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To Bind Up The Nations Wounds

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Activities of Quakers (Friends) during the Reconstruction period of American history.

Activities of Quakers (Friends) during the Reconstruction period of American history.

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  • 1. “ To Bind Up the Nation’s Wounds ” The Quakers and Reconstruction, 1865 ~ 1877 and Beyond The 6th Annual Quaker Genealogy & History Conference Saturday, April 10th, 2010 at Kelly Center , Wilmington College & Wilmington Friends Meeting
  • 2. Research Report By Karen S. Campbell Sponsored by ~ The Quaker Heritage Center of Wilmington College ~ Watson Library , Wilmington College ~ The Clinton County Genealogy Society ~Clinton County Bicentennial ~Southwest Ohio Research
  • 3.
    • Divided Houses :
      • The Nation after the Civil War
      • Protestant Churches of America
      • The Society of Friends
    • Reconstructions :
      • The South & Freedmen & women
      • Churches & Theology
      • The Society of Friends
    Are we still divided today?
  • 4. “ Therefore you are to be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect. ” ~ Matthew 5:48 PURITY/PERFECTION & SANCTIFICATION/HOLINESS
  • 5. Just as the Quakers had experienced their own “ house divided ” by schisms caused by theological controversies during the a ntebellum and Civil War eras, Friends during and after the Civil War were trying to “ bind up their wounds ” by seeking to regain, renew, or revive the purity and enthusiasm of the earliest members of The Society of Friends . The Society was trying in general to move beyond the “ Quietism ” that had defined Friends for over a century as a sectarian group that had consciously excluded itself from the American Protestant milieu to maintain its purity. Evangelical Quaker leaders adopted and adapted Evangelical methods to break out of what they saw as the spiritual malaise and sectarian and moribund traditionalism of “ Quietism. ”
  • 6. http://www.quakerjane.com/spirit.friends/plain_dress-plainquakers.html ~ Quaker Jane Website (Conservative Friends) Plain Dress Plain Speech Plain Meetinghouses Guarded Quaker Primary and Secondary Education Plain Speech
  • 7.  
  • 8. jump the sectarian hedge before the Civil War . Both the Orthodox and the Hicksite Quakers
  • 9. Explosion of Diversity Hicksites Orthodox Gurneyite Wilburite Renewalists Revivalists Pentacostalists Maulites Knollites Conservatives Progressive Quakers Anti-slavery Quakers Antebellum Period During and after the Civil War
  • 10.
    • The Desire for Purity ~ Sinlessness (Holiness)
    • Strive for the perfection of God ~ Be Christ-like
    • Signs of perfection:
    • Unity in the Spirit
    • Good Order
    • Obedience
    • Peace
    • Ecstasy/Intensity 0f the Spirit (Enthusiasm)
    • Similarity of community to Jerusalem Church
  • 11. “ Diversity ” is generally thought of as being a lack of religious “ Unity .” The schisms and divisions within Quakerism reflect a need for reformation/forgiveness/reconstruction. Many Quaker men fought in the Civil War . Many Quakers ignored the Peace Testimony . They need reconciliation with their individual meetings and families. Other veterans of the war struggle with the wages of violence and are looking for individual purity, too. The horror of the Civil War destroys an age of innocence for many Americans. How can we be forgiven? How can we be sinless (innocent) again? How can we be holy? How can we be enthusiastic again?
  • 12. EVANGELICAL ORTHODOX FRIENDS For while we were still weak, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. Indeed, rarely will anyone die for a righteous person ~ though perhaps for a good person someone might actually dare to die. But God proves his love for us in that while we still were sinners Christ died for us Much more surely then, now that we have been justified by his blood, will we be saved through him from the wrath of God. For if while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his son, much more surely, having been reconciled will we be saved by his life. But more than that, we even boast in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation. Romans 5: 6-11 ( NRSV )
  • 13. The great theological difference between Orthodox and Hicksite Quakers is over the nature of the Atonement of Christ . The Orthodox Quakers stressed the sacrifice of Christ and the shedding of his blood for the forgiveness of sins. Consequently, they became known as “ Orthodox ” since they accepted the orthodox reformation understanding of the Atonement . The religious landscape in American becomes divided between the Evangelical churches, which will also include the Orthodox/Gurneyite Quakers, versus the more liberal Unitarians, Universalists, spiritualists and Hicksite Quakers. Propitiatory and efficacious ~ Christ’s act of atonement is able to produce the desired result; (efficacy). His death on the cross has the efficacy, the power, to produce the desired salvation.
  • 14. The Quakers were not direct participants in the first two Great Awakening revivals in America although Orthodox Friends were influenced by the British evangelicalism of Joseph John Gurney. The Second Great Awakening in America was one, however, of the catalysts that pushed Quakers to move away from their secluded sectarianism. Friends, however, will be directly involved in the third Great Awakening known as the Great Lay Awakening of 1857-1859.
  • 15. THE GREAT CHANNEL OF GRACE ~ THE CRUCIFIED CHRIST Through what channel is this supernatural influence bestowed upon the children of men? The answer of Holy Scripture to this question is equally clear. It is bestowed upon the children of men, through the channel of Jesus Christ, and him crucified. O, friends, can any person in the present day dare to insinuate, that we as a religious people, and that our forefathers in the truth, ever denied or doubted the doctrine of Jesus Christ, and him crucified; when we are in possession of abundant evidence, that in this Society from its first rise to the present day, the gift of the Holy Ghost was always ascribed to the free mercy of God our Father through Jesus Christ, and him crucified, and was always held to be in consequence of the propitiatory death and sacrifice of the Lord Jesus Christ without the gates of Jerusalem? You know, friends, that this principle of our faith is as clear as the day. For we do believe, not only that Christ died on the cross for the sins of all man- kind that we, poor guilty, wretched, lost sinners might have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, and that he was thus wounded for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities,--but this people have always held that it was in virtue of this propitiatory death and sacrifice of our Lord Jesus Christ, that we obtained the blessed gift of the influence of the Holy Spirit; that our Lord Jesus Christ led captivity captive, and received gifts for men, even for the rebellious also, that the word God might dwell among them. And therefore, friends, the testimony of Scripture is abundantly clear, both as to the origin of this influence, as flowing from God himself, the fountain of all good, and as to the appointed channel through which it flows, as well as respecting the nature and character of the influence itself. ~ Joseph John Gurney (A Sermon and Delivered by JOSEPH JOHN GURNEY, at the North Meetinghouse, New Street (Philadelphia) First-day Afternoon, Second Month, Eighteenth, 1838).
  • 16. HOW TO REGAIN/RECONSTURCT THE PURITY/THE HOLINESS OF THE FIRST GENERATION OF QUAKERS ? 1827-1828 ~ The Hicksite Separation divides Quakers in the United States . Both Orthodox and Hicksite Quakers turn to the Bible as an outward “ authority ” to defend their theological positions. However, the Orthodox-Gurneyites take the lead in promoting Bible Studies and view Scripture as the infallible source of Revelation. British Friend John Joseph Gurney becomes a leading Biblical scholar. His cousin, Hanna Chapman Backhouse along with Eliza P. Kirkbride traveled in the U. S. holding “ Bible meetings .” In Indiana Mrs. Backhouse creates weekly gatherings to read and commit to memory the Scripture. American Friend Eliza P. Kirkbride will later marry John Joseph Gurney becoming his third wife. October 21st, 1836 ~ American Friend Eliza P. Kirkbride married Joseph John Gurney in Darlington, Great Britain. She would later, when a widow, visit Abraham Lincoln in the White House during the Civil War .
  • 17. American Friend, Eliza P. Gurney , Joseph John Gurneys third wife, in the center, seated between the Gurney children. Joseph John Gurney is standing behind her. Joseph John Gurney was a brother of the famous Elizabeth Fry of Prison Reform fame.
  • 18. THE GURNEY TOUR OF THE AMERICAS ~ EVERYTHING CHANGES 1837-1840 ~ Only after a contentious debate did London Yearly Meeting endorse Joseph John Gurney’s minute to visit the United States. A four year tour of Canada, the United States, and West Indies is made by Gurney.  During his visit, he conducted two religious ceremonies in the House of Representatives .  He addressed a joint session of Congress and corresponded with Abraham Lincoln ( The Christian Herald , July, 1865, pp 24-7).  He met with President Martin Van Buren at least four times.  He also met with Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster, John Quincy Adams, Roger B. Taney, and Rev. William Ellery Channing.  Quietist, John Wilbur followed him in his U. S. journeys and the subsequent debate divided Orthodox Friends into “ Gurneyites ” and “ Wilburites .”
  • 19. Some Works of Joseph John Gurney Notes on a Visit made to Some of the Prisons in Scotland and the North of England (1819) Observations on the Religious Peculiarities of the Society of Friends (1824) Essays on the Evidences, Doctrines and Practical Operations of Christianity (1825) Brief Remarks on the History, the Authority, and the Use of the Sabbath  Biblical Notes to confirm the Deity of Christ (1830) A Peculiar People   History, Authority and Use of the Sabbath , (1831) Memoir of Joseph John Gurney The Moral Character of Jesus Christ (1832)
  • 20. Biblical Notes and Dissertations Chiefly Intended to Confirm and Illustrate the Doctrine of the Deity of Christ; With Some Remarks on the Practical Importance of That Doctrine (1833) Hints on the Portable Evidence of Christianity   (1833) Reminiscences Of Chalmers, Simeon, Wilberforce, Etc. (1833) Prove All Things, Hold Fast to that Which is God   (1833) Letter to a Clerical Friends on the Accordance of Geological Discovery with Natural and Revealed Religion (1835) Sabbatical Verses (1837) Familiar Sketch of William Wilberforce (1838) Sermons and Prayers, Delivered in the City of Philadelphia (1838) Brief Remarks on Impartiality in the Interpretation of Scripture   (1840) A Winter in the West Indies (1840)  ( Familiar Letters to Henry Clay of Kentucky; Describing a Winter in the West Indies )
  • 21. Religion and the New Testament (1843) Brief Memoirs of Thomas Fowell Buxton and Elizabeth Fry (1845) Action Of The Several Yearly Meetings Of Friends: Relative To The Secession From New England Yearly Meeting (1846) A Letter to the Followers of Elias Hicks, in the City of Baltimore and Its Vicinity   (1840) A Journey in North America      (1841)  Chalmeriana : Or Colloguies with Dr. Chalmers   (1853) Thoughts on Habit and Discipline  (1857) Observations on the Distinguishing Views and Practices of the Society of Friends Four Lectures On The Evidences Of Christianity:  Delivered to the Junior Members of the Society of Friends Substance of an Address, on the Right Use and Application of Knowledge
  • 22.  
  • 23. An indication of Joseph John Gurney's popularity is found in the production of J. J. Gurney Staffordshire earthenware figures, such as the one at the left, after his death.  Longton Hall porcelain factory (1847) Norwich Castle
  • 24. John Wesley and Wesleyan Sanctification Around 1850 ~ The Methodist Episcopal Church , which has become well established in the American Protestant culture, begins to de-emphasize John Wesley’s popular revival teaching that the experience at conversion was only an “ imperfect regeneration ,” required a subsequent special work of the Holy Spirit to complete the salvific process, “ sanctification .” Other groups, however, have already begun to proclaim interest in “ the higher life. ” One was the Orthodox/Gurneyite Quakers. Evangelical Quakers first turned towards accepting the John Wesley belief in “ sanctification ” that would eradicate sin within the believer (sanctified once and forever).
  • 25. OTHER EVANGELICAL INFLUENCES ON THE QUAKERS 1835 ~ Sarah Worrall Lankford and her sister Phoebe Palmer in New York begin a series of home-prayer meetings with the purpose of seeking a perfect holiness. Their group will later develop into “ The Tuesday Meeting for the Promotion of Holiness. ” Phoebe Palmer and her sister had a Quaker background. Phoebe’s husband had a Presbyterian background. In 1836 Phoebe begins to explain about a second experience, the “ Baptism of the Spirit .”
  • 26. 1836 ~ Charles Finney lectures on holiness in New York City. It is Finney who makes the connection clear between “ baptism in the Spirit ” and the concept of “ Sanctification .” Finney, an evangelist, and Asa Mahan, the president of Oberlin College , will define the “ Oberlin Theology ,” a special understanding of “ Sanctification .” Mahan experiences what he describes as a baptism with the Holy Ghost. He believes that this experience cleanses him from the desire and inclination to sin. Finney believed that this experience could be the solution to a problem he observed during his evangelistic revivals. Some people claimed to experience conversion, but then back sliding into their old ways of living. Finney believed that the filling with the Holy Spirit could help these converts to continue steadfast in their Christian life.
  • 27. 1858 ~ Hannah Tatum Whitall Smith (1832-1911) (right) and her husband Robert Pearsall Smith were birthright Quakers who experience a conversion in 1858 and left the Quakers in 1873. They were influenced by the Plymouth Brethren, the Methodist Revivalists, and accepted the Wesleyan doctrine of Sanctification. They are also influenced by William E. Boardman who grooms them to be speakers in the Holiness Movement. 1870 ~ Hannah Whitall Smith publishes her widely popular book The Christian’s Secret of a Happy Life, a guide to Holiness Theology .
  • 28. Orthodox/Gurneyite Renewal Grows in Importance 1850-1860 A large number of Bible schools, tract-reading meetings, and social circles for young Friends thrive in Indiana Yearly Meeting ( Gurneyite ). Gurneyite Quakers are reaching out more to non-Quakers, especially Methodists. Renewal oriented Orthodox/Gurneyite Quakers become very active in the Union Sunday School Movement with other like-minded Evangelicals. Gurneyite Quakers also are joining Temperance Societies where they also cooperate with other Evangelicals.
  • 29. THE NATIONAL “ LAY ” AWAKENING ALSO KNOWN AS THE THIRD GREAT AWAKENING, 1857-1859 Revivals break out in Canada due to the ministry of Phoebe Palmer’s ministry. A new wave of lay-managed Methodist revivalism in New York City and other Northeast cities influences the Gurneyite/Orthodox communities as well as other Protestant denominations. Young Quakers are especially attracted to the spiritual enthusiasm of the revivals because the old Quietist ways had made Friends’ meetings moribund. The characteristics of Third Awakening revivalism are more “ Quakerly ” in nature with less emotionalism, fanaticism, and less direct clerical control. The movement was also known as the National “ Lay Awakening .” It incorporated the “ new method ” of preaching, hymn singing, “ mourners’ benches ,” etc. established by Charles Finney of Oberlin College . The Third Awakening began in Massachusetts and Connecticut. It has been estimated that half a million people joined a church in the U.S. during the revival. The reform Orthodox Quakers, however, avoided any extremes of enthusiasm often associated with these techniques.
  • 30. October 7th, 1860 ~ Friends Charles F. and Rhoda M. Coffin coordinate the first evening prayer meeting in order to effect a “renewal” of Quakerism during Indiana Yearly Meeting (Gurneyite) in the “old Whitewater Meetinghouse.” Charles succeeded his father Elijah Coffin as the Clerk of Indiana Yearly Meeting (Gurneyite) in 1858. Rhoda Coffin was also an effective evangelist and reformer. Rhoda Coffin (right) will found the Indiana Prison for Woman and Girls Reformatory in Indianapolis. She believes in reform for these women and girls through Christian conversion, education, and work programs. Both Charles and Rhoda were strongly for the Evangelical renewal but will avoid the extremes of the Quaker Holiness Revival. A group of young Friends who were seeking a place to share their spiritual experiences met at the Charles Coffin’s house. They were Harriet Steer, John Henry Douglas, Murray Shipley, Dr. David Judkins, as well as Charles Coffin’s parents, Mr. and Mrs. Elijah Coffin. The group decided to request from the yearly meeting permission to hold a meeting for worship especially for younger Friends who usually didn’t speak during First Day meeting for worship. It has been estimated that this evening meeting for worship on October 7th during Yearly Meeting was attended by one to two thousand young Friends. There were heart-felt testimonies, prayers, confessions, yearnings. Present were two brothers, John Henry Douglas and David Douglas from Wilmington, Ohio, and David B. Updegraff.
  • 31. Charles F. Coffin wrote of the meeting: “ The old Meeting House, crowded with people, and dim with lighted lamps, was a weird, strange sight. Never before was such a sight seen in a Friends’ Meeting House. There was even a pathetic attempt to sing a hymn; but even this unheard of procedure failed to check the meeting. The conservative element was horrified, but the matter was in greater hands than theirs and though they were outraged they were helpless ” ( Charles Coffin, A Quaker Pioneer , compilers Mary Coffin Johnson and Perceval Coffin [New York: Crofton Books, 1910], p. 11 The participants will continue to meet. These meetings will eventually become the Eighth Street Friends Meeting in Richmond, Indiana.
  • 32. January of 1862 ~ A revival at Bangor, Iowa. There were at least 209 prayers, testimonies, and two spontaneous solos. The revival meetings were characterized by emotionalism and the promotion of a holiness theology at variance with traditional Friends teaching. Eventually Quaker conservatives will break off from the Gurneyite revivalists and founded Iowa Yearly Meeting ( Conservative ). The Friends Meeting in Bangor, Iowa, after the Civil War, was almost exclusively drawn from the Chester Meeting of Friends in Clinton, County, Ohio.
  • 33. NATHAN AND ESTHER FRAME
  • 34. 1863 ~ Nathan T. Frame and Esther G. Gordon Frame join the Society of Friends ( Gurneyite ), Salem Monthly Meeting in Iowa. Quaker revivalist preacher Luke Woodard claims that he encouraged Esther to become a Quaker and take her vocation seriously: While engaged in this visit I met with Esther G. Frame at her father's in Salem, Iowa. She was at that time young, gaily dressed, and apparently not very religious, and was not a member of our church. In an interview with her I told her I believed it was the will of God that she should join the Friends Church and preach the Gospel. She promised she would. Not long after this she applied for membership, and began speaking in meeting, and was in a few years officially recognized as a minister of the Gospel, and has been extensively engaged as an evangelist. Her husband also united with the Friends Church, became a minister, and has been associated with his wife in evangelistic work ( Sketches of a Life of Seventy-Five in Three Parts: Biographical, Historical, and Descriptive by Luke Woodard [Richmond, Indiana: Nicholson Printing & Mfg. Company, 19o7], p . 12).
  • 35.  
  • 36. Their home in Jamestown, Ohio
  • 37. The graves of Esther G. Frame (1840-1920) & Nathan T. Frame (1835-1914) Old Silvercreek Cemetery at Limestone St. (Rte. 72) & S. Sycamore) Jamestown, Greene County, Ohio
  • 38. Autumn of 1867 ~ Revivals at Walnut Ridge, Rush County, Indiana and Bear Creek, Iowa are the first manifestations of Quaker “ general meetings, ” sometimes called “ protracted meetings, ” becoming revivals. The revival at Walnut Ridge was a “ Union ” meeting which started at Methodist prayer meetings attended by a few young Friends. The revival was moved to Gilboa Methodist Church . Eventually, Walnut Ridge Meetinghouse was also opened for meetings which also had great manifestations of the Spirit. In early 1868 similar revival activity happen in nearby Raysville and Spiceland meetings. “ Jane Jones may honorably claim to have been the first minister in the Society of Friends in America, in later times prominently associated with "the first series of revival meetings among Friends," though she was not responsible, so far as appears, for the ranterism that occurred in the meetings among the few who were led away by this error. While this dear devoted minister of the Lord stood by the work in the midst of the severe criticism that came upon her from many sources, she counseled moderation and forbearance among all, and had her counsel been heeded many more precious souls would have been saved that were not.” ~ Esther Frame
  • 39. During the 1870s ~ Friends begin to abandon the traditional Quaker meetinghouse style; the rectangular long buildings with a double entrance. By the 1890s Mid-western Evangelical Friends have abandoned “ facing benches ” and the dividing screen between women’s and men’s business meetings. They adapt the architectural styles of other Evangelical churches. Evangelical Friends are cooperating with other Evangelical churches and holding both Union services and Union Sunday School meetings. Wilmington Friends ~ 1896 Oregon Yearly Meeting ~ 1892-1893 Newberg Friends Meeting
  • 40.  
  • 41. January 17th, 1870 – April 12th, 1870 ~ The Wilmington Revivals ~ These revivals were spontaneous and not sanctioned by the Yearly, Quarterly or Monthly Meetings. John Henry Douglas, consequently, was reluctant at first to preach at a “ General Meeting ” even though he had been asked to do just that. John Henry Douglas was in Wilmington due to the death of his nephew George, the son of Robert W. Douglas. He had come from New Vienna. Due to floods he was unable to return home. He gave the dedication speech at the Main School and then announced that there was to be an open meeting that evening at Clinton Hall , a public meeting of confession. The remaining revival meetings were held in Preston Hall , located behind the county courthouse. After the rains ended and bridges were repaired, Esther and Nathan Frame came to Wilmington to assist in the revivals. Every household and every business in Wilmington were visited by the evangelists. .At the age of 45, Colonel Azariah Doan, a Quaker who had fought in the Civil War , responded publicly to the revival preaching of and olive branch offered by Quaker minister and revivalist John Henry Douglas, who at the dedication of the new Main School building had honored those who built the new school, including those who had been disowned by the Meeting for participation in the Civil War .
  • 42.  
  • 43. 1870 ~ A three month long revival conducted by John Henry and Robert W. Douglas and Esther and Nathan Frame in the town hall of Wilmington, Ohio leads to the decision to purchase the partially built and insolvent Franklin College from the Christian Church . Franklin College was located on the old county fairgrounds. It will be completed and finally established as Wilmington College .
  • 44. An Introduction to Others Involved in the Early Quaker Renewal: August 23rd, 1830 ~ David Brainerd Updegraff is born in Mt. Pleasant, Ohio. He will become a highly influential extreme-evangelical/ Holiness fundamentalist revivalist among Friends. He said of himself: “ I was born a Quaker, received converting grace among that people, experienced entire sanctification among the Methodists, married a Presbyterian, and was baptized by a Baptist minister .” November 11th, 1834 ~ Quaker Evangelist Robert W. Douglas is born in Maine. He is the brother of Quaker Revivalist John Henry Douglas. In 1864 Robert W. Douglas becomes a recorded minister at Clear Creek Monthly (Samantha) Meeting in Clinton County, Ohio. Many believe that Robert W. Douglas became the first paid minister in Quakerism. He is thought to be the first Quaker minister to conduct a marriage ceremony in 1868. He becomes the pastor of Wilmington Monthly Meeting . While at Wilmington, R. W. Douglas made two trips to England to talk about the Peace Testimony of Friends. He also traveled to New Zealand and Australia.
  • 45. John Henry Douglas November 27th, 1832 ~ Quaker Evangelist John Henry Douglas (1832-1919) is born in Fairfield, Maine. Educated at St. Albans and at Hartland Academy in his native State, and later spending three years at the Friends’ School at Providence, Rhode Island. 1850 ~ During a storm at sea traveling from Maine to New York, he has a conversion experience and promises to live a Christian life. 1851 ~ John Henry Douglas visits Springfield Monthly Meeting in Clinton County, Ohio for the first time. This is before the Douglas family moved from the East to Bloomington, Ohio. John Henry stays with his cousin John N. Douglas for a year Left: Springfield Meeting in 1851
  • 46. 1853 ~ The David and Chloe Douglas family, which includes the two brothers John Henry Douglas and Robert W. Douglas and their sister Enice, move to Bloomington, Ohio. April 23rd, 1856 ~ John Henry Douglas marries Miriam Carter. August 11th, 1857 ~ J. Walter Malone is born in Clermont County. He grows up in New Vienna, Ohio, the center of the revival activities of the John Henry Douglas and the Esther and Nathan Frame. 1858 ~ John Henry Douglas becomes a recorded Quaker minister on the recommen-dation of Dover Monthly Meeting , Clinton County, Ohio. 1860s ~ John Henry Douglas is ready to preach in support of revival and the transformation of the Society of Friends . During the Civil War , John Henry continues preaching and visits most of the Yearly Meetings in America. John Henry and Eli Harvey (son of William Harvey of Springfield Monthly Meeting in Clinton County, Ohio) will hold evangelical meetings from New England to Iowa. It is known that John Henry Douglas was at a certain point a recognized minister of Springfield Meeting. 1863 ~ John Henry Douglas and his brother Robert and their wives move from Bloomington to New Vienna, Ohio.
  • 47. 1865 ~ After the end of the war ~ Friend Rebecca Collins of New York is the first American Friend to travel to Britain after the war in July. Many will follow after her. Traveling ministers traveled both ways. Two British traveling ministers, Bevan Braithwaite and Joseph Crosfield sail to New York in September. Many will follow after them. British Quaker periodicals are taking notice of the reforms taking place in Midwestern American. Most British Quakers are surprised by the ministry of John Henry Douglas which seems to them to be so emotional, with what appears as pre-prepared remarks. British Friends, although for temperance, are surprised by the American Friends’ vehement stand on absolute abstinence from alcohol. 1866-1867 ~ Quaker revivalist John Henry Douglas travels to Europe and visits England, Ireland, France, Norway, Sweden, Italy, and Germany.
  • 48. 1868 ~ John Henry Douglas is appointed Secretary of the Peace Association of Friends . 1869 ~ The first two approved (by Indiana Yearly Meeting , Fairfield Quarterly Meeting and Clear Creek Monthly Meeting [ Orthodox/Gurneyite ]) open “ general meeting ” revivals were held in two schoolhouses near the home of John Henry Douglas outside of New Vienna, Ohio. The Quaker revival, which was open to non-Quakers too, was held in the Hoskins School on Bernard Road near Tilton Road about two miles east of New Vienna. The second meeting was held at the Fisher schoolhouse on Fisher Road near Centerville. These candlelight meetings lead to the establishment of Fairview Meeting of Friends . In November of 1869 the first meetinghouse was built and opened with 119 adults and 33 children as members. Nathan and Esther Frame made their first trip to Ohio to participate in the dedication of Fairview The first Fairview meetinghouse was a frame building, 30 X 50 feet with a partition in the center to separate the men's and the women's business meetings. In 1915 the present brick meetinghouse was dedicated (see left).
  • 49. 1869 ~ A revival with John Henry Douglas at Clear Creek Monthly Meeting leads one hundred and fifty-nine people to join the meeting. A “ General Meeting ” revival is held in Martinsville, Ohio, Clinton County. Late 1869 ~ An Gurneyite Quaker preparative meeting is established at Southland, Arkansas. Quaker Revivalist John Henry Douglas helped to establish this meeting. Like Alida Clark, John Henry Douglas believed that African-Americans could become good members of The Society of Friends . 1870 ~ John Henry Douglas is one of the founders of Wilmington College . Friend Daniel Hill, one of the most prominent Quaker peace activists after the war, lived not too far from John Henry Douglas in New Vienna, Ohio. Daniel Hill became the first president of the “ Peace Association .” During its early years the “Peace Association of Friends in America” publishing house was located in New Vienna, Ohio. The organization would publish a newspaper entitled “ The Messenger of Peace ” and a children’s magazine entitled, “ The Olive Leaf.” The organization also published many tracts and books. “ The Christian Worker, ” the precursor to “ Evangelical Friend ” was first published in New Vienna (1880-1894). This periodical was established in reaction to “ Higher Criticism .” Winter of 1873 ~ John Henry Douglas conducts a revival at the schoolhouse at Sycamore in Clinton County, Ohio and an indulged meeting is set up. It becomes a preparative meeting of Newberry Monthly Meeting. In 1891 Sycamore and the much older Westfork Preparative Meetings request to become a monthly meeting. In 1895 they build a new meetinghouse in Westboro, Ohio.
  • 50. 1874 ~ John Henry Douglas moves to Wilmington, Ohio from New Vienna. 1878 ~ Revivalist John Henry Douglas also becomes a “ Pastor ” in Glen Falls, New York. 1886 ~ 1890 ~ Quaker Holiness revivalist John Henry Douglas becomes the General Superintendent of Iowa Yearly Meeting . While he was there were 7430 recorded conversions and 2595 persons added in membership by this means to the Iowa Yearly Meeting of Orthodox Friends. He firmly establishes the pastoral system. September 1887 ~ The Richmond Conference (Richmond, Indiana) is called to deal with the many divisions within Gurneyite faith and practice. Representatives from twelve “ Orthodox ” Yearly meetings attended, including a “ Gurneyite ” delegation from Philadelphia Yearly Meeting . This conference will lead to the establishment of a Five Years Meeting in 1902. London Yearly Meeting does not endorse the “ Richmond Declaration of Faith .” They refused to accept a “ Creed .” Benjamin Franklin Trueblood, during the Conference, supports the paid pastorate program of John Henry Douglas. British Friend Joseph Bevan Braithwaite can not accept the concept of a paid ministry in Quakerism. 1890 ~ After four years of exhausting work as General Superintendent of Iowa Yearly Meeting , John Henry Douglas retires from his post. He is replaced by Isom P. Wooten. 1890 ~ John Henry Douglas’ ministry as Superintendent leads him to Oregon and then finally California where he will become the minister of extension for California Yearly Meeting .
  • 51. John Henry Douglas helps to found Newberry Friends Meeting in Oregon. Many of the settlers of Oregon came from Iowa. By 1893 there were seven monthly meetings and Oregon Yearly Meeting was established (now Northwest Yearly Meeting ) affiliated with Evangelical Friends International . 1891 ~ John Henry Douglas offers $10.00 to anyone who would find in the Bible a text to support “ stillness before the Lord ,” or to prove “ silent waiting ” scriptural. 1900 ~ John Henry Douglas is living in Pasadena, California for the sake of his health: During the year past John Henry Douglas, the veteran minister of Friends, has resided in Pasadena, where his health has much improved. He is still able to preach with great power and unction. His ministerial service has been more extended than that of any other living minister in our Society. His long and useful ministry has been a great blessing to the church at large, and, as the evening of life comes on, he will be favorably remembered by many persons wherever Friends reside ( The American Friend , Volume 8, Issue 2, 8th mo. 29th, 1901 ( Five Years Meetings ), p. 834 . November 24th, 1919 ~ Evangelist John Henry Douglas dies in Whittier, California
  • 52. John Henry Douglas, towards the end of his life: It has been my privilege to see the church rise from stagnation, to a living aggressive body. I have seen six Yearly Meetings established, and seven colleges built. I have seen the beginnings of our missionary work and its progress, also the Evangelistic and Church extension interest, and the great Christian Endeavor [a powerful youth] movement, so that we can exclaim, “What hath God brought in the church since 1860!” If God can have a blood washed and Spirit filled church, the future may be made greatly to prosper, souls will be saved and added to the church, many will be called specifically to labor in word and doctrine, and the great Northwest will feel the effects of your faithfulness… and great joy and peace will be yours. GO FORWARD!
  • 53. The Quaker Renewal Movement will be supported by leading young Gurneyite Friends: Charles and Rhoda Coffin, Timothy Nicholson, Robert W. and John Henry Douglas, Joel Bean, Dougan Clark, Jr., Allen Jay, Thomas Kimber, and Barnabas C. Hobbs. They will seek to re-vitalize Quakerism with increased membership and enthusiasm. In the 1870s, after the Civil War , some of the Quaker “ renewalists ” will be influenced by the Holiness (“ Higher Life ”) Movement and will become intense revivalists, going beyond the second experience “ sanctification ” of Wesleyan tradition as preached by Esther and Nathan Frame. Some of the issues that are raised during the last quarter of the 19 th century and press the crisis on Gurneyite Friends are: CONFLICT OVER THE QUAKER BELIEF IN THE “ INNER LIGHT ” PAID TRAINED MINISTRY (NON-ORDAINED CLERGY) THE ORDANCES (BAPTISM & COMMUNION)
  • 54. As Orthodox/Gurneyite Quakerism was being influenced by evangelical teachings and revival practices, the evangelical churches in general were also be influenced by developments in the Trans-Atlantic Holiness Movement . The Holiness Movement had its roots in Wesleyan revivalism, but, by mid-century, the Methodist Episcopal Church began to turn away from revivalism as it became more mainline. The Holiness Movement itself adopted more of a Calvinistic theological explanation of Holiness . The Keswick Conferences in England were instrumental in this change (see Timeline ). As the 19th century drew closer to the 20th century, Holiness doctrine would become more strict and fundamentalist in nature. WESLEYAN SANCTIFICATION : Second experience, real change, “ Original Sin ” can be forgiven in this life, immediate, and complete ( Arminianism ). CALVINISTIC SANCTIFICATION : Rooted in the old Reformation faith; in “ imputed ” justification, denial that “ Original Sin ” could be forgiven. Just as Justification was “ imputed ” to a believer in conversion, Sanctification was “endued” to a believer. Keswick speakers began using the term " counteraction " to describe the Holy Spirit's effect on Original Sin , often comparing it to how air pressure counteracts gravity in lifting an airplane. Through sanctification, the Baptism in the Spirit , a believer is lifted above Original Sin and up into “ the higher life .” The higher life is to be lived in service to others ( Calvinism ).
  • 55. Friend David B. Updegraff (right) is a great example of a Quaker revivalist who led many Friends to an absolutist fundamentalistic point of view. Friend David B. Updegraff of Ohio Yearly Meeting became a preacher of instantaneous and entire Holiness that comes with a second work of grace after the first of conversion. The second work of grace, “ Sanctification ”, leads to a “ higher life. ” He was highly influenced by the Methodists but over time became more absolutist in his beliefs. He became ultra-evangelistic and was strongly Calvinistic in the doctrines of atonement and total depravity, and thus promoted of the doctrine of “ the second experience ” of sanctification in the Society of Friends . If one doesn’t believe in the ability of a human being to cooperate with God’s grace effectively, then conversion is not enough. Sanctification must also be an immediate and totally unmerited gift of grace. To follow the Keswick Conference model, Sanctification , from the Calvinist point of view, does not eradicate Original Sin but elevates the person above sin and compels them into service and mission, activities that can become more “ signs of election .” This kind of doctrinal absolutism was not found in early Quakerism. Updegraff was also an absolutist about Scripture; interpreting Scripture literally, he advocated the celebration of the Ordinances. He himself was baptized.
