History karicopeland


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History karicopeland

  1. 1. Human History From The Beginning of Time
  2. 2. -12,000,000,000 The Big Bang Time From 12 Billion Years Ago -195,000 -50,000 -40,000 0 -250,000 -200,000 -150,000 -100,000 -50,000 0 Homo Sapiens African Artifacts Venus Paris Jesus Timeline Before Christ Years B.C.
  3. 3. -16,500 -14,000 -13,000 -12,000 -12,000 -11,000 -11,000 -11,000 -10,000 -10,000 -8,500 -8,000 -7,300 -7,000 -6,500 -5,000 -4,000 -1,500 -1,000 -1,000 0 -18,000 -16,000 -14,000 -12,000 -10,000 -8,000 -6,000 -4,000 -2,000 0 American Timeline Before Christ Time In Years B.C.
  4. 4. 0 600 1,000 1,150 1,215 1,492 1,499 1,513 1,516 1,519 1,519 1,524 1,534 1,539 1,565 1,584 1,598 1,607 1,608 1,609 1,613 1,619 1,620 1,787 1,861 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 Jesus Cahokia,MS LeifErickson Hopi,AZ MagnaCarta Columbus Amerigo PoncedeLeon,FL Smallpox Cortez,Mexico Magellan Giovanni,Carolinas Cartier,Canada deSoto Augstine,FL Roanoke deOnate,NM Jamestown,VA FrenchQuebec SpainSantaFe,NM DutchPostManhatt. FirstSlaves Mayflower USConstitution USCivilWar American Timeline After Christ Year A.D.
  5. 5. 12 Billion Years Ago To 195,000 Years Ago
  6. 6. 12 billion years ago The Big Bang. The universe comes into existence. It is less than 3 times older than earth. 4.5 billion years ago The Big Whack? Earth is struck by a planet a quarter of its size, and forms the moon. 550 million years ago The Cambrian Explosion. All the known animal types (phyla) suddenly appear in less than 100 million years. 253 million years ago The Permian extinction. An asteroid or comet 4 to 8 miles across kills 95% of all the species on earth and triggers massive volcanic activity. This event kills the trilobites and enables dinosaurs to take over the earth.
  7. 7. 65 million years ago Dinosaurs are killed by an impact event near the Yucatan. Mammals come into their own. The comet/asteroid was likely around 5 kilometers in diameter. 17 million years ago An impact event (likely in Argentina) causes a great die-off and starts a long cycle of ice ages which only ends recently. The comet/asteroid was likely around 1 kilometer in diameter.
  8. 8. 6-7 million years ago As water becomes locked in the polar caps, mean sea level falls. The Mediterranean becomes a desert. The Black sea becomes a fresh water lake, considerably smaller than its present size. 5 million years ago The Atlantic floods the Mediterranean via the Straits of Gibraltar.
  9. 9. 5 million years ago The Rift Valley forms in Africa, altering African weather patterns. West of the Rift remains jungle, while east of the Rift becomes open savannah. It is likely that human ancestors were trapped on the east side of the Rift, while chimpanzees (our closest related species) were trapped on the west. Those on the east had to adapt to new open range conditions (fewer trees), which likely encouraged walking upright, running, loss of hair, etc.
  10. 10. 4.4 Million Years Ago Hominid (closer to human than chimp) Skeleton Found in Ethiopia 2009 Leads to New Views Ardi (Ardethipicus Ramidus) Oldest Hominid on Earth (Upright)
  11. 11. 3 - 2 million years ago Planet cooling causes more hunting. 2.5 million years ago First evidence of tools used by human ancestors (Homo Erectus) at roughly this time 1.5 million years ago First evidence of stone axes used by Homo Erectus. 400,000 to 350,000 years ago First paints (apparently body paints). 200,000 to 150,000 years ago Best current guess as to time anatomically modern humans (Homo Sapiens) arise. Homo Habilis More sophisticated than chimps, used tools
  12. 12. Modern Human Neanderthal (German Valley of Neander) Reconstruction of 70,000 Year Old Skeleton found in France (proof of standing upright) Neanderthals (Europe) (Note overlap in time with Homo Sapiens)
  13. 13. 195,000 Years Ago To C.E. (Christ Era)
  14. 14. The first modern humans with our same DNA lived 195,000 years ago in the continent of Africa 195,000 Years Ago
  15. 15. In Africa bone artifacts and the first art appeared Human fishing in Blombos Cave, South Africa Points, engraving tools, knife blades, and piercing and drilling tools found
  16. 16. 46,000 years ago migration into Europe Left sophisticated tools, carvings, engraved bone, ivory, antler paintings, Venus figures Language and Ice Age caused social change around 24,500 to 17,000 years before Christ existed Move to Balkans, Italy, and around Black Sea during Ice Age
  17. 17. 40,000 B.C. Venus of Brassempony found near Paris First flutes found in Germany made of bird bones Lion-Human carved out of ivory found in Ulm, Germany
  18. 18. 35,000 B.C.? Land bridge to America and Australia
  19. 19. 30,000 Years Before Christ Existed (B.C.) Hardened clay Invented bow and arrow Wall paint and horses Oldest known ceramic Rhino Chauvet Cave, France
  20. 20. 29,000 YEARS AGO The first discovery of human remains found in Wales The Lady of Paviland dyed in red ochre Turned out to be a male skeleton, possibly tribal chief
  21. 21. 28,000 B.C. People living in Japan 24,000 B.C. Venus of Petrkovice. In Czech Republic 23,000 B.C. Venus of Lausell Museum in Bordeaux, France
  22. 22. 17,000 B.C. Peche Merle Cave Dordogne, France
  23. 23. 17,000 B.C. Mammoth bone village in Ukraine inhabited
  24. 24. 17,000 B.C. Hall of Bulls Lascaux Caves, France 16,500-13,000 Years Ago Asian Nomads cross land bridge over Bering Strait- Amerindians
  25. 25. 15,000 B.C. Bison Le Tuc d’Audoubert, France
  26. 26. 14,000 B.C. Hovenweep National Monument, Colorado Altamira, Spain
  27. 27. 13,000 B.C. “Folsom points” (chipped stone) in New Mexico – probably group hunting 12,000 B.C. North America populated Wood buildings in Chile, first pottery vessels in Japan
  28. 28. 11,000 B.C. Evidence of humans in Argentina Arlington Springs man dies on island of Santa Rosa off the coast of California Human remains found off coast of Yucatan 10,000 B.C. Clovis Tool Technology 7300 B.C. Kennewick Man Yucatan Mexico
  29. 29. 10,500 B.C. Culture developing in France, Spain, England, Portugal, Poland 8,000 B.C. Agriculture and hunter- gatherers 8,500 B.C. Evidence of group hunting in Colorado 10,000 B.C. All continents populated
  30. 30. First cultivation of plants in Mexican highlands 7,000 B.C. Jericho Israel is the oldest city in world
  31. 31. 6500 B.C. Mound complexes built Monte Sano, Louisiana site for religious Ceremony and cosmology Mounds were found in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida thousands of years before pyramid construction in Egypt Watson Brake Louisiana
  32. 32. AFTER 4000 B.C. Tools, Stone to bronze, writing, records, trade American Isolation 5,000 B.C. Athapascan (Indians from Canada and Alaska) migration south through America (Includes Navajo and Apache)
  33. 33. 4,000 B.C. First settled communities along Pacific coast 3,000 B.C. Inupiat and Aleut migrations begin (Persian and Egyptian Civilizations developing in Middle East)
  34. 34. 1500 B.C. Poverty Point Mississippi 100 sites
  35. 35. 1,500 – 1,000 B.C. Maize and other Mexican crops introduced into Southwest (Greek and Roman Civilizations developing in Mediterranean)
  36. 36. Adena cultures were related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. The Adena lived in a variety of locations, including: Ohio, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky, and parts of Pennsylvania and New York. Earthquake architecture, continent spanning trade, exchange networks Stone, bone, textile 1000 B.C.-1000 C.E.
  37. 37. Hopewell tradition are the Native Americans sharing river transportation networks 1000 B.C.-1000 C.E.
  38. 38. 1000 B.C. Beginning of Adena culture – urban communities in Mexico
  39. 39. 800 B.C. Celts (Middle Europeans) migrate to U.K. 776 B.C. First Olympics games 600 B.C. Around this time the Old Testament is written 500 B.C. Greeks start to mint coins. Impression of Olympia
  40. 40. 399 B.C. Trial and death of Socrates Greek explorer convicted of failing to acknowledge the Gods that the city acknowledged in Athens, and introducing new philosophies 387 B.C. Plato founds his school, the Academy, in Athens. Plato defines the communist utopian ideal in The Republic (ultimate society with Gold, Silver, Bronze and Iron classes creating a “best scenario” society) 335 B.C. Aristotle founds his school in Athens, the Lyceum, as a rival school to the Academy (open to public) 323 B.C. - 31 B.C. . The Hellenistic Period follows the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. – Emergence of Rome
  41. 41. 63 B.C. Conspiracy of Catalina –Roman senator who attempted to overthrow the Roman aristocratic (small privileged ruling class) senate 60 B.C. First Triumvirate (political alliance of Caesar, Pompey, and Cassus) 214 B.C. Great Wall of China completed 206 B.C.-220 A.D. Han dynasty in China
  42. 42. 59 B.C. Julius Caesar made Consul (highest office) of Rome 58-51 B.C. Conquest of Gaul (France) by Julius Caesar allowing Rome to secure the natural border of the Rhine river 50 B.C. Celts have become well established in Britain 54 B.C.-100 A.D. Romans conquer Britain. In 56 B.C., Julius Caesar conducted a very large "reconnaissance in force" through Britain. He had no cavalry, was constantly harried by Celtic cavalry, and was forced to ineffectually withdraw. In 55 B.C. he returned with 2,000 horsemen from Gaul (France), and readily defeated organized resistance.
  43. 43. 49-48 B.C. Civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey; ends with Pompey murdered in Egypt 44 B.C. The Scythians (from Iran) are gelding horses 44 B.C. Julius Caesar wins wars to gain land, secures Cleopatra's thrown in Egypt, then assassinated 43 B.C. Roman empire begins to annex (incorporate) Britain
  44. 44. 14-37 Tiberius rules Rome with an evil hand; assassinated by suffocation 43 B.C. Second Triumvirate of Augustus, Antony, and Lepidus 43 B.C. Cicero introduced Romans to Greek Philosophy and Latin vocabulary, then assassinated 30B.C. Cleopatra takes her own life after affair with Caesar (1 son), and affair with Antony who takes his own life (3 children) . She had ruled Egypt with her father, and two brothers, with whom she married, but had no children
  45. 45. 30 Jesus put to death Jesus was arrested in Jerusalem following the Last Supper with the Twelve Apostles, and forced to stand trial before the Sanhedrin (23 appointed men from all cities of Israel), Pontius Pilate (head of Judea, province. of Rome), and Herod Antipas (ruler of Galilee and Perea), before being handed over for crucifixion. After being flogged, Jesus was mocked by Roman soldiers as the "King of the Jews." Jesus is Jewish (of Judah), but Jews do not believe he is the Messiah. Roman Empire Israel
  46. 46. 50-300 A.D. Gnosticism (material world shunned, spiritual world embraced) battles Christianity for religious supremacy in the Roman world 60-100 A.D. The 4 Gospels of the New Testament are written (in Greek) by Mark (the Rebel), Matthew (the Rabbi), Luke (the Chronicler), and John (the Mystic)
  47. 47. 324-330 The Roman capitol is moved to Byzantium and Constantine creates the new city of Constantinople as the capital of a new Christian empire. Both Constantine and his sister Constantia were probably born on the English-Scottish border at York. Constantia, who was wife of one Emperor and sister of another, was a great advocate of early Christianity. 64 Rome burns down. The Roman Ruler Nero blamed Christians. Others blamed him. Could have been an accident. 70 Temple in Jerusalem destroyed. Romans under Titus conquer Jews. 105 The Chinese invent paper Inside Wall Arch of Titus Rome 367-517 Celtic (Irish), Angle (Germans in Britain), and Saxon (Germans resisting Christianity) attacks on Roman Britain
  48. 48. Monks mound is the largest of 80 (used to be 120) Man made 500 years before European contact 600-1400 A.D. Cahokia (1200 A.D. High Point) Largest population (20,000) Mississippi
  49. 49. 829 The king of Wessex (Saxons), Egbert, becomes the first king of England 845 Major Viking attack on Paris 871 Iceland is settled by "Vikings" (Norwegian farmers) 650 Bow and arrow and other crude tools, corn in Northwest
  50. 50. 1,000 1,200 1,215 1,492 1,499 1,516 1,519 1,524 1,541 1,565 1,584 1,588 1,607 1,609 1,613 1,619 1,620 1,650 1,664 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 America 1000-1700 Year
  51. 51. 1000 Tobacco in use 1000 Leif Ericson, a Viking seaman, explores the east coast of North America and sights Newfoundland, establishing a short-lived settlement there 1000 Romanesque art (columns, cherubs)
  52. 52. 1065 Westminster Abbey is completed 1150-1200 The University of Paris forms (it is not yet officially recognized) 1185 First recorded windmills 1096 Oxford University formed in England 1150 Founding of Hopi village AZ
  53. 53. 1215 The Magna Carta. Civil war in England; King John is forced to sign this document providing guarantees of rights and setting precedent for rule of law. Although perhaps not that unusual for its time, it was taken more seriously than most, and casts a very long shadow to this day. It limited power of the King, used later in the U.S. Constitution.
  54. 54. 1360 Goth – Abbey architecture in monasteries and churches 1400s High Renaissance Europe Davinci, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael
  55. 55. 1450 PRINTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED IN EUROPE - Founding of the Iroquois Confederacy in Northeast U.S. 1492 C. COLUMBUS LEADS ADVANCE SCOUTING PARTY FOR INVASION OF AMERICA - Columbus makes the first of four voyages to the New World, funded by Spain, seeking a western sea route to Asia. On October 12, sailing the Santa Maria, he lands in the Bahamas, thinking it is an outlying Japanese island.
  56. 56. 1497 John Cabot of England explores the Atlantic coast of Canada, claiming the area for the English King, Henry VII. Cabot is the first of many European explorers to seek a Northwest Passage (northern water route) to Asia. 1499 Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, sights the coast of South America during a voyage of discovery for Spain. 1507 The name "America" is first used in a geography book referring to the New World with Amerigo Vespucci getting credit for the discovery of the continent.
  57. 57. 1508 Spanish Invade Puerto Rico 1513 Ponce de Leon (Spanish explorer and conquistador) lands in Florida. He was also the first Governor of Puerto Rico appointed by Spain 1516 Smallpox introduced in America 1517 Martin Luther launches the Protestant Reformation in Europe, bringing an end to the sole authority of the Catholic Church, resulting in the growth of numerous Protestant religious sects.
  58. 58. Attacked Mayan Temple and fought the Aztecs1519 Spanish expedition led by Cortes lands in Mexico appointed by Governor Velasquez of Cuba in search of wealth 1519-1522 Ferdinand Magellan from Portugal is the first person to sail around the world
  59. 59. 1524 Giovanni da Verrazano, sponsored by France, lands in the area around the Carolinas, then sails north and discovers the Hudson River, and continues northward into Narragansett Bay and Nova Scotia.
  60. 60. 1534 French Cartier explores the St. Lawrence River in Quebec, Canada 1539 Desoto and deCoronado mount expeditions from Spain and France. Set the pace for American Lewis and Clark expeditions 1541 Hernando de Soto of Spain discovers the Mississippi River - tobacco introduced in Europe
  62. 62. 1584 Raleigh’s Roanoke Island Va. Colony (present day North Carolina) Queen Elizabeth I tried to colonize. Last group never returned during Anglo- Spanish war. Called “The Lost Colony.” 1588 In Europe, the defeat of the Spanish Armada by the English results in Great Britain replacing Spain as the dominant world power and leads to a gradual decline of Spanish influence in the New World and the widening of English imperial interests. 1565 Spanish found St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest continuous European settlement in North America.
  63. 63. 1590 Roanoke found abandoned 1598 deOnate leads Spanish into New Mexico 1600 Baroque Art – Political and Religious
  64. 64. 1607 English found Jamestown, Virginia, first permanent English settlement in continental US 1608 French found Quebec Canada 1609 Spanish found Santa Fe, New Mexico
  65. 65. 1613 A Dutch trading post is set up on lower Manhattan Island 1619 DUTCH DELIVER FIRST SLAVES TO VIRGINIA
  66. 66. 1620 November 9, the Mayflower ship lands at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, with 101 colonists. On November 11, the Mayflower Compact is signed by the 41 men, establishing a form of local government in which the colonists agree to abide by majority rule and to cooperate for the general good of the colony. The Compact sets the precedent for other colonies as they set up governments.
  67. 67. 1,700 1,730 1,775 1,783 1,787 1,789 1,640 1,660 1,680 1,700 1,720 1,740 1,760 1,780 1,800 Plantation Era First Great Awakening American Revolution Treaty of Paris Constitution Washington First President American Events 1700-1800 Year
  68. 68. Plantation Era 1700 The plantation era, also loosely referred to as the Antebellum Era, was a period in the history of the Southern United States, from the early 18th century until the start of the American Civil War in 1860 (which ended slavery in the United States and destroyed much of the economic landscape of the South), marked by the economic growth of the South, based on slave-driven plantation farming. The First Awakening (or The Great Awakening) was a Christian revitalization movement that swept Protestant Europe and British America, and especially the American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on American religion. The First Great Awakening 1730s and 1740s
  69. 69. American Revolution 1775 The American Revolution was a political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America.
  70. 70. The 1783 Treaty of Paris with Great Britain defined the original borders of the United States. There were ambiguities in the treaty regarding the exact border with Canada that led to disputes that were resolved by the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842
  71. 71. Acknowledging the United States (viz. the Colonies) to be free, sovereign and independent states, and that the British Crown and all heirs and successors relinquish claims to the Government, property, and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof; Establishing the boundaries between the United States and British North America; Granting fishing rights to United States fishermen in the Grand Banks, off the coast of Newfoundland and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence; Recognizing the lawful contracted debts to be paid to creditors on either side; The Congress of the Confederation will "earnestly recommend" to state legislatures to recognize the rightful owners of all confiscated lands "provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects [Loyalists]"; United States will prevent future confiscations of the property of Loyalists; Prisoners of war on both sides are to be released and all property left by the British army in the United States unmolested (including slaves); Great Britain and the United States were each to be given perpetual access to the Mississippi River; Territories captured by Americans subsequent to treaty will be returned without compensation; Ratification of the treaty was to occur within six months from the signing by the contracting parties.
  72. 72. The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies on the other. The other combatant nations, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic had separate agreements; for details of these, and the negotiations which produced all four treaties, see Peace of Paris (1783). Its territorial provisions were "exceedingly generous" to the United States in terms of enlarged boundaries.
  73. 73. US Constitution Written 1787 The Constitution originally consisted of seven Articles. The first three Articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislature, consisting of the bicameral Congress; the executive, consisting of the President; and the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. The fourth and sixth Articles frame the doctrine of federalism, describing the relationship between State and State, and between the several States and the federal government. The fifth Article provides the procedure for amending the Constitution. The seventh Article provides the procedure for ratifying the Constitution. It has been amended 27 times.
  74. 74. In 1789, Washington was elected the first President. He defined how a person should act as President and retired after two terms. During Washington's term, there was a Whiskey Rebellion, where country farmers tried to stop the government from collecting taxes on whiskey. In 1795, Congress passed the Jay Treaty, which allowed for increased trade with Britain in exchange for the British giving up their forts on the Great Lakes. However, Great Britain was still doing things that hurt the U.S., such as impressment (making American sailors join the British Royal Navy).[
  75. 75. Bill of Rights (First 10 Amendments to the Constitution) 1791 Amendment I (1): Freedom of religion, speech, and the press; rights of assembly and petition Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Amendment II (2): Right to bear arms A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. Amendment III (3): Housing of soldiers No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. Amendment IV (4): Search and arrest warrants The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Amendment V (5): Rights in criminal cases No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
  76. 76. Amendment VI (6): Rights to a fair trial In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed; which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. Amendment VII (7): Rights in civil cases In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. Amendment VIII (8): Bails, fines, and punishments Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. Amendment IX (9): Rights retained by the people The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Amendment X (10): Powers retained by the states and the people The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
  77. 77. 1,800 1,800 1,803 1,804 1,812 1,817 1,830 1,840 1,848 1,861 1,865 1,870 1,876 1,877 1,890 1,890 1,897 1,740 1,760 1,780 1,800 1,820 1,840 1,860 1,880 1,900 1,920 America 1800s Year
  78. 78. The Second Great Awakening 1800 The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States. Membership rose rapidly among Baptists and Methodists. First Wave Feminism 1800 First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the 19th and early twentieth century throughout the world, particularly in the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands and the United States. It focused on de jure (officially mandated) inequalities, primarily on gaining women's suffrage (the right to vote).
  79. 79. 1,783 1,803 1,810 1,818 1,819 1,842 1,845 1,846 1,846 1,850 1,853 1,867 1,872 1,898 1,898 1,899 1,899 1,910 1,917 1,970 1,978 1,650 1,700 1,750 1,800 1,850 1,900 1,950 2,000 Territory Acquired By Year Britain France Spain Mexico Russia Hawaii Marshall Islands Germany Denmark Japan
  80. 80. $15 $7 $20 $25 $25 $370 $118 $552 $456 $506 $0 $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600 Mexico Russia Spain Denmark France Then Now Paid From U.S. To Acquire Land (Net In Millions *Some Debts Claims Settled) $92 Million Total At The Time of Purchases Equivalent to Around $2 Billion Today
  81. 81. American Land Acquisitions 1803-1978
  82. 82. The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition by the United States of America in 1803 of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km2) of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana. The U.S. paid 50 million francs ($11,250,000) plus cancellation of debts worth 18 million francs ($3,750,000), for a total sum of 15 million dollars (less than 3 cents per acre) for the Louisiana territory ($230 million in 2012 dollars, less than 42 cents per acre). President Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to scout territory.
  83. 83. The Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States, departing in May, 1804 from St. Louis on the Mississippi River, making their way westward through the continental divide to the Pacific coast. The expedition was commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson shortly after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, consisting of a select group of U.S. Army volunteers under the command of Captain Meriwether Lewis and his close friend Second Lieutenant William Clark. The duration of their perilous journey lasted from May 1804 to September 1806. The primary objective was to explore and map the newly acquired territory, find a practical route across the Western half of the continent, and establish an American presence in this territory before Britain and other European powers tried to claim it. The campaign's secondary objectives were scientific and economic: to study the area's plants, animal life, and geography, and establish trade with local Indian tribes. With maps, sketches and journals in hand, the expedition returned to St. Louis to report their findings to Jefferson.
  84. 84. West Florida West Florida was declared to be a U.S. possession in 1810 by President James Madison. The Army then took control Red River The parts of Rupert's Land and the Red River Colony south of the 49th parallel in the basin of the Red River of the North were acquired in 1818 from Britain under the Anglo- American Convention of 1818.
  85. 85. Manifest Destiny 1812 In the United States in the 19th century, Manifest destiny was the widely held belief that American settlers were destined to expand across the continent. The belief has been described as follows: Historians have for the most part agreed that there are three basic themes to Manifest Destiny. 1. The special virtues of the American people and their institutions; 2. America's mission to redeem and remake the world in the image of America; 3. A divine destiny under God's direction to accomplish this wonderful task
  86. 86. The Era of Good Feelings marked a period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. The era saw the collapse of the Federalist Party and an end to the bitter partisan disputes between it and the dominant Democratic- Republican Party during the First Party System. Era of Good Feelings 1817
  87. 87. East Florida The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 with Spain resulted in Spain's cession of East Florida and the Sabine Free State and Spain's surrender of any claims to the Oregon Country. Article III of the treaty, when properly surveyed, resulted in the acquisition of a small part of central Colorado.
  88. 88. Most of the Native American population was vastly decreased through diseases like chicken pox brought from the colonists. During the American Revolution, the newly proclaimed United States competed with the British for the allegiance of Native American nations east of the Mississippi River. Most Native Americans who joined the struggle sided with the British, based both on their trading relationships and hopes that colonial defeat would result in a halt to further colonial expansion onto Native American land. Many native communities were divided over which side to support in the war and others wanted to remain neutral. The first native community to sign a treaty with the new United States Government was the Lenape. For the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, the American Revolution resulted in civil war. The British made peace with the Americans in the Treaty of Paris (1783), through which they ceded vast Native American territories to the United States without informing or consulting with the Native Americans.
  89. 89. In 1831, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee Creek, and Seminole (sometimes collectively referred to as the Five Civilized Tribes) were living as autonomous nations in what would be called the American Deep South. The process of cultural transformation (proposed by George Washington and Henry Knox) was gaining momentum, especially among the Cherokee and Choctaw. Andrew Jackson continued and renewed the political and military effort for the removal of the Native Americans from these lands with the passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
  90. 90. In 1831 the Choctaw were the first to be removed, and they became the model for all other removals. After the Choctaw, the Seminole were removed in 1832, the Creek in 1834, then the Chickasaw in 1837, and finally the Cherokee in 1838. After removal, some Native Americans remained in their ancient homelands - the Choctaw are found in Mississippi, the Seminole in Florida, the Creek in Alabama, and the Cherokee in North Carolina. A limited number of non-native Americans (including African-Americans - usually as slaves) also accompanied the Native American nations on the trek westward. By 1837, 46,000 Native Americans from these southeastern states had been removed from their homelands thereby opening 25 million acres (100,000 km2) for predominantly white settlement.
  91. 91. The Trail of Tears is a name given to the forced relocation and movement of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The removal included many members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations, among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory in eastern sections of the present-day state of Oklahoma. The phrase originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831.
  92. 92. Many Native Americans suffered from exposure, disease and starvation on the route to their destinations. Many died, including 60,000 of the 130,000 relocated Cherokee, intermarried and accompanying European-Americans, and the 2,000 African-American free blacks and slaves owned by the Cherokee they took with them.
  93. 93. The Slave Power (often called the "Slaveocracy") was a term used in the United States ca. 1840-1865 to denounce the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. The argument was that this small group of rich men had seized political control of their own states and was trying to take over the national government in an illegitimate fashion in order to expand and protect slavery.
  94. 94. Along Canadian border Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 with Britain split the disputed territory in Maine and New Brunswick and finalized the border with Canada, including the disputed Indian Stream territory. In 1850 Britain ceded to the U.S. less than one acre of underwater rock (Horseshoe Reef) in Lake Erie near Buffalo for a lighthouse.
  95. 95. Stream territory Texas Annexation of 1845: The independent Republic of Texas long sought to join the U.S., despite Mexican claims and the warning by Mexican leader Antonio López de Santa Anna warned that this would be "equivalent to a declaration of war against the Mexican Republic." Congress approved the annexation of Texas on February 28, 1845. On December 29, 1845, Texas became the 28th state. Texas had claimed New Mexico east of the Rio Grande but had only made one unsuccessful attempt to occupy it; New Mexico was captured by the U.S. Army in August 1846 and then administered separately from Texas. Mexico acknowledged the loss of territory in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848.
  96. 96. Oregon Country, the area of North America west of the Rockies to the Pacific, was jointly controlled by the U.S. and Britain following the Anglo- American Convention of 1818 until June 15, 1846 when the Oregon Treaty divided the territory at the 49th parallel (see Oregon boundary dispute). The San Juan Islands were claimed and jointly occupied by the U.S. and the U.K. from 1846–72 due to ambiguities in the treaty (see Northwestern Boundary Dispute). Arbitration led to the sole U.S. possession of the San Juan Islands since 1872.
  97. 97. Mexican Cession lands were captured in the Mexican-American War in 1846–48, and ceded by Mexico in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, where Mexico agreed to the present Mexico – United States border except for the later Gadsden Purchase. The United States paid $15 million (equivalent to $370 million in present day terms) and agreed to pay claims made by American citizens against Mexico which amounted to more than $3 million (equivalent to $74 million today).
  98. 98. The California Gold Rush 1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.[1] The first to hear confirmed information of the Gold Rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), and Latin America, who were the first to start flocking to the state in late 1848. All told, the news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. Of the 300,000, approximately half arrived by sea and half came from the east overland on the California Trail and the Gila River trail.
  99. 99. Gadsden Purchase of 1853, United States purchased a strip of land along the U.S.-Mexico border for $10 million (equivalent to $276 million in present day terms), now in New Mexico and Arizona. This territory was intended for a southern transcontinental railroad.
  100. 100. Fought 1861-1865, The American Civil War was the result of decades of sectional tensions between the North and South. Focused on slavery and states rights, these issues came to a head following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Over the next several months eleven southern states seceded and formed the Confederate States of America. During the first two years of the war, Southern troops won numerous victories but saw their fortunes turn after losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in 1863. From then on, Northern forces worked to conquer the South, forcing them to surrender in April 1865.
  101. 101. Causes & Secession: The roots of the Civil War can be traced to increasing differences between North and South and their growing divergence as the 19th century progressed. Chief among the issues were expansion of slavery into the territories, the South's declining political power, states rights, and the retention of slavery. Though these issues had existed for decades, they exploded in 1860 following the election of Abraham Lincoln who was against the spread of slavery. As the result of his election, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas seceded from the Union.
  102. 102. Fort Sumter & First Bull Run: On April 12, 1861, the war began when Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard opened fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor forcing its surrender. In response to the attack, President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion. While Northern states responded quickly, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas refused, opting to join the Confederacy instead. In July, Union forces commanded by Gen. Irvin McDowell began marching south to take the rebel capital of Richmond. On the 21st, they met a Confederate army near Manassas and were defeated.
  103. 103. War in the West, 1861-1863: In February 1862, forces under Gen. Ulysses S. Grant captured Forts Henry & Donelson. Two months later he defeated a Confederate army at Shiloh, TN. On April 29, Union naval forces captured New Orleans. To the east, Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg attempted to invade Kentucky, but was repelled at Perryville on October 8. That December he was beaten again at Stones River, TN. Grant now focused his attention on capturing Vicksburg and opening the Mississippi River. After a false start, his troops swept through Mississippi and laid siege to the town on May 18, 1863.
  104. 104. War in the East, 1862-1863: Following the defeat at Bull Run, Gen. George McClellan was given command of the new Union Army of the Potomac. In early 1862, he shifted the army south to attack Richmond via the Peninsula. Moving slowly, he was defeated and forced to retreat after the Seven Days Battles. This campaign saw the rise of Robert E. Lee to the command of Confederate forces in the East. Shortly thereafter, a second Union army was defeated by Lee at the Second Battle of Bull Run. In September, Lee began to move north into Maryland. McClellan was sent to intercept and met Lee at Antietam on the 17th.
  105. 105. Despite having a larger force and knowledge of Lee's positions, McClellan was overcautious and failed to achieve a decisive victory. The win at Antietam permitted Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves in the South and altered the Union's war aims. Unhappy with McClellan, Lincoln gave command to Gen. Ambrose Burnside. In December, Burnside was beaten at Fredericksburg and replaced by Gen. Joseph Hooker. The following May, Hooker engaged Lee near Chancellorsville. Though outnumbered 2-to-1, Lee outmaneuvered Hooker and forced him to retreat. (War in the East, 1862-1863).
  106. 106. Turning Points - Gettysburg & Vicksburg: In June 1863, Lee began to move north towards Pennsylvania with Union troops in pursuit. Following the defeat at Chancellorsville, Lincoln turned to Gen. George Meade to take over the Army of the Potomac. On July 1, elements of the two armies clashed at Gettysburg, PA. After three days of heavy fighting, Lee was defeated and forced to retreat. A day later on July 4, Grant successfully concluded the siege of Vicksburg, opening the Mississippi to shipping and cutting the South in two. Combined these victories were the beginning of the end for the Confederacy.
  107. 107. War in the East, 1863-1865: In March 1864, Grant was given command of all Union armies and came east to deal with Lee. Grant's campaign began in May, with the armies clashing at the Wilderness. Despite heavy casualties, Grant pressed south, fighting at Spotsylvania C.H. and Cold Harbor. Unable to get through Lee's army to Richmond, Grant attempted to cut the city off by taking Petersburg. Lee arrived first and a siege began. On April 2/3, 1865, Lee was forced to evacuate the city and retreat west, allowing Grant to take Richmond. On April 9, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House.
  108. 108. War in the West, 1863-1865: In summer 1863, Union troops under Gen. William Rosecrans advanced into Georgia and were defeated at Chickamauga. Fleeing north, they were besieged at Chattanooga. Grant was ordered to save the situation and did so winning victories at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. The following spring Grant departed and gave command to Gen. William Sherman. Moving south, Sherman took Atlanta and then marched to Savannah. After reaching the sea, he moved north pushing Confederate forces until their commander, Gen. Joseph Johnston surrendered at Durham, NC on April 18, 1865.
  109. 109. Aftermath & Casualties: On April 14, five days after Lee's surrender, President Lincoln was assassinated while attending a play at Ford's Theater in Washington. The assassin, John Wilkes Booth, was killed by Union troops on April 26 while fleeing south. Lincoln's death cast a pall across the nation and elevated Vice President Andrew Johnson to the presidency.
  110. 110. During the war, Union forces suffered approximately 360,000 killed (140,000 in battle) and 282,000 wounded. Confederates armies lost approximately 258,000 killed (94,000 in battle) and an unknown number of wounded. The total killed in the war exceeds the total deaths from all other US wars combined.
  111. 111. Alaska Alaska Purchase from the Russian Empire for $7.2 million (2 cents per acre) on March 30, 1867 (equivalent to $118 million in present day terms), as a vital refueling station for ships trading with Asia. The land went through several administrative changes before becoming an organized territory on May 11, 1912, and the 49th state of the U.S. on January 3, 1959.
  112. 112. Reconstruction Era has two senses: the first covers the complete history of the entire U.S. from 1865 to 1877 following the Civil War; the second sense focuses on the transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Washington, with the reconstruction of state and society.
  113. 113. With the end of fighting a period known as Reconstruction began, with Union troops occupying Southern states and overseeing their gradual reintegration into the Union. Following the war, three amendments were added to the Constitution: 13th: Abolished slavery 14th: Extension of legal protection regardless of race 15th: Abolished all racial restrictions on voting Reconstruction Period
  114. 114. The Gilded Age was the period following roughly from the 1870s to the turn of the twentieth century. The term was coined by writers Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner in The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, satirizing what they believed to be an era of serious social problems hidden by a thin gold gilding.
  115. 115. The Gilded Age was an era of enormous growth, especially in the North and West. This attracted millions of emigres from Europe. However, the Gilded Age was also an era of enormous poverty. The average annual income for most families was $380, well below the poverty line. Railroads were the major industry, but the factory system, mining, and labor unions also increased in importance. Two major nationwide depressions known as the Panic of 1873 and the Panic of 1893 interrupted growth. The South remained economically devastated; its economy became increasingly tied to cotton and tobacco production, which suffered low prices. African-Americans in the South were stripped of political power and voting rights. The political landscape was notable in that despite some corruption, turnout was very high and elections between the evenly matched parties were close. The dominant issues were cultural (especially regarding prohibition, education and ethnic and racial groups), and economics (tariffs and money supply). Reformers crusaded against child labour and for the 8-hour working day, civil service reform, prohibition, and women's suffrage. State & local governments built schools, colleges and hospitals that sometimes received donations from philanthropists and various diverse religious denominations structured the social and cultural lives of many Americans.
  116. 116. The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with, starting in 1890, a "separate but equal" status for African Americans. The separation in practice led to conditions for African Americans that tended to be inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages. De jure segregation mainly applied to the Southern United States. Northern segregation was generally de facto, with patterns of segregation in housing enforced by covenants, bank lending practices, and job discrimination, including discriminatory union practices for decades.
  117. 117. The “Nadir of American Race Relations" was the period in History of the Southern United States from the end of Reconstruction in 1877 through the early 20th century, when racism in the country is deemed to have been worse than in any other period after the American Civil War. During this period, African Americans lost many civil rights gains made during Reconstruction. Anti-black violence, lynchings, segregation, legal racial discrimination, and expressions of white supremacy increased.
  118. 118. The Progressive Era was a period of social activism and political reform in the United States that flourished from the 1890s to the 1920s. One main goal of the Progressive movement was purification of government, as Progressives tried to eliminate corruption by exposing and undercutting political machines and bosses. Many (but not all) Progressives supported prohibition in order to destroy the political power of local bosses based in saloons. At the same time, women's suffrage was promoted to bring a "purer" female vote into the arena. A second theme was building an Efficiency movement in every sector that could identify old ways that needed modernizing, and bring to bear scientific, medical and engineering solutions.
  119. 119. The Gay Nineties is an American nostalgic term that refers to the decade of the 1890s. It is known in the United Kingdom as the Naughty Nineties, and refers there to the decade of supposedly decadent art by Aubrey Beardsley, the witty plays and trial of Oscar Wilde, society scandals and the beginning of the suffragette (women’s rights) movement. Holloway Prison London, 1896 Youth and Adult Women
  120. 120. Hawaii The Kingdom of Hawaii was closely linked by missionary work and trade to the U.S. by the 1880s. In 1893 business leaders overthrew the Queen and sought annexation. President Grover Cleveland strongly disapproved, so Hawaii set up an independent republic. Southern Democrats in Congress strongly opposed a non-white addition. President William McKinley, a Republican, secured a Congressional resolution in 1898, and the small republic joined the U.S. All its citizens became full U.S. citizens. One factor was the need for advanced naval bases to fend off Japanese ambitions. The Hawaiian Islands officially became a territory of the U.S. in 1900. Following 94% voter approval of the Admission of Hawaii Act, on August 21, 1959 the Territory of Hawaii became the state of Hawaii, the 50th state. With Hawaii came the Palmyra Atoll which had been annexed by the U.S. in 1859 but later abandoned, then later claimed by Hawaii.
  121. 121. Allgeyer v. Louisiana, (1897), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which a unanimous court struck down a Louisiana statute on grounds that it violated an individual's "liberty to contract." This was the first case in which the Supreme Court interpreted the word liberty in the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to mean economic liberty.
  122. 122. Spanish American War Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines (for which the United States compensated Spain $20 million, equivalent to $552 million in present day terms), ceded by Spain after the Spanish-American War in the 1898 Treaty of Paris. Spain relinquished all claim of sovereignty over Cuba, but did not cede it to the United States, so it became a protectorate. All four of these areas were under United States Military Government (USMG) for extended periods. Cuba became an independent nation in 1902, and the Philippines became an independent nation in 1946. This era also saw the first scattered protests against American imperialism. Noted Americans such as Mark Twain spoke out forcefully against these ventures. Opponents of the war, including Twain and Andrew Carnegie, organized themselves into the American Anti- Imperialist League. During this same period the American people continued to strongly chastise the European powers for their imperialism. The Second Boer War was especially unpopular in the United States and soured Anglo- American relations. The anti-imperialist press would often draw parallels between America in the Philippines and the British in the Second Boer War.
  123. 123. Cuba Under the 1898 Treaty of Paris, Spain relinquished all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba, with the island to be occupied by the United States. Under the Teller Amendment Congress had already decided against annexation. Cuba gained formal independence on 20 May 1902. Under the new Cuban constitution, however, the U.S. retained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and to supervise its finances and foreign relations through the Platt Amendment; this, however, was later renounced as part of Franklin Roosevelt's Good Neighbor Policy.[9] Under the Platt Amendment (1901), Cuba also agreed to lease to the U.S. the naval base at Guantánamo Bay. The naval base occupies land which the United States leased from Cuba in 1903 "... for the time required for the purposes of coaling and naval stations." The two governments later agreed that, "So long as the United States of America shall not abandon the said naval station of Guantanamo or the two Governments shall not agree to a modification of its present limits, the station shall continue to have the territorial area that it now has, with the limits that it has on the date of the signature of the present Treaty."
  124. 124. Puerto Rico On July 25, 1898, during the Spanish–American War, Puerto Rico was invaded by the United States with a landing at Guánica. As an outcome of the war, Jones-Shafroth Act granted all the inhabitants of Puerto Rico U.S. citizenship in 1917. The U.S. granted Puerto Ricans the right to democratically elect their own governor in 1948. In 1950, the Truman Administration allowed for a democratic referendum in Puerto Rico to determine whether Puerto Ricans desired to draft their own local constitution without affecting the unincorporated territory status with the U.S..A local constitution was approved by a Constitutional Convention on February 6, 1952, ratified by the U.S. Congress, approved by President Truman on July 3 of that year, and proclaimed by Gov. Muñoz Marín on July 25, 1952, the anniversary of the 1898 arrival of U.S. troops. Puerto Rico adopted the name of Estado Libre Asociado (literally translated as "Free Associated State"), officially translated into English as Commonwealth, for its body politic.
  125. 125. Guam In Guam, settlement by foreign ethnic groups was small at first. After World War II showed the strategic value of the island, construction of a huge military base began along with a large influx of people from other parts of the world. Guam today has a very mixed population of 164,000. The indigenous Chamorros make up 37% of the population. The rest of the population consists mostly of Whites and Filipinos, with smaller groups of Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Micronesians, Vietnamese and Indians. Guam today is almost totally Americanized. The situation is somewhat similar to that in Hawaii, but attempts to change Guam's status as an 'unincorporated' U.S. territory have yet to meet with success.
  126. 126. The Philippine Revolution against Spain began in April 1896. The Spanish-American War came to the Philippines on May 1, 1898, when the United States Navy's Asiatic Squadron, commanded by Commodore George Dewey, defeated the Spanish Pacific Squadron under Admiral Patricio Montojo y Pasarón during the Battle of Manila Bay. On June 12, Philippine revolutionaries declared independence and establishment of the First Philippine Republic. On December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish-American war was signed. The treaty transferred control of the Philippines from Spain to the United States. This agreement was not recognized by the Philippine revolutionaries, who declared war against the United States on June 2, 1899. The Philippine- American War ensued. In 1901, Emilio Aguinaldo, president of the Malolos Republic, was captured and pledged his allegiance to the American government. The U.S. unilaterally declared an end to the conflict in 1902. Scattered fighting continued, however, until 1913. .
  127. 127. The Philippine Organic Act of 1902 provided for the establishment of a bicameral legislature composed of an upper house consisting of the Philippine Commission, an appointed body with both American and Filipino members. and a popularly elected lower house, the Philippine Assembly. The Philippines became a U.S. colony in the fashion of Europe's New Imperialism, with benevolent colonial practices. English joined Spanish as an official language, and English language education was made compulsory. In 1916, the United States passed the Philippine Autonomy Act and committed itself to granting independence to the Philippines, "...as soon as a stable government can be established therein."[17] As a step to full independence in 1946, partial autonomy as a Commonwealth was granted in 1935. Preparation for a fully sovereign state was interrupted by the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during World War II. The United States suffered a total of 62,514 casualties, including 13,973 deaths in its attempt to liberate the Philippines from Imperial Japanese rule during the hard-fought Philippines campaign from 1944-1945. Full independence came with the recognition of Philippine sovereignty by the U.S. in 1946
  128. 128. Wake Island Wake Island was annexed as empty territory by the United States in 1899 (the claim is currently disputed by the Marshall Islands).
  129. 129. American Samoa Germany, the United States, and Britain colonized the Samoan Islands. The nations came into conflict in the Second Samoan Civil War and the nations resolved their issues, establishing American Samoa as per the Treaty of Berlin, 1899. The U.S. took control of its allotted region on June 7, 1900, with the Deed of Cession. Tutuila Island and Aunuu Island were ceded by their chiefs in 1900, then added to American Samoa. Manua was annexed in 1904, then added to American Samoa. Swains Island was annexed in 1925 (occupied since 1856), then added to American Samoa. (The claim is currently disputed by Tokelau, a colonial territory of New Zealand.) American Samoa was under the control of the U.S. Navy from 1900 to 1951. American Samoa was made a formal territory in 1929. From 1951 until 1977, Territorial Governors were appointed by the Secretary of the Interior. Immigration of Americans was never as strong as it was, for instance, in Hawaii; indigenous Samoans make up 89% of the population. The islands have been reluctant to separate from the U.S. in any manner.
  130. 130. Panama Canal Zone The Panama Canal Zone was an unorganized US territory located within the Republic of Panama. It was established under the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty in 1903 and disestablished in 1979 under the Torrijos–Carter Treaties. Panama gained full control over the Panama Canal in 1999.
  131. 131. Virgin Islands In 1917, the United States purchased the former Danish colony of St. Croix, St. John and St. Thomas, which is now the U.S. Virgin Islands. The United States - which had made an earlier approach in 1902 -purchased these islands because they feared that the islands might be seized as a submarine base during World War I. After several months of secret negotiations, a sales price of $25 million was agreed. A non- binding referendum in Denmark held in late 1916 confirmed the decision to sell by a wide margin. The U.S. took possession of the islands on March 31, 1917 a few days before the U.S entered the war. The deal was ratified and finalized on January 17, 1917, when the United States and Denmark exchanged their respective treaty ratifications. The territory was renamed the U.S. Virgin Islands. U.S. citizenship was granted to the inhabitants of the islands in 1927.
  132. 132. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) was a United Nations trust territory in Micronesia (western Pacific) administered by the United States from July 18, 1947, comprising the former League of Nations Mandate administered by Japan and taken by the U.S. in 1944. The various island groupings in the Trust Territory were later divided up. The Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia achieved independence on October 21, 1986. Palau did so in 1994. All three nations signed Compacts of Free Association with the United States.
