Appreciative Inquiry Strengths Based Development


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  • Appreciate – dictionary definition – valuing, the act of recognizing the best in people or the world around us, affirming strengths, giving life to living systems, to increase in value Inquire – dictionary definition – the act of exploring and discovery, to ask questions, seek and be open to new potentials Developed by David Cooperrider in the 1980s Commonly used as an organizational development strategy and in the implementation of organizational effectiveness tactics Way of asking questions and envisioning the future that fosters positive relationships and builds on the basic goodness in a person, approach, situation or organization Build organizations around what works – it’s the opposite of problem solving How to create more of exceptional performance Acknowledges the contribution of individuals, in order to increase trust and organizational alignment Assertion that problems are often the result of our own perspective, and that if we look at something as a ‘problem’ we tend to constrain our ability to effectively address a priority, issue, situation
  • Starting point for the process Data collected in this phase is the foundation Data is based on actual experiences, hence the objective reality – our experiences are real to us and can be repeated Life giving forces – are like values – what are the values on which Dovel is founded? Values are things like honesty, integrity, achievement, collaboration, etc What gives the organization vitality? As we discuss don’t hold back on positive contributions, ideas that come up, etc – we can parking lot ideas for the next few sessions Foundation for creating emerging strengths and possibilities Unqiue viewpoints and experiences are valued Can bring in ideas from past companies as well that can be re-used to bring success to Dovel What are the themes, values, etc that allow us to flourish? Eg. Cooperation, collaboration, etc Having gathered the data we’ll start to develop themes – we can organize these in whatever way we want – words on flip charts, pictures, symbols, etc
  • Building on the data we collected and the themes that are starting to emerge Combine this with the wishes for the future Continue to tell stories, and value input, to establish strong themes Continuing to develop the positive core of the organization No judgment – not about critiquing, but valuing Looking for life giving forces that give the organization success Building on positive themes Push the creative edges of what is possible, based on the best of what was, but not constrained by it Starting to build an opportunity map Creativity, commitment and enthusiasm
  • Originally this phase was called delivery and was based around action plans That’s important, but doesn’t go far enough – change to destiny to incorporate the idea not only of developing action plans for the future but to address implementing a culture shift toward the positive – building these competences for the future and into the fabric of the culture
  • Appreciative Inquiry Strengths Based Development

    1. 1. Appreciative Inquiry Strengths Based Organization Development Karen Davey-Winter “ Helping people reach their professional and personal potential…”
    2. 2. What is Appreciative Inquiry (AI)? <ul><li>AI is an organizational development process and philosophy that engages people at all levels in an organization to produce effective, long lasting, positive change </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by David Cooperrider and Suresh Srivastava in the 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the premise that organizations change based on the way they inquire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If an organization inquires into problems, more problems will be found </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If an organization tries to appreciate the best of itself, more and more of what is good will be discovered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technique for asking questions and envisioning the future that fosters positive relationships, building on the basic goodness of people and organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Used in combination with the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mergers and Acquisitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team building, Leadership development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding the strengths of the past and bringing them forward to effect positive change in the present and the future </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT about identifying weaknesses and solving problems!! </li></ul>
    3. 3. AI - Assumptions <ul><li>In every society, group or organization, something works </li></ul><ul><li>What we focus on becomes our reality </li></ul><ul><li>Reality is created in the moment and there are multiple realities </li></ul><ul><li>The act of asking questions of an organization or group influences the group in some way </li></ul><ul><li>People have more confidence and comfort to journey to the future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known) </li></ul><ul><li>If we carry parts of the past forward they should be what is best about the past </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to value differences </li></ul><ul><li>The language we use creates our reality </li></ul>
    4. 4. AI vs Traditional Problem Solving Approaches <ul><li>The questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What’s working? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s possible? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we do it? </li></ul><ul><li>The questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What’s wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we fix it? </li></ul>Metaphor: Organizations are mysteries to be embraced! Metaphor: Organizations are problems to be solved! <ul><li>Addresses Change </li></ul><ul><li>Answers/solutions created by the people in the system who collaboratively create the solution </li></ul><ul><li>All voices are heard </li></ul><ul><li>Change begins with the first question asked </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths-based, answers/solutions come from within the system and buy-in is obtained </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses Change </li></ul><ul><li>Answers/solutions may not address real issue or provide sustainable change </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the people that know the ‘answers’ are not asked </li></ul><ul><li>Problems may change </li></ul><ul><li>People are not part of the focus </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate what is (what gives life) </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine what might be </li></ul><ul><li>Determine what should be </li></ul><ul><li>Create what will be </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct Root Cause Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm Solutions and Analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Action Plans </li></ul>Appreciative Inquiry Problem Solving
    5. 5. 4-D Cycle Discovery “What gives life?” (the best of what is) Appreciating Dream “What might be?” (imagine what the world is calling for) Envisioning Design “How can it be?” (determining the ideal) Co-constructing Destiny “What will be?” (how to empower, learn and adjust/improvise) Sustaining
    6. 6. Discovery <ul><li>Answers the question – What gives life? </li></ul><ul><li>This is the data collection phase </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncover, learn about, and appreciate the best of ‘what is’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share stories of exceptional accomplishments in the organization to date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore ‘life giving’ forces – what gives the organization vitality? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify cultural values, the organization’s positive core </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data is obtained through the use of positive questions </li></ul><ul><li>Unique viewpoints and experiences are valued </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation for creating emerging strengths and possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Data is collated and themes start to emerge </li></ul>
    7. 7. Discovery – StrengthsFinder Assessment <ul><li>Strengthsfinder Assessment tool is used to identify strengths of the individuals in the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the principle that doing more of what people are good at will give a better result than trying to fix people’s weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>If you’re not using your strengths: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You have more negative than positive reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your treat your customers poorly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You achieve less on a daily basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You have less positive and creative moments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ strengths </li></ul><ul><li>No judgment comes with the strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Teams are usually strengthened by people having a variety of strengths </li></ul>