  • 56. THE “ INNER LIGHT ” CONFLICT & JOEL BEAN Many moderate Gurneyites who advocated the Evangelical Renewal of Quakerism but were suspicious of the extremes of the “ Holiness ” Revival Movement, found Updegraff a divisive person. Where ever he went to preach, he divided meetings. 1825 ~ Renewal Quaker minister Joel Bean is born in Alton, New Hampshire. When he attends the Friends Boarding School in Providence, Rhode Island, he will meet two of his closest friends: Dougan Clark, Jr. and Timothy Nicholson. However, as the Gurneyite “ renewal ” turns into a radical Holiness “ revival ,” Bean will become a strong critic of revival ministers and their techniques. For this, he will suffer greatly and loose his friend, Dougan Clark, Jr. 1861-1862 ~ Orthodox Friend Joel Bean and his wife Hannah Elliot Shipley Bean visit the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) as Quaker ministers. In their missionary work they work closely with non-Quakers. They preached in other churches and were praised by the Hawaiian Evangelical Association . 1867 ~ Orthodox/Gurneyite Joel Bean becomes the clerk of Iowa Yearly Meeting and is a strong supporter of the Renewal .
  • 57. 1871-1872 ~ Orthodox Friends Joel Bean and his wife Hannah Elliot Shipley Bean make a ministry tour of England and are highly influenced by the moderate British Friend J. Bevan Braithwaite. When they return to Iowa from Europe, they are surprised by how far the evangelical renewal had come. They were also shocked by the extremes of the Holiness revival, which were deeply influencing Iowa Quakers. Although they had willingly accepted renewal, they come to oppose the Holiness Movement . The moderate Gurneyites are growing in numbers and in opposition although they still a small minority. The first permanent Yearly Meeting house in Iowa, located in Oskaloosa, 1865. There were seven quarterly meetings in 1865.
  • 58. Early 1881 ~ Friend Joel Bean becomes distressed over all the changes at West Branch Meeting and in Iowa Yearly Meeting due to the Holiness revival. During Iowa Yearly Meeting Bean criticizes the actions of Ohio Yearly Meeting concerning the “ Inner Light .” Mary H. Rogers responds that the “ Inner Light ” is a Hicksite doctrine. Noah McLean and Updegraff claimed that the “ Inner Light ” is a source of infidelity. Bean pours out his concern in the Quaker British periodical, “ The British Friend .” His articles are entitled “ The Issue ” and “ The Light Within .” Bean’s one time friend, Dugan Clark, who had become a disciple of Updegraff, also comes to West Branch Meeting , Iowa and holds a Holiness revival. After withdrawing from the Iowa Yearly Meeting , Bean returns to West Branch Meeting , his home meeting. He is asked by British Friend J. Bevan Braithwaite to travel with British Friend Isaac Sharp who was planning to travel through the United States. Although most in his monthly meeting supported Bean concerning this request, Lawrie Tatum (right), now the clerk of the meeting, refused to give Bean a minute to travel with Sharp. Bean will travel with Sharp none-the-less. Within a year the Beans moved away from Iowa and settled in San José, California. PERSECUTION BASED ON DOCTRINE
  • 59. EVANGELICAL GURNEYITE QUAKERS OF IOWA SEE THEIR REVIVAL DIFFERENTLY Within a decade following the first Yearly Meeting there gradually developed a great spiritual awakening among Friends of Iowa Yearly Meeting. This evangelism played a major role in a conservative separation in 1877. It also quickened the spiritual life of the Society. From 1887-1890 (4 years) a total of 7,430 conversions were reported. This also marked the fastest growing period in the history of Iowa Yearly Meeting. By 1892 the membership reached its peak - 12,289 members. Almost immediately, new yearly meetings were set off. Oregon Yearly Meeting in 1893 with 955 members; California Yearly Meeting in 1895 with 1166 members, and Nebraska Yearly Meeting in 1908 with 1679 members. The evangelistic movement also played a large role in the acceptance of the pastoral system which was officially adopted in 1886. A new organizational structure complemented the pastoral system with John Henry Douglas being appointed General Superintendent and each Quarterly Meeting having an evangelistic superintendent. Women's Yearly Meeting was discontinued in 1893, when the women joined with the men. Taken from: Iowa Yearly Meeting of Friends website: http://www.iaym.org/aboutus/history
  • 60. Early 1885 ~ San Jose Monthly Meeting of Joel Bean is dissolved by Honey Creek Quarterly Meeting and its leaders proclaimed unsound. The Beans, at their own expense, build a meetinghouse in College Park where they and others practice the traditional ways of Quakerism. 1893 ~ Quaker ministers Joel and Hannah Elliot Shipley Bean are disowned by Iowa Yearly Meeting to the great chagrin of eastern and British Quakers. The Beans are re-admitted to Joel’s original Quaker meeting in New Hampshire. Joel Bean continues to practice his faith his moderate-renewal way and make visits to sympathetic meetings. The treatment of the Beans is viewed as a great scandal in England and from this point on, British Friends become highly critical of the Holiness contingent in American Quakerism.
  • 61. San Jose Friends worship in the oldest Meetinghouse in California, built in 1885. This Meeting plays an important part in Quaker history. Joel and Hannah Bean founded the San Jose Meeting, which was recognized by their home Meeting in Iowa in 1889, as the College Park Association of Friends. Historical currents combined with Joel and Hannah Bean's character to make them the founders of the modern liberal branch of the Society of Friends, sometimes called "Beanite Quakerism". San Jose Meeting of The Religious Society of Friends 1041 Morse Street, San Jose, California 95126 (408) 246-0524 Pacific Yearly Meeting developed out of the College Park Association of Friends.
  • 62. SWARTHMORE COLLEGE ~ FRIENDS HISTORICAL LIBRARY Bean, Joel. Papers, 1825-1914. Joel Bean (1835-1914) and his wife, Hannah Elliott Bean (1830-1909), were prominent Quaker ministers in Iowa Yearly Meeting in the mid-nineteenth century when Quaker settlements were expanding in Iowa. Joel Bean was born in Alton, New Hampshire, in 1825. He migrated to Iowa in 1853 and taught school at West Branch, Iowa, from 1850 to 1861. In 1859, he married Hannah Elliott Shipley in Philadelphia. Joel Bean was appointed Clerk of Iowa Yearly Meeting in 1867, and he and Hannah traveled in Europe from 1872 to 1873. The Beans opposed the extremes of revivalism, but declined to join the Conservatives in withdrawing from Iowa Yearly Meeting. After their move to California, they joined a group of Friends who were initially affiliated with Iowa Yearly Meeting. They helped to form the College Park Association of Friends. However, Joel and Hannah were deposed as ministers by Iowa Yearly Meeting in 1893 and disowned in 1898. This action caused a strong reaction among Quakers outside of Iowa Yearly Meeting, particularly among English Friends. The Beans were subsequently received by New England Yearly Meeting as members and ministers. The Bean Papers consist primarily of the writings and correspondence of Joel Bean, although some material by Hannah Bean is also included. Joel Bean's writings include accounts of the Iowa separations, sermons, religious writings, school lessons, poetry, historical writings, memorials, and personal reminiscences. Over 1600 letters and 57 volumes of diaries complete the collection. Call number: RG5/012
  • 63. 1894 ~ During Ohio Yearly Meeting ( Gurneyite ), Dougan Clark, Jr. is lead to be baptized with water during a Memorial to his recently deceased friend David B. Updegraff. Consequently, he is disbarred from ministerial standing by Whitewater Quarterly Meeting and he loses his post at Earlham College. He was replaced by Elbert Russell who developed into a Modernist and critical of the extremes of Holiness. He associated himself with Rufus Jones and John Wilhelm Rowntree. You can download some Dougan Clark’s books online : The Theology of Holiness      by Dougan Clark The Inner & Outer Life of Holiness      by Dougan Clark David B. Updegraff & His Work by Dougan Clark & Joseph H. Smith “ Gospel Expositor ” periodical, edited by Dougan Clark (Columbus, Ohio). Merged into the “ Christian Worker .”
  • 64.  
  • 65. CONFLICT OVER “ HIGHER CRITICISM ” Literal Interpretation of Scripture (Inerrancy) vs. the Historical-Literary Critical Biblical Scholarship “ LOWER CRITICISM ” ~ Resolving inner discrepancies in Scripture by referencing within Scripture. Often leads to attempts to “harmonize” the Gospels. “ HIGHER CRITICISM ” ~ “ Higher Criticism ” is the study of the Old and New Testaments using the academic disciplines of history and literary criticism. It is often referred to as the Historical/ Literary Critical Method . The books of the Bible are examined and compared with each other and other contemporary works so that the origins of books are critiqued. Literary criticism of each book is made by comparison of contemporary genres to gain greater insights. Higher criticism began through the work of German biblical scholars of the Tübingen School . The scholar that initiated this line of study of the New Testament was Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834). The second generation of German scholars began to peruse the original documents of the Middle East that began to confirm through these other sources the events mentioned in the Bible . Their work was based on the insights of the Enlightenment and on Rationalism. The general fear about this Rationalistic approach to Scripture was that the method would destroy belief in the supernatural and any confessional doctrine. They felt the “higher criticism” would severely question the authority of the Scriptures as the source of Revelation.
