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<ul><li>Becoming bilingual is a way of life: </li></ul><ul><li>A new language </li></ul><ul><li>A new culture  </li></ul><...
HOW CHILDREN LEARN LANGUAGES
<ul><li>Natural phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Begins almost at birth (noises /cries) </li></ul><ul><li>By the age of 3 or 4...
<ul><li>Oral communication characterizes all human beings (except for those suffering severe congenital disability) </li><...
<ul><li>STAGES THROUGH WHICH CHILDREN PASS IN THE PROCESS OF ACQUIRING THEIR MOTHER TONGUE </li></ul>
<ul><li>THE PRELINGUISTIC STAGE </li></ul><ul><li>From birth to around 8 months </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneously acquire th...
<ul><li>SECOND YEAR </li></ul><ul><li>Genuine communication </li></ul><ul><li>It isn’t a simple process of imitation (repe...
<ul><li>THIRD AND FOURTH YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>Process of acquisition develops and becomes richer </li></ul><ul><li>Peri...
<ul><li>SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORIES </li></ul>
<ul><li>THE BEHAVIORIST </li></ul><ul><li>VIEW </li></ul><ul><li>FLL consists of learners imitating what they hear and dev...
<ul><li>&quot;Positive transfer&quot; is a result of similarities between the L1 and the L2, because habits used in the L1...
<ul><li>THE COGNITIVE  </li></ul><ul><li>VIEW </li></ul><ul><li>FL learners use their skills of cognition in order to figu...
<ul><li>Learners benefit from their mistakes because they are playing an active role in the FLL process and learning first...
<ul><li>THE CRITICAL PERIOD HYPOTHESIS   </li></ul><ul><li>There is a period in a person's life in which he must learn a l...
 
<ul><li>Since approximately two years of age until the time in which she was found she had received very little language i...
<ul><li>FLL should occur before puberty for best results. If there is a critical period for learning a L1 then the same wo...
<ul><li>NEUROLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Lateralization of the brain: as the human brain matures certain fun...
<ul><li>Left hemisphere: intellectual, logical, analytic functions </li></ul><ul><li>Right hemisphere: emotional and socia...
<ul><li>THE NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS </li></ul><ul><li>Language acquisition occurs in a predictable, universal order, and ...
<ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>A few grammatical errors have actually been analyzed.  </li></ul><ul><li>With all the ...
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Didactica first and second_language_acquisition

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Transcript of "Didactica first and second_language_acquisition"

  1. 1. <ul><li>Becoming bilingual is a way of life: </li></ul><ul><li>A new language </li></ul><ul><li>A new culture </li></ul><ul><li>A new way of thinking, feeling and acting </li></ul>
  2. 2. HOW CHILDREN LEARN LANGUAGES
  3. 3. <ul><li>Natural phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Begins almost at birth (noises /cries) </li></ul><ul><li>By the age of 3 or 4 children master the essential language to communicate meaningfully </li></ul>FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION :
  4. 4. <ul><li>Oral communication characterizes all human beings (except for those suffering severe congenital disability) </li></ul><ul><li>There aren’t languages that are more difficult than others </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition isn’t linked to intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>A favourable human environment, provided by the family, is a condition of natural acquisition of language </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>STAGES THROUGH WHICH CHILDREN PASS IN THE PROCESS OF ACQUIRING THEIR MOTHER TONGUE </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>THE PRELINGUISTIC STAGE </li></ul><ul><li>From birth to around 8 months </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneously acquire the use of the auditory and phonatory mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Can hear and produce non- symbolic noises and sounds </li></ul><ul><li>THE PRODUCTION OF THE FIRST WORD </li></ul><ul><li>About 11 months </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolizes something for him/her </li></ul><ul><li>Put names (in their own fashion) to objects and people </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>SECOND YEAR </li></ul><ul><li>Genuine communication </li></ul><ul><li>It isn’t a simple process of imitation (repeat what they hear) </li></ul><ul><li>They create sounds which are given validity by the reaction of those around them </li></ul><ul><li>EIGHTEEN MONTHS – TWO YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>Enter a syntactic phase of acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Two words (groups of sounds which have meaning) are brought together in order to create a new meaning out of the union </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>THIRD AND FOURTH YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>Process of acquisition develops and becomes richer </li></ul><ul><li>Period of creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Facility for auditory discrimination and for imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Construct the grammatical system (with the encouragement and guidance of adults) </li></ul><ul><li>SCHOOL </li></ul><ul><li>Reading and writing </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORIES </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>THE BEHAVIORIST </li></ul><ul><li>VIEW </li></ul><ul><li>FLL consists of learners imitating what they hear and developing habits in the FL by routine practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners relate what they know of their L1 to what they recognize in the L2. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>&quot;Positive transfer&quot; is a result of similarities between the L1 and the L2, because habits used in the L1 easily transfer to the L2. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Negative transfer” is caused by differences between the L1 and the L2, because errors result from using habits from the L1 in the L2. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation does not help the learner in real-life situations. Learners need to form sentences they have never seen or heard. A finite number of pre-practiced sentences is not enough to carry on conversation. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>THE COGNITIVE </li></ul><ul><li>VIEW </li></ul><ul><li>FL learners use their skills of cognition in order to figure out the L2 on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>They notice a pattern and construct their own rules accordingly, then go back and change the rules if they are faulty. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Learners benefit from their mistakes because they are playing an active role in the FLL process and learning first-hand how the language works. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>It is not always possible to deduce what the FL learner means to say, and therefore the error cannot be clearly determined. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>THE CRITICAL PERIOD HYPOTHESIS </li></ul><ul><li>There is a period in a person's life in which he must learn a language, or else language acquisition becomes impossible. </li></ul><ul><li>The basis for this hypothesis is that by puberty the brain is already fully developed and afterwards language acquisition becomes extremely difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Genie a 13 1/2 years old girl was found living in conditions of extreme neglect and isolation </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Since approximately two years of age until the time in which she was found she had received very little language interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Genie&quot; was eventually able to learn a limited vocabulary, but was never able to grasp on to language as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>However, some argue that this evidence does not necessarily support the critical period hypothesis because she may have an overall low IQ. In this case, her inability to master a L1 may reflect cognition and not language acquisition at all. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>FLL should occur before puberty for best results. If there is a critical period for learning a L1 then the same would apply to acquiring a L2. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies have shown that before the brain is fully developed a L2 can be learned more easily than afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>However, many people have been able to master the syntax and vocabulary of a FL after puberty. </li></ul><ul><li>The only conclusive evidence for the critical period hypothesis with regards to FLL is phonology. Learners who have shown great ability to acquire a L2 have not been able to overcome their foreign accents. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>NEUROLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Lateralization of the brain: as the human brain matures certain functions are assigned or “lateralized” </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Left hemisphere: intellectual, logical, analytic functions </li></ul><ul><li>Right hemisphere: emotional and social needs </li></ul><ul><li>Language functions: controlled in the left hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>Lateralization: slow process that begins around the age of 2 and is completed around puberty </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>THE NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS </li></ul><ul><li>Language acquisition occurs in a predictable, universal order, and it is the same for the learning both a L1 and a L2. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies have shown that different learners of English as a L2 make similar errors regardless from which linguistic background they come. Some of these errors resemble the errors most often made by children when learning their native languages. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>A few grammatical errors have actually been analyzed. </li></ul><ul><li>With all the different languages that exist in the world, only a small percentage have been, or could be, thoroughly studied. </li></ul>
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