings each method displayed each 5me it was tested. The closer to the standard the more accurate the test. References unhealthy concentra+on of lead posing even more Standard Method 1 Method 2 Method 3 Method 3 u All photos taken from google images or personal serious health risks to the country already struggling Levels AA ASV Field Kit-‐ Colorimeter Field Kit – Colorimeter camera to survive many water borne illnesses. USF is seeking w/ HACH Chemicals w/ Leadquick Chemicals to iden+fy which method would be most eﬃcient yet 1 mg/L TBA Not in range Not a5empted Not aWempted eﬀec+ve to use in the ﬁeld where electricity is usually not available. 150 μg/L TBA Not in range 123 100, 55, 75 100 μg/L TBA 95 Not a5empted 63, 55, 43 Objec2ve 50 μg/L 10 μg/L TBA TBA 44, 42, 49, 44 7, 3 30 Not a5empted 34, 29, 32 <3, <3, <3 To compare results given by 3 diﬀerent methods on the 7 diﬀerent lead concentra+on levels in drinking water and conclude which method is 5 μg/L TBA 6, 5 Not a5empted <3, <3, <3 most eﬀec+ve to be used in the ﬁeld in Madagascar. 2 μg/L TBA 14, 20 Not a5empted Not aWempted 0 μg/L TBA 48, 14 Not a5empted <3, <3, <3 For more informa+on about the program visit: h5p://wareret.net. The Water Awareness Research and Educa+on (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) is funded by the Na+onal Science Founda+on under award number 1200682.
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