  • 66. HICKSITE FRIENDS Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God, which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy scriptures, the gospel concerning his son, who was descended from David according to the flesh and was declared to be Son of God with power according to the spirit of holiness by resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, through whom we have received grace and apostleship to being about the obedience of faith among all the Gentiles for the sake of his name, including yourselves who are called to belong to Jesus Christ. Romans 1: 1-6 ( NRSV )
  • 67. ADOPTIONISM Many early Quakers believed that Jesus of Nazareth became “ the Christ ” by cooperation with God’s grace and obeying God’s will to perfection. This point of view is known as “ adoptionism. ” In a similar manner, the Children of the Light , Quakers, can also live the life of perfection in obedience to God’s will. Jesus is the great exemplar of the process. This interpretation of the life of Jesus is fundamentally different from the orthodox belief in the Divinity of Christ and the “ pre-existence Christ .” EXEMPLAR-ISM
  • 68. RESEARCHING JOHN HENRY DOUGLAS
  • 69. Midwestern Orthodox Gurneyites Move West Indiana Yearly Meeting (Gurneyite) 1858 Western Yearly Meeting 1863 - Iowa Yearly Meeting 1872 ~ Kansas Yearly Meeting (Evangelical Mid-’America Yearly Meeting) 1893 - Oregon Yearly Meeting (Northwest Yearly Meeting) 1895 - California Yearly Meeting (Evangelical Friends Southwest) 1908 - Nebraska Yearly Meeting (Great Plains Yearly Meeting) 1892 ~ Wilmington Yearly Meeting Other Important Dates: 1873 - Founding of Penn College (Iowa) 1874 ~ Illinois Yearly Meeting ~ set off from Indiana Yearly Meeting (Hicksite) 1877 - Conservative Separation (Iowa Yearly Meeting)
  • 70.
    • John Henry Douglas ~ Information from ancestry.com
    • b. November 27th, 1832 Fairfield, Me. d. November 24th, 1919 Whittier, California
    • m. Miriam Carter April 28, 1856 (b. 1831 ~ )
    • Census 1900 Fairlawn, Yamhill Co., Oregon
    • Census 1910 Pasadena, Los Angeles Co., California (age 77):
    • Parents: David (1786 - to 1883) and Chloe Douglas, his brother David (1834-1919)
    • Children :
      • Chloe Anna Douglas
      • Feb. 1857 – Oct. 30th 1903 Newburg, Yamhill Co., Oregon  m. Jesse Frank Taylor (b. March 1853)
      • Family lived with John Henry and Miriam in Fairlawn, Yamhill, Oregon
            • Douglas Taylor
            • Ethel Taylor  
      • Jesse C. Douglas
      • April 21st, 1859 – April 4th, 1881 Glen Falls, N.Y.
      •  
      • Mellie Douglas
      • January 31st, 1861 – Living with parents in 1910, California
      •  
      • John Henry Douglas, Jr .
      • July 8th, 1863 – 
      •  
      • Robert Douglas
      • March 11th, 1866 – April, 1866
      •  
      • Christine Douglas
      • January 2nd, 1869 – 
      •  
      • Mary L. Douglas
      • April 14th, 1872 – December 3rd, 1882 Clinton Co., Ohio
  • 71. Biographical and Bibliographical Church Dictionary (In German and English online) http:// webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q =cache:qI-a3udxm9sJ:www.kirchenlexikon.de/d/douglas_j_h.shtml+An+Address+to+Parents+on+the+Importance+of+Sabbath+Schools.+By+John+Henry+Douglas&cd=3&hl= en&ct = clnk&gl =us Memorials of Christine Majoli Alsop. Compiled by Martha Braithwaite. London 1881 Fifty golden milestones passed by honored couple . In: The American Friend, XIII, 19, 1906, 309-310 Whittier: The Boyhood of John Henry Douglas. Wife In: The American Friend , XVIII, 1, 1911, 6-7 Stevens, Alice Earle: Lines written for the sixtieth anniversary of John Douglas and marriage. Fourth month 23rd, 1916 . In: The American Friend , IV, 17, 1916, 326 In memoriam . In: Pacific Friend , XXVI, 8, 1919, 11 In memoriam: John Henry Douglas . In: The American Friend , XXVII, 1, 1920, 17, 23 Bronner, Edwin B.: Fashion Council in London Yearly Meeting, 1857-1873: Precursors of Quaker liberals. In: Church History , LIX, 3, 1990, 356-371 Oliver, John W. Douglas, John Henry (1832-1911). In: Historical Dictionary of the Friends (Quakers) . Edited by Abbott, Margery Post; Chijioke, Mary Ellen, Dandelion, Pink; Oliver, John William. Lanham 2003, 75 (Religions, Philosophies, and Movements Series, XLVI).
  • 72. Fairfield, Me. Historical Society History House 42 High Street Fairfield, ME 04937 (207)453-2998 http://www.fairfieldmehistoricalsociety.net/welcome.html Open Tuesdays from 9 am to noon and 1 - 4 pm or by appointment MAINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY    489 Congress Street    Portland, Me 04101    207-774-1822 www.mainehistory.org Brown Library http://www.mainehistory.org/library_overview.shtml Tuesday–Saturday, 10am–4pm Closed Sunday, Monday Maine Memory Network Maine's Statewide Online Museum, Archive & Educational Resource http://mainequakers.org/ North Fairfield Friends Meeting Route 104, Fairfield, ME 04937 Tel: (207) 453-6025 Contact: Twila Rowe Sunday Service is at 11:00am Maine Genealogical Society PO Box 221 Farmington ME 04938   Our email address for general correspondence is [email_address] Taconnett Falls Chapter of MGS Waterville/Winslow, Maine http://home.gwi.net/~frenchgen/taconnett.htm
  • 73. Meeting name: NORTH FAIRFIELD Website : http://www.neym.org/meetings06/VassalboroQM.htm Former meeting names    FAIRFIELD UNTIL 1951 State or Province : MAINE County : SOMERSET Physical location : FAIRFIELD 04937, 7 COVELL RD., SR 104, 2.5 MI. N OF FAIRFIELD CENTER Latitude :     Longitude : Date granted : 1911/09/02 Date of first meeting : 1911/10 Current Status : ACTIVE Before and After : FAIRFIELD WORSHIP 1784, PM 1803 FROM SIDNEY MM. NORTH FAIRFIELD WORSHIP 1901? Branches    [FUM] UNTIL 1945 Latest yearly meeting : NEW ENGLAND Y.M. Where records are kept : Records known extant : RIHS: NEWSLETTERS 1990-1994, WOMEN PM MIN 1793-1809. LOST: SOME EARLY MIN Affiliations    FAIRFIELD Q.M. UNTIL 1952/05    VASSALBORO Q.M. AFTER 1952/05/24 Local-related histories: SILAS B. WEEKS, NEW ENGLAND QUAKER MEETINGHOUSES: PAST AND PRESENT (2001), pp. 31-32. Comments : Subordinates  ST. ALBANS MM ATTACHED 1928 http://www.quakermeetings.com/meeting_view?anID=TST401L
  • 74. Hartland Historical Society P.O. Box 173 Hartland ME 04943 ( Hartland Academy ) Hartland Historical Society is in the process of renovating a portion of the old Hartland Academy building. Information about St. Albans, Me: http://www.mainegenealogy.net/individual_place_record.asp?place=st._albans Maine State Library 64 State House Station Augusta, ME 04333-0064 (Obituaries) Clinton County, Ohio ~ Wilson Twp. Bloomington, Ohio Grassy Run Friends Preparative Meeting ( Dover Monthly Meeting ) Wilmington Yearly Meeting Relevant records at Wilmington College The Clinton County Genealogical Society (Clinton County History Center ) http://ryoba.forest.net/clintoncountyhistory/ PO Box 529 Wilmington, OH 45177 Research inquiries are directed to one of our volunteers. We attempt to answer short, clear and direct questions. A maximum of one-half hour researcher time will be spent on inquiries. Requests for information should include: Short paragraph stating request for specific information. Copy of your Pedigree Chart or Family Group Sheet (if possible) so we know what information you have already compiled. Self-addressed stamped envelope. $.25 per page copy, if more than 10 pages are requested/sent. A $15 donation toward our preservation efforts would be appreciated.
