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Anti Slavery & UGRR Research Committee Report
 

Anti Slavery & UGRR Research Committee Report

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How Quakers were involved in the Underground Railroad in southwest Ohio.

How Quakers were involved in the Underground Railroad in southwest Ohio.

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    Anti Slavery & UGRR Research Committee Report Anti Slavery & UGRR Research Committee Report Presentation Transcript

    • Anti-Slavery & The Underground Railroad~ Taking a Risk for Freedom Report of the Research Committee The Third Annual Quaker Genealogy & History Conference April 2007 The Bicentennial Year of the Abolition of the Slave Trade in the British Empire © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
      • Sponsored by the Quaker Heritage Center , Wilmington College , Wilmington, Ohio & The Mary L. Cook Public Library , Waynesville, Ohio, a member of the Freedom Station Affiliate Program of the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati.
      • Karen S. Campbell, Genealogy Librarian The Mary L. Cook Public Library The Ohioana Room 381 Old Stage Road Waynesville, Ohio 45068
      © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007 Unsigned illustration for The Anti-Slavery Record , Vol. III, No. 7 (July; New York: Published by the American Anti-Slavery Society, 1837) . Alderman Library, University of Virginia.
    • Thank You: To the members of our Research Committee : John Bryant, Dennis Dalton, Ruth Dobyns, Larry Gara, Patti Kinsinger, Christine Snyder, Betty Wilson, and Rosalie Yoakum. To Bernie Quigley, local Clinton County, Ohio historian. To Jim Hackney, local Clinton County, Ohio historian. To Dorothy Carter, local Waynesville, Ohio historian. Everyone on the research committee is painfully aware that this study is far from complete. Much more research needs to be done in local and anti-slavery newspapers and Quaker meeting minutes, for example. There are other important sources that time did not allow us to study in depth such as AME church records and slave narratives. Our research will continue for the next conference, which will concentrate on Quaker women and the women’s movement. These two subjects flow together since Quaker women who worked for the civil and human rights of women often worked initially in the Anti-Slavery and Underground Railroad movements . © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • The Mary L. Cook Public Library is a participant in The Freedom Stations Program of the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center .
    • The importance of Ohio Original copyright 1895: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Undergroundrailroadsmall2.jpg © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
      • The Research Committee Report is divided into sections. The first five sections give the reader basic background information about the Anti-Slavery Movement in England, the American Colonies, and the United States. The Sections are:
      • Statement on Methodology & Approach
      • The Black Laws of Ohio
      • The Anti-Slavery Friends & the Congregational/ Progressive Friends
      • A Quaker Anti-Slavery Timeline which covers from 1441 to 1909 (63 pages)
      • Maps (8)
      © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
      • The next section is:
      • ANTI-SLAVERY AND/OR UNDERGROUND RAILROAD SITES THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN ARC & THE RADICAL CORRIDOR :
      • Crosswick (One mile north of Waynesville, Warren Co., Ohio) and the Abduction and Murder of Levi Cook
      • The Spears’ Settlement ~Wilberforce College (Greene Co., Ohio)
      • New Burlington (Northwest corner of Chester Twp., Clinton Co.)
      • Harveysburg (Massie Twp., Warren Co.) & Canbytown ( New Baltimore , now under Caesar’s Creek Lake )
      • Oakland (Chester Twp., Clinton Co.) & Harveysburg (Massie Twp., Warren Co.)
      • Waynesville (Wayne Twp., Warren Co., Ohio)
      • Springboro (Clearcreek Twp., Warren Co., Ohio)
      © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
      • The next section is:
      • Other Towns & Settlