VERBAL TENSES From PAST to FUTURE MINING – ENGLISH UNPA / UASJ Compilation: Karina C. Corti O.
PASADO SIMPLE PASADO CONTINUO PRESENTE PERFECTO PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO PASADO PERFECTO GOING TO FOR THE FUTURE WILL
PASADO SIMPLE Utilizamos el PASADO SIMPLE cuando nos referirnos a actividades en un tiempo definido en el pasado. The Simple Past describes: An activity at a definite time in the past. The study of airbags was started last year. e.g.
Verbo TO BE VERBOS - PASADO I was You were He was She was It was We were You were They were “… All the results were then recorded into a database.” e.g.
- ed Existen dos tipos de verbos en el pasado simple, verbos REGULARES e IRREGULARES. A los verbos regulares se les agrega la terminación work work ed stay stay ed live liv ed brush brush ed start start ed dance danc ed <ul><li>Lee worked in a bank from 1989 to 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>Yesterday it rained all morning. It stopped at noon. </li></ul><ul><li>We enjoyed the party last night. We danced a lot and talked to a lot of people. The party ended at midnight. </li></ul>e.g.
Los verbos irregulares tienen una forma totalmente distinta. Begin Began Buy Bought Catch Caught Bring Brought Break Broke Come Came Drink Drank Do Did Cost Cost Eat Ate Fly flew Forget Forgot Find Found Fall Fell Get Got Have Had Go Went Give Gave Meet Met Read Read See Saw Put Put Pay Paid Sell Sold Write Wrote Take Took Speak Spoke
Did Usamos el auxiliar para las formas negativas e interrogativas. Base form Watch Clean Play Do Go Have Begin Positive WatchED CleanED PlayED DID WENT HAD BEGAN Negative I Watch We Clean You did not Play They (didn’t) Do He Go She Have It Begin Question I Watch…? We Clean…? You Play…? Did They Do…? He Go…? She Have…? It Begin…? <ul><li>I didn’t watch television yesterday . </li></ul><ul><li>Did she go out last night ? </li></ul>Did / didn’t + base form e.g.
Orden de las palabras en una pregunta… did + subject + base form Did Sue give you a birthday present? What did you do last night? How did the accident happen ? Where did your parents go on their vacation? Short answers I/we/you/they I/we/you/they Yes, she/he/it did . No, she/he/it didn’t . <ul><li>“ Did you see Joe yesterday?” “ No, I didn’t .” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Did Mary come to the party?” “ Yes, she did .” </li></ul>e.g.
PASADO CONTINUO Utilizamos el PASADO CONTINUO para actividades que nos sirven de marco temporal para otra actividad. The past continuous describes: An activity which is time frame for another activity. While we were studying the airbags, we made a significant discovery. While our team was studying performance, another team was looking at the characteristics. e.g.
Now it is 6:00. Ann is at home. At 4:00 she wasn’t at home. She was at the health club. She was playing tennis. 3:00 3:30 4:00 4:15 4:30 She began playing tennis. She was playing tennis. She stopped playing tennis.
Negative I He was not - ing She (wasn’t) It We You were not - ing They (weren’t) Verbo TO BE WAS WERE PARTICIPLE VERBO + -ING + STRUCTURE: Positive I He She was -ing It We You were -ing They Question I Was he - ing she it we Were you - ing they <ul><li>“ What were you do ing at 11.30 yesterday?” “I was work ing .” </li></ul><ul><li>It was rain ing , so we didn’t go out. </li></ul>e.g.
PRESENTE PERFECTO Utilizamos el PRESENTE PERFECTO para referirnos a una acción en el pasado con un resultado en el presente. Tambien lo utilizamos para describir una acción en el pasado sin una referencia específica de tiempo. I’ve lost my passport. (=I can’t find my passport now .) Our contractor has built a new supporting wall. e.g. e.g.
To Have + Participio pasado STRUCTURE: I wash ed We have (‘ ve ) arriv ed You have not ( haven’t ) done They been He bought She has (‘ s ) taken It has not ( hasn’t ) begun I wash ed ? Have we arriv ed ? you done ? they been ? he bought ? Has she taken ? it begun ? <ul><li>“ Have you been to France?” ( in your life) “No, I haven’t ” </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve been to Canada, but I haven’t been to the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Has Ann ever been to Hungary?” “No, never.” </li></ul>e.g.
Los verbos en el participio pasado pueden ser REGULARES o IRREGULARES REGULARES El pasado participio de estos verbos es - ED Wash Have washed Stop Have stopped Arrive Have arrived IRREGULARES En algunos casos es igual a la forma del pasado, en otras es diferente. Es la “tercer columna” The same : Lose Have lost Have Have had Make Have made Different : Do Have done Write Have written See Have seen
PASADO PERFECTO Utilizamos el Pasado Perfecto para referirnos de una acción que ocurrio antes que otra en el pasado. Sería el pasado del pasado. Sarah went to a party last week. Paul went to the party too but they didn’t see each other. Paul went home at 10.30 and Sarah arrived at 11 o’clock. When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul wasn’t there. He had gone home. e.g.
STRUCTURE: + gone I/we/they/you had (=I’d etc.) seen He/she/it (=he’d etc.) finished When we got home last night, we found that somebody had broken into the flat. HAD PASADO PARTICIPIO
Compare the PAST PERFECT (I HAD DONE) and PAST SIMPLE (I DID) <ul><li>“ Was Tom at the party when you arrived?” “No, he had already gone home.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Was Tom there when you arrived?” “Yes, but he went home soon afterwards.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ann wasn’t at home when I phoned. She was in London. </li></ul><ul><li>Ann had just got home when I phoned. She had been in London. </li></ul>But But
PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO Have + been + Verbo -ing Acciones que empezaron en el pasado y aún continua en el presente. We have been working on this project since last year. An activity which started in the past and continues to the present. e.g
“ GOING TO” PARA EL FUTURO Utilizamos am/is/are going to para referirnos al futuro “ When are we going to treat he first person?” “ GOING TO” señala que ya hemos decidido anteriormente el hacer algo, es nuestra intención hacer algo. <ul><li>“ I’m going to by some books tomorrow.” </li></ul><ul><li>Pam is going to sell her car. </li></ul>e.g. e.g.
STRUCTURE: I am do… He/she/it is (not) going to drink… We/you/they are watch… Am I buy…? Is he/she/it going to eat…? Are we/you/they wear…? I’m not going to have breakfast this morning. I’m not hungry. e.g. <ul><li>What are you going to wear to the party on Saturday? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you going to invite John to the party? </li></ul>e.g.
WILL (FUTURO) Utilizamos “Will” para referirnos al futuro, pero no a hechos planeados con antelación. She travels a lot. Today she is in New York. Tomorrow she’ ll be in Los Angeles. e.g.
STRUCTURE: Positive and Negative be I/we/you/they will (‘ll) win He/she/it will not (won’t) come eat Question be…? I/we/you/they win…? Will he/she/it come…? eat…? We’ll probably go out this evening. I won’t be here tomorrow. Will you work on Monday? Will Jack travel? e.g. e.g.