    8. 8. Dream <ul><li>Answers the question – what might be? </li></ul><ul><li>Build on positive themes that emerged from the Discovery Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize the future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the discoveries and start to imagine possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop visions for the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share the visions in groups and discuss in the context of positive stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build on the common themes identified in the Discovery Phase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observe and value the stories and themes, rather than critique, judge or analyze them </li></ul><ul><li>Start to refine the possibilities for the future of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Identify, channel and refine the positive core </li></ul><ul><li>Identify life giving forces to contribute to the future success of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Start to develop an opportunity map </li></ul>
    9. 9. Design <ul><li>Answers the question – how can it be? </li></ul><ul><li>Define the basic structure to allow the dream to become a reality </li></ul><ul><li>Develop social/organizational architecture, considering at least the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External and Internal Relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practices and principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision and purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop Provocative Propositions based on the dream phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This bridges the past with the present and the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes the basis of action plans to move to the preferred state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good appreciative designs address all three elements necessary for effective organizational change – continuity, novelty and transition </li></ul>
    10. 10. Destiny <ul><li>Answers the question – what will be? </li></ul><ul><li>Align the organizational visions from the Dream phase with the provocative propositions created in the Design phase </li></ul><ul><li>Refine the Opportunity Map </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalization of the Social Architecture and development of… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciating Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Build AI learning competencies into the culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push for Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagine possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think outside the box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New ways to look at the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appreciative learning cultures nurture innovative thinking, by creating the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A positive focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A sense of meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems that encourage collaboration </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Destiny <ul><li>AI can achieve remarkable results in the areas of productivity improvement, efficiency and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations with an appreciative culture have the following four kinds of competence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate positive possibilities through focusing on strengths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Celebrate members achievements as the source of the organizations vitality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansive Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge habits and conventional practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge people to stretch in new directions, go beyond prior limits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generative Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow staff to see the results of their actions, experience a sense of progress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inspire people’s best efforts, feeling of contributing to a meaningful purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create forums in which members engage in ongoing dialog and exchange of diverse perspectives to transform cultures and systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contribution of multiple perspectives, encourage continuous and active debate </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Appendix A – Uses of AI
    13. 13. Appreciative Inquiry and Strategic Planning <ul><li>The advantages of an AI approach to strategic planning are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows people to focus on the positive to crowd out the negative – typical SWOT analyses tend to over focus on the negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages people to think outside of the box through brainstorming creative ideas and identifying common positive themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtains input and buy in by making the process highly participative and collaborative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects the planning process to identified values, visions and strengths, creating a shared set of organizational values and visions for the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in a strategic plan that is a dynamic, continuous and living document </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Appreciative Inquiry for Mergers and Acquisitions <ul><li>The advantages of an AI approach for Mergers and Acquisitions are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technique to quickly identify the best of the two organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an environment to encourage positive dialog and collaborative visions for the future, rather than negativity that is sometimes associated with Mergers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages understanding of two different cultures, so that the organization can identify the core culture values with which to move forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides an environment in which the organization’s future definition can be defined, using the best of the past of both organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the senior leaders to understand each other’s individual strengths and how they can contribute to moving the organization forward </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Appreciative Inquiry and Team Building <ul><li>The advantages of an AI approach in team building are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows team members to understand each other’s individual strengths and how each person contributes to moving the organization forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows team members to find new ways to communicate based on a clearer understanding of what motivates others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a safe, positive environment in which team plans can be developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlights the team’s unique combination of talents – the team’s positive core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates the value of team working and how it gives life to your organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases trust, encouragement and pride in the team </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Appendix B – Organizations that have implemented AI
    17. 17. Who has implemented AI? <ul><li>American Red Cross </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used AI to create and implement ‘living values’ in the Values Project. Held multiple conventions across the organization – over 2000 involved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British Airways North America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created and sustained delivery of ‘Excellence in Customer Service” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cleveland Clinic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted a study of what made the clinic function successfully </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fairmont Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launched a Sustainable Development Summit that created a vision and plan for people, profits and planet – design of the organization’s purpose and principles in day to day operations, products, services and employee’s personal lives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GTE (now Verizon) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Received the Best Organization Change Award from the American Society of Training and Development, 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>McDonald’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied AI in HR and became among the best in each community around the world by putting ‘People First’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NASA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a strategic plan for its OHR division to align with larger NASA division resulting in a more inclusive, participative culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US Navy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AI summit that brought together more than 250 admirals and sailors at all levels. Created 30 projects to support the vision. A film was created of the event, and AI summits continue across the Navy </li></ul></ul>