  • 75. Chapman Historical Museum 348 Glen Street Glens Falls, NY  12801 Phone (518) 793-2826 • Fax (518) 793-2831 Contact Us Here http://www.chapmanmuseum.org/ http://www.chapmanmuseum.org/Research_Request.htm Crandall Public Library 251 Glen Street Glens Falls, NY 12801 (Phone) 518.792.6508 (Fax) 518.792.5251 Center for Folklife, History, & Cultural  Programs Todd DeGarmo Ext. 237 Quaker Meeting House – The Quaker Meeting House, an Italianate edifice on Ridge Street in Glens Falls, was built in 1875 and originally contained no heating system. South Glens Falls : Adirondack Friends Meeting ; 27 Saratoga Ave., S. Glens Falls NY 12803; Telephone: 518-793-3755; e-mail: [email_address] —Meeting for worship 10:30 A.M.; Sunday school 9:30 A.M. Friends’ Church in Glenn Falls 174 Ridge St. near Grand St. The building is presently converted into offices . http://www.sunyacc.edu/corners/areaphotes/gfvicinity1903-4/photosgfvicinity1903-4.htm
  • 76. Meeting name: GLENS FALLS Records Website : http:// www.swarthmore.edu/library/friends/NYYM/glefamm.xml Preparative Records : http:// www.swarthmore.edu/library/friends/NYYM/queenpm.xml Genealogy Searches : http:// www.swarthmore.edu /Library/friends/hazard/ Former meeting names    QUEENSBURY (ORTHODOX) UNTIL 1877/08/01 State or Province : NEW YORK County : WARREN Physical location : GLENS FALLS 12801, 176 RIDGE ST. Latitude :     Longitude : Date granted : 1800/05/14 Date of first meeting : 1800/06/20 Date laid down : MERGED Date of last meeting : 1973/12 Before and After : WORSHIP 1767/03/19. (QUEENSBURY) PM 1787/05/24-1860 FROM EASTON (SARATOGA) MM. MERGED WITH SOUTH GLENS FALLS INTO ADIRONDACK MM 1974/01/01. Branches    [ORTHODOX, FUM] 1828/07/03 - 1955MERGER L atest yearly meeting : NEW YORK Y.M. Where records are kept : SWARTHMORE mf LDS 17397-99, 17402. EARLHAM 127-130 Records known extant : SWARTHMORE: MIN 1800-1878, 1897-1970, WOMEN MIN 1800-1823, 1828-1876, BIRTHS & DEATHS 1790-1952, MARRIAGE & REMOVALS 1806-1855, PAST COMM 1905-1957, M&E 1892-1911, 1967-1970, C.E. 1904-1909, LADIES AID 1925-1944, WFMS 1920-1931, 1941-1951, MEMB 1929, QUEENSBURY PM MIN 1812-1820, 1832-1860, WOMEN PM MIN 1787-1795, 1850-1863. Affiliations    EASTON Q.M. UNTIL 1815/08/16    GLENS FALLS (SARATOGA) Q.M. AFTER 1815/11/22 Local-related histories: Comments : Subordinates    No Subordinates are known http://www.quakermeetings.com/meeting_view?anID=TST798L
  • 77. EARLHAM COLLEGE TITLE   Iowa Yearly Meeting of Friends Records Committee filming projects[microform] CHECK AVAILABILITY   Earlham - Friends Collection / Microform: Microfilm 310 reels 1-98 ALL PALNI LIBRARIES   All items   AUTHOR   Iowa Yearly Meeting of the Society of Friends. PUBLISHED BY   Oskaloosa, Iowa :  Iowa Yearly Meeting of Friends , c1996- SUBJECT - L.C.   Quakers --  Iowa.   Society of Friends  --  Iowa. PHYSICAL DESCR.   microfilm reels ; 35 mm. + guides. SUMMARY   Records of Friends meetings from the 1850’s on in: Ackworth, Albia, Albion, Annieville, Arnolds Park, Asher Creek, Aurora, Bangor, Bear Creek, Bloomfield, Burr Oak, Canby, Casey, Cedar Creek, Cedar Rapids, Chester, Chestnut Hill, Clay Center, Des Moines, Earlham, East Grove, Fairview, Goshen, Green Plain, Greenville, Greenwood, Grinnell, Hamilton , Hartland, Hickory Grove, High Point, Highland, Hiteman, Honey Creek, Hubbard, ida Grove, Iowa Falls, Kendrick, Legrand, Liberty, Linden, Lyman, Lynn Grove,   Marietta, Marietta Township, Marshalltown, Middle River, Motor, Mount Vernon, Muscatine City, Nevada, New Garden, new Providence, North Branch, Oak Run, Okoboji, Oskaloosa, Paton, Pilot Grove, Pleasant Ridge, Pleasant Plain, Rich Square, Richland, Rocksylvania, Rosemount, Salem, Scranton, Smyrna, South River, Spring Creek, Spring Valley, Springdale, Stanford, Stavenger, Stockport, Stuart, Sugar Creek, Summit Grove,, Three Rivers, Walnut Center, Waveland, Western Plain, Westland, Whittier College, Wiscotta, Wright. SYSTEM NUMBER   001203761
  • 78. Earlham College also has: TITLE   Iowa Yearly Meeting of Friends Records Committee filming projects : [guide to microfilm]. CHECK AVAILABILITY   Earlham - Friends Collection / Friends: BX7648.I6 F9 1996 ALL PALNI LIBRARIES   All items   AUTHOR   Iowa Yearly Meeting of the Society of Friends. PUBLISHED BY   Oskaloosa, Iowa :  Iowa Yearly Meeting of Friends , 1996- SUBJECT - L.C.   Quakers --  Iowa  -- Microform catalogs.   Society of Friends  --  Iowa  -- Microform catalogs. PHYSICAL DESCR.   v. ; 28 cm. SUMMARY   List of microfilm contents of Friends Church meeting house records, the filming project of the Records Committee of Iowa Yearly Meeting of Friends. SYSTEM NUMBER   001205153 American Friend Obituary Index: Douglas, John Henry. D. 11-24-1919, Whittier, Cal, 87y, art. (1-1-1920, p. 17) Douglas, Robert W. D. 2-18-1919, Versailles, Oh, art. (2-27-1919, p. 190) John Henry Douglas Collection. SC 94. John Henry Douglas (1832-1917) was a well-known Quaker minister and revivalist in Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Oregon, and California. This collection consists of two letters, 1901 and 1913, to Rufus M. Jones. Photocopies of originals at Haverford College.
  • 79. Earlham College also has: TITLE   Official minutes /  California Yearly Meeting of Friends Church. CHECK AVAILABILITY   Earlham - Friends Collection / Friends: BX7608 .C2 ALL PALNI LIBRARIES   All items   AUTHOR   California Yearly Meeting of Friends Church. PUBLISHED BY   Whittier, Calif. : The Meeting , 1894-1986. PHYSICAL DESCR.   v. ; 23 cm. GENERAL NOTE   Description based on: 1960; title from cover. SYSTEM NUMBER   000307450 TITLE   Official minutes / Friends Church Southwest Yearly Meeting. CHECK AVAILABILITY   Earlham - Friends Collection / Friends: BX7608 .S68 CHECK AVAILABILITY   Earlham - Friends Collection / Print Periodical: BX7608 .S68 (year) ALL PALNI LIBRARIES   All items   AUTHOR   Friends Church Southwest Yearly Meeting. PUBLISHED BY   Whittier, CA : Friends Church Southwest, 1987-2000. PHYSICAL DESCR.   14 v. ; 22 cm. GENERAL NOTE   "Held at Rose Drive Friends Church, Yorba Linda, California ."   Formerly called California Yearly Meeting . Decision taken to change name to Southwest Yearly Meeting in 1986. First Yearly Meeting Minutes published under that name in 1987.   Title from cover. NUMBERING NOTE   Vols. for 1987-2000 also called 93rd-106th annual sessions. CORPORATE SUBJECT   Friends Church Southwest Yearly Meeting  -- Periodicals. CONTINUES   California Yearly Meeting of Friends Church. Official minutes . (DLC)sn 8918767 (OCoLC)6914148 CONTINUED BY   Evangelical Friends Church Southwest Official minutes  (DLC) 2004234276 (OCoLC)51573965 SYSTEM NUMBER   000336054
  • 80. IOWA YEARLY MEETING Office Administrator: Mary Thury General Superintendent: Ron Bryan “ General Superintendent of Evangelistic, Pastoral, and Church Extension Work ” Webmaster: Isaac Good Phone: (641) 673-9717 Address: Iowa Yearly Meeting P.O. Box 657 Oskaloosa, IA 52577 http://www.iaym.org/ Superintendent’s Office might have earlier Superintendents’ records.