  133. 133. Mexican boundary The Boundary Treaty of 1970 transferred 823 acres (3.33 km2) of Mexican territory to the U.S., in areas near Presidio and Hidalgo, Texas, to build flood control channels. In exchange, the U.S. ceded 2,177 acres (8.81 km2) to Mexico, including five parcels near Presidio, the Horcon Tract containing the little town of Rio Rico, Texas, and Beaver Island near Roma, Texas. The last of these transfers occurred in 1977.
  134. 134. On November 24, 2009, the U.S. ceded 6 islands in the Rio Grande to Mexico, totaling 107.81 acres (0.43629 km2). At the same time, Mexico ceded 3 islands and 2 cuts to the U.S., totaling 63.53 acres (0.25710 km2). This transfer, which had been pending for 20 years, was the first application of Article III of the 1970 Boundary Treaty. The Chamizal Treaty of 1963, which ended a hundred-year dispute between the two countries near El Paso, Texas, transferred 630 acres (2.55 km2) from the U.S. to Mexico in 1967. In return, Mexico transferred 264 acres (1.068 km2) to the U.S.
  135. 135. The Rio Grande Rectification Treaty of 1933 straightened and stabilized the 155 miles (249 km) of river boundary through the highly developed El Paso-Juárez Valley. Numerous parcels of land (174) were transferred between the two countries during the construction period, 1935 – 1938. At the end, each nation had ceded an equal area of land (2,560.5 acres (10.3620 km2)) to the other.
  136. 136. The Banco Convention of 1905 resulted in many exchanges of bancos (land surrounded by bends in the river that became segregated from either country by a cutoff, often due to rapid accretion or avulsion of the alluvial channel) between the two nations, most often in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Under the treaty, the following transfers involving Texas occurred from 1910 – 1976
  137. 137. Year # Bancos Acres to USA Acres to Mexico Year # Bancos Acres to USA Acres to Mexico 1910 57 5357.1 3101.2 1942 1 63.3 0 1912 31 1094.4 2342.8 1943 4 482.9 100.5 1928 42 3089.9 1407.8 1944 14 253.7 166.2 1930 31 4685.7 984.3 1945 16 240.9 333.5 1931 4 158.4 328.7 1946 1 185.8 0 1932 2 159.7 0 1949 2 190.2 182.0 1933 1 0 122.1 1956 1 508.3 0 1934 1 278.1 0 1968 1 0 154.6 1939 1 240.2 0 1970 21 449.8 1881.8 1940 2 0 209.5 1976 6 49.2 0 1941 6 224.5 246.9 Total 245 17,712 acres (71.68 km2) 11,662 acres (47.19 km2
  138. 138. In 1927 under the same 1905 Convention, the U.S. acquired two bancos from Mexico at the Colorado River border with Arizona. Farmers Banco, covering 583.4 acres (2.361 km2), a part of the Cocopah Indian Reservation at 32°37′27″N 114°46′45″W32.62417°N 114.77917°W, was ceded to the U.S. with controversy. Fain Banco (259 acres (1.05 km2)) at 32°31′32″N 114°47′28″W32.52556°N 114.79111°W also became U.S. soil. •Proposed: Based on aerial surveys in 2008, there are 138 cases where the widest channel of normal flow of the Rio Grande has shifted from previous surveys. Therefore, the International Boundary Line is to be changed under Article III of the 1970 Boundary Treaty. The result is 138 proposed transfers of territory that remain pending further evaluation and approval by the International Boundary and Water Commission and the two governments. Upon resolution, the U.S. is to cede 7 islands and 60 cuts in the Rio Grande to Mexico, totaling 1,251.2 acres (5.0634 km2), while Mexico is to cede 3 islands and 68 cuts to the U.S., totaling 1,275.9 acres (5.1634 km2).
  139. 139. Canada 1925, to correct an unintended effect from an earlier treaty, the U.S. ceded to Canada two enclaves comprising two and one-half acres of water territory in the Lake of the Woods.
  140. 140. Northern Mariana Islands The Northern Mariana Islands were part of the former Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands but decided in the 1970s not to seek independence. The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in political union with the United States was established in 1978.
  141. 141. 1,900 1,910 1,914 1,917 1,919 1,920 1,920 1,929 1,930 1,933 1,939 1,941 1,947 1,947 1,957 1,960 1,960 1,965 1,969 1,973 1,980 1,990 1,995 2,001 2,001 1,840 1,860 1,880 1,900 1,920 1,940 1,960 1,980 2,000 2,020 America 1900-Present Year
  142. 142. The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest, and West for most of the 20th century. Some historians differentiate between the first Great Migration (1910–1930), numbering about 1.6 million migrants who left mostly rural areas to migrate to northern and midwestern industrial cities, and, after a lull during the Great Depression, a Second Great Migration (1940 to 1970), in which 5 million or more people moved, including many to California and other western cities.
  143. 143. World War I 1914 World War I (WWI) was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until the start of World War II in 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter.[5][6][7] It involved all the world's great powers,[8] which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and the Russian Empire) and the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Although Italy had also been a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive against the terms of the alliance.[9] These alliances were both reorganized and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, and the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria the Central Powers. Ultimately, more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history. More than 9 million combatants were killed, largely because of technological advancements that led to enormous increases in the lethality of weapons without corresponding improvements in protection or mobility, causing both sides to resort to large-scale human wave attacks, which proved extremely costly in terms of casualties. It was the fifth-deadliest conflict in world history, subsequently paving the way for various political changes, such as revolutions in many of the nations involved.
  144. 144. The First Red Scare was a period during the early 20th- century history of the United States marked by a widespread fear of Bolshevism (communism) and anarchism (anti-state). At its height in 1919–1920, concerns over the effects of radical political agitation in American society and the alleged spread of communism and anarchism in the American labor movement fueled a general sense of paranoia.
  145. 145. U.S. 1920-1933 Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, is the legal act of prohibiting the manufacture, transportation and sale of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. The term can also apply to the periods in the histories of the countries during which the prohibition of alcohol was enforced. Use of the term as applicable to a historical period is typically applied to countries of European culture.
  146. 146. The Roaring Twenties is a term sometimes used to refer to the 1920s, characterizing the decade's distinctive cultural edge in New York City, Chicago, Paris, Berlin, London, and many other major cities during a period of sustained economic prosperity. French speakers called it the "années folles" ("Crazy Years"), emphasizing the era's social, artistic, and cultural dynamism. "Normalcy" returned to politics in the wake of hyper-emotional patriotism during World War I, jazz music blossomed, the flapper redefined modern womanhood, and Art Deco peaked. Economically, the era saw the large-scale diffusion and use of automobiles, telephones, motion pictures, and electricity, unprecedented industrial growth, accelerated consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle and culture. The media focused on celebrities, especially sports heroes and movie stars, as cities rooted for their home team and filled the new palatial cinemas and gigantic stadiums. In most major countries women were given the right to vote for the first time. Finally the Wall Street Crash of 1929 ended the era, as the Great Depression set in worldwide, bringing years of worldwide gloom and hardship.
  147. 147. Flappers were a "new breed" of young Western women in the 1920s who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, listened to jazz, and flaunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior. Flappers were seen as brash for wearing excessive makeup, drinking, treating sex in a casual manner, smoking, driving automobiles, and otherwise flouting social and sexual norms. Flappers had their origins in the liberal period of the Roaring Twenties, the social, political turbulence and increased transatlantic cultural exchange that followed the end of World War I, as well as the export of American jazz culture to Europe.
  148. 148. The Jazz Age was a feature of the 1920s (ending with The Great Depression) when jazz music and dance became popular. This occurred particularly in the United States, but also in Britain, France and elsewhere. Jazz played a significant part in wider cultural changes during the period, and its influence on pop culture continued long afterwards.
  149. 149. The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in 1930 and lasted until the late 1930s or middle 1940s. It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century.