  • 81. Iowa Yearly Meeting Ruth Kessler RR 3 Oskaloosa, IA Kessler is custodian of Iowa Yearly Meeting records. William Penn University http://wmpenn.edu/ Quaker Collection Wilcox Library North Market St 201 Trueblood Ave Oskaloosa, IA 52577 641 673 1096 Wilmington College http://www.wilmington.edu/ The Library Pyle Center Quaker Collection Box 1325 Wilmington, OH 45177 937 382 6661 Contact Us (641) 673-1096 Circulation Desk (641) 673-1098 Fax Records for southwestern Ohio are deposited here & has records for meetings in Ohio, Indiana & Illinois. Inquiries should be directed to: Clinton County Historical Society , PO Box 529, Wilmington, OH 45177
  • 82. Meeting name: NEWBERG Website : http:// www.newbergfriendschurch.org / Former meeting names    CHEHALEM UNTIL 1886/06/05 State or Province : OREGON County : YAMHILL Physical location : NEWBERG 97132, 307 S. COLLEGE Latitude :     Longitude : Date granted : 1878/04/06 Date of first meeting : 1878/06/01 Current Status : ACTIVE Before and After : CHEHALEM PM 1878. Branches No branches are known Latest yearly meeting : NORTHWEST Y.M. Where records are kept : NWYM mf GFU 3387, -90, -94, -97, 3403, -05, -08, -11. LDS 2031407-08, -42, -44-45, -1959-60. Records known extant : NWYM-NEWBERG: MIN 1910-1928 Affiliations    HONEY CREEK Q.M. UNTIL 1887/10/01    IOWA (FUM) Y.M. UNTIL 1892    NEWBERG Q.M. 1887/11/12 - 1969    NEWBERG AREA AFTER 1969 Subordinates    GRUNDY PLAINS PM 1878    ALDER PM 1884/12/10-1887    HISPANIC PM 1989BEF    UNPROGRAMMED PM 1989BEF http://www.quakermeetings.com/meeting_view?anID=TST1285L
  • 83. Iowa State Historical Museum Library & Archives The hours of reference & retrieval are: Tuesday through Friday - 12:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. Saturday - 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Closed Sunday, Monday and official state holidays and on any Saturday which precedes a Monday or follows a Friday holiday. Archives, photograph, and manuscript collections are closed Saturdays, unless arrangements are made in advance.  Arrangements can be made to use archival. http://www.iowahistory.org/libraries/index.html Iowa Genealogical Society 628 East Grand Avenue Des Moines, Iowa 50309-1924 Phone: 515-276-0287 FAX: 515-727-1824 Email Us: Iowa Genealogical Society On the Web: www.iowagenealogy.org Mahaska County Historical Society‎ 2294 Oxford Avenue, Oskaloosa, IA 52577 (641) 672-2989‎ Whittier College 13406 E. Philadelphia St. Whittier, CA 90608 562.907.4200 http://www.whittier.edu/
  • 84. Meeting name: WHITTIER Website : http:// www.firstfriendswhittier.org / Former meeting names    FIRST FRIENDS CHURCH, INFORMALLY - State or Province : CALIFORNIA County : LOS ANGELES Physical location : WHITTIER 90601, 13205 PHILADELPHIA ST. Latitude :     Longitude : Date granted : 1887/11/19 Date of first meeting : 1887/12/10 Current Status : ACTIVE Before and After : WORSHIP 1887/08/14, MOSTLY FROM IOWA (FUM) Y.M. MMs. PM FROM VICTORY PARK (PASADENA) MM. Branches    No branches are known Latest yearly meeting : WESTERN ASSOCIATION Where records are kept : WHITTIER F.C., E.F.C. SOUTHWEST Records known extant : E.F.C. SOUTHWEST: M&O MIN 1888-1938, 1965-1968, MEMB 1914-1968, LOS NIETOS COMMUNITY CHURCH MIN 1921-1932, TREAS 1921-1929. Affiliations    PASADENA Q.M. UNTIL 1894/11/17 ,  WHITTIER Q.M. 1895/02/16 - 1963/05/18,  IOWA (FUM) Y.M. UNTIL 1894,    SOUTH CENTRAL AREA Q.M. 1963/10 - 1965 ,  SOUTHWEST Y.M. 1895 - 1994/01,    INDEPENDENT 1994/01 - 1996/07/06 Local-related histories: Comments : Subordinates    ALAMITOS WG UNTIL 1891, [GARDEN GROVE 92641, ORANGE CTY.], EAST WHITTIER WG 1906-1907,     [WHITTIER 90603, LOS ANGELES CTY.], DENAIR WG UNTIL 1907,     [DENAIR 95316, STANISLAUS CTY.]    MONTEBELLO WG UNTIL 1907, THEN 1916-1918     [MONTEBELLO 90640, LOS ANGELES CTY.]    LOS NIETOS COMMUNITY F.C. 1915-1923? http://www.quakermeetings.com/meeting_view?anID=TST2012L
  • 85. Meeting name: OSKALOOSA Website : http:// www.cafchurch.org / Former meeting names    SPRING CREEK UNTIL 1875/12/04    COLLEGE AVENUE, INFORMALLY - State or Province : IOWA County : MAHASKA Physical location : OSKALOOSA 52577, 912 N. C ST. Latitude :     Longitude : Date granted : 1851/05/17 Date of first meeting : 1851/06/07 Current Status : ACTIVE Before and After : SPRING CREEK PM 1847/09/22-1886 FROM PLEASANT PLAIN MM. Branches No branches are known Latest yearly meeting : IOWA (FUM) Y.M. Where records are kept : IOWA YM mf IOWA #68-75. LDS 976759-62, 985395-97 Records known extant : IOWA YM: MIN 1872-1914, WOMEN MIN 1880-1884, W.F.M.S. MIN 1890-1905, OSKALOOSA (CENTER GROVE) PM MIN 1859-1867, 1883-1892. EARLY LOST IN FIRE. Affiliations    SALEM Q.M. UNTIL 1854/02/18, PLEASANT PLAIN Q.M. 1854/05 - 1863/11/28    INDIANA (ORTHODOX) Y.M. UNTIL 1862,  OSKALOOSA Q.M. 1864/02/27 - 1973/05/06    LYNN GROVE-OSKALOOSA Q.M. AFTER 1973/07/15 Local-related histories: Comments : "INFORMAL HINSHAW TRANSCRIPTS", IOWA QUAKER MONTHLY MEETING RECORDS, VOL 5, FROM SELBY PUBLISHING, http://www.netusa1.net/~selbypub/iowa.htm Subordinates    SOUTH RIVER PM UNTIL 1852/05,  CENTER PM 1851/05/17G-1857/03, MIDDLE RIVER PM 1851/05/17G-1852/05, HONEY CREEK PM 1852-1856/09, WESTERN PLAIN PM 1853/12-1854/12 , LYNN GROVE PM 1854-1857/03, OSKALOOSA (CENTER GROVE) PM 1855,  GILEAD PM, BLOOMFIELD PM 1865/03/03-1892, MAHASKA PM 1869-1881,  OSKALOOSA CITY PM 1866-1892, OSKALOOSA CITY MM ATTACHED 1894/12,  COAL CREEK PM 1885-1892, WRIGHT MM ATTACHED 1923/08, NORTH H STREET ATTACHED 1955/02 http://www.quakermeetings.com/meeting_view?anID=TST1389L
  • 86. An Address to Parents on the Importance of Sabbath Schools by John Henry Douglas. Price one penny. Chelmsford : Printed by George Pijter, High Street. Friends in the Glens Falls Area : Quaker History Since 1762 (Society of Friends, New York, 1993). History of St. Albans, Maine by Gladys M. Bigelow (Published in 1995, Heritage Books, Bowie, Md). “ The Iowa Friend ” periodical [microform] : Devoted to the Interests of Iowa Yearly Meeting, edited by Truman C. Kenworthy. The Quakers of Iowa by Louis Thomas Jones, Submitted To The Faculty of The Graduate College of The State University of Iowa In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for The Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy (Iowa City Iowa, 1914). Online at : http://iagenweb.org/history/qoi/QOITOC.htm Quaker Historical Collections 1809 - 2009 by Springfield Friends Meeting. 535 pages Quakers in California. The Effects of 19th Century Revivalism on Western Quakerism by David C. LeShana (Barclay Press, 1969). Souvenir Bulletin of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Founding of Iowa Yearly Meeting of Friends, 1863-1913 (Globe Press: Iowa Yearly Meeting, 1913). Spiritual Trails of a People Called Friends, 1863-1963 (The Iowa Yearly Meeting of Friends, 1963). Spiritual Trails of a People Called Friends : Book II, 1963-1988; Remembering 25 Years of Change (Iowa Yearly Meeting of Friends, 1988).
  • 87. Sixty Years of Gospel Ministry by Edward Mott (Portland, Or.: E. Mott, 1948). The New England Yearly Meeting Archives: An Introduction to the Collection Archives of the New England Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) c/o Rhode Island Historical Society Library 121 Hope Street Providence, Rhode Island 02906 (401) 331-8575 http://www.neym.org/neymarch.pdf and http://www.neym.org/ArchivesBrochure20090629.pdf Ohio Historical Society: Minutes of the Iowa Yearly Meeting of Friends. Author:  Iowa Yearly Meeting of the Society of Friends Imprint: Oskaloosa, Iowa : The Meeting, [186-]-Description: v. : ill. ; 22 cm. Notes: Description based on: 1977.Local Note: Library has: 1899.OCLC Number: ocm10228524