  150. 150. The Dust Bowl, or the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought combined with a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion.[1] Extensive deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains in the preceding decade had displaced the natural deep-rooted grasses that normally kept the soil in place and trapped moisture even during periods of drought and high winds. Rapid mechanization of farm implements, especially small gasoline tractors and widespread use of the combine harvester, were significant in the decisions to convert arid grassland (much of which received no more than 10 inches (250 mm) of precipitation per year) to cultivated cropland.
  151. 151. The New Deal was a series of domestic economic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They involved presidential executive orders or laws passed by Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were in response to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.
  152. 152. World War II 1939-1945 World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people serving in military units from over 30 different countries. In a state of "total war", the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust (1million Jews murdered in Auchwitz, Poland alone, 6 million in all) and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it resulted in an estimated 50 million to 85 million fatalities. These deaths make it likely that World War II is the deadliest conflict in human history.
  153. 153. The Second Great Migration was the migration of more than five million African Americans from the South to the North, Midwest and West. It took place from 1941, through World War II, and lasted until 1970. It was much larger and of a different character than the first Great Migration (1910–1940). Some historians prefer to distinguish between the movements for those reasons.
  154. 154. The Cold War, often dated from 1947 to 1991, was a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact. This began after the success of their temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. A neutral faction arose with the Non-Aligned Movement founded by Egypt, India, and Yugoslavia; this faction rejected association with either the US-led West or the Soviet-led East.
  155. 155. McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence. It also means "the practice of making unfair allegations or using unfair investigative techniques, especially in order to restrict dissent or political criticism."The term has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting roughly from 1950 to 1956 and characterized by heightened fears of communist influence on American institutions and espionage by Soviet agents. Originally coined to criticize the anti-communist pursuits of Republican U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin, "McCarthyism" soon took on a broader meaning, describing the excesses of similar efforts. The term is also now used more generally to describe reckless, unsubstantiated accusations, as well as demagogic attacks on the character or patriotism of political adversaries.
  156. 156. The Space Race was a mid-to-late 20th century competition between the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US) for supremacy in space exploration. Between 1957 and 1975, the Cold War rivalry between the two nations focused on attaining firsts in space exploration, which were seen as necessary for national security and symbolic of technological and ideological superiority. The Space Race involved pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites, sub-orbital and orbital human spaceflight around the Earth, and piloted voyages to the Moon. It effectively began with the Soviet launch of the Sputnik 1 artificial satellite on 4 October 1957, and concluded with the co-operative Apollo-Soyuz Test Project joint human spaceflight mission in July 1975. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project came to symbolize détente, a partial easing of strained relations between the USSR and the US. Apollo 15 first to walk on moon, Neil Armstrong.
  157. 157. Second-wave feminism is a period of feminist activity that first began in the early 1960s in the United States, and eventually spread throughout the Western world. In the United States the movement was initially called the Women's Liberation Movement and lasted through the early 1980s. It later became a worldwide movement that was strong in Europe and parts of Asia, such as Turkey and Israel, where it began in the 1980s, and it began at other times in other countries.
  158. 158. The Vietnam War, although in Vietnam this period of American involvement is known as the American War, also known as the Second Indochina War, was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam—supported by China and other communist allies—and the government of South Vietnam—supported by the United States and other anti-communist countries. The Viet Cong (also known as the National Liberation Front, or NLF), a lightly armed South Vietnamese communist common front directed by the North, largely fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region. The Vietnam People's Army (North Vietnamese Army) engaged in a more conventional war, at times committing large units into battle. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes.
  159. 159. The New Great Migration is the term for demographic changes from 1965 to the present which are a reversal of the previous 35-year trend of black migration within the United States. Since 1965, deindustrialization of cities in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, growth of jobs in the "New South" with lower costs of living, family and kinship ties, and improving racial relations have all acted to attract African Americans to the Southern United States in substantial numbers. As early as 1975-1980, seven southern states were net black migration gainers. African-American populations continue to drop throughout much of the Northeast, particularly with black emigration out of the state of New York, as well as out of Northern New Jersey, as they rise in the Southern United States.
  160. 160. Détente (meaning "relax") is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation. The term is often used in reference to the general easing of the geo- political tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States which began in 1971, as a foreign policy of U.S. presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford called détente; a 'thawing out' or 'un-freezing' at a period roughly in the middle of the Cold War.
  161. 161. The 1970s energy crisis was a period in which the economies of the major industrial countries of the world, particularly the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand were heavily affected and faced substantial petroleum shortages, real and perceived, as well as elevated prices. The two worst crises of this period were the 1973 oil crisis, caused by the US production peak in 1971, and the 1979 energy crisis, caused by the Iranian Revolution.
  162. 162. Ronald Wilson Reagan ( February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989). Before that, he was the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975), and a radio, film and television actor. As president, Reagan implemented sweeping new political and economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated reducing tax rates to spur economic growth, controlling the money supply to reduce inflation, deregulation of the economy, and reducing government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, took a hard line against labor unions, announced a new War on Drugs, and ordered an invasion of Grenada. He was re-elected in a landslide in 1984, proclaiming that it was "Morning in America". His second term was primarily marked by foreign matters, such as the ending of the Cold War, the 1986 bombing of Libya, and the revelation of the Iran–Contra affair.
  163. 163. The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
  164. 164. The dot-com bubble (also referred to as the dot-com boom, the Internet bubble and the information technology bubble was a historic speculative bubble covering roughly 1997–2000 (with a climax on March 10, 2000, with the NASDAQ peaking at 5408.60 in intraday trading before closing at 5048.62) during which stock markets in industrialized nations saw their equity value rise rapidly from growth in the Internet sector and related fields. While the latter part was a boom and bust cycle, the Internet boom is sometimes meant to refer to the steady commercial growth of the Internet with the advent of the World Wide Web, as exemplified by the first release of the Mosaic web browser in 1993, and continuing through the 1990s.
  165. 165. The United States housing bubble is an economic bubble affecting many parts of the United States housing market in over half of American states. Housing prices peaked in early 2006, started to decline in 2006 and 2007, and reached new lows in 2012. On December 30, 2008 the Case-Shiller home price index reported its largest price drop in its history. The credit crisis resulting from the bursting of the housing bubble is — according to "general consensus" — "the primary cause" of the 2007–2009 recession in the United States
  166. 166. The War on Terror (also known as the Global War on Terrorism) is a term commonly applied to an international military campaign which started as a result of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. This resulted in an international military campaign to eliminate al- Qaeda and other militant organizations. The United Kingdom and many other NATO and non-NATO nations participate in the conflict.
  167. 167. 1700 Rococo – Feminine, light hearted (Shabby Chic France) 1837-1901 Victorian – Queen Victoria England 1890-1910 Art Neuveaou – Nature, curved lines 1901-1910 Edwardian – King Edward son of Queen Victoria 1920 Art Deco - Geometric Architecture/Art Styles
  168. 168. Famous Paintings Birth of Venus Botticelli- Rennaisance 1485 Italy The Last Supper da Vinci – Realist 1498 Italy Mona Lisa da Vinci- Realist 1503 Italy The Creation of Adam Michelangelo- Rennaisance 1511 Italy Night Watch Rembrandt- Baroque 1642 Netherlands
  169. 169. Girl With the Pearl Earring Vermeer- Baroque 1665 Netherlands Bal du Moulin de la Galette Renoir - Impressionism 1881 France Starry Night Van Gogh- Post Impressionism 1889 Netherlands The Scream Munch – Modern Art 1893 Norway Water Lilies Monet - Impressionism 1920 Paris Guernica Picasso – Cubism 1937 Spain/Paris
  170. 170. Religions of The World 2010 U.S. Religion 2010European Religion 1900 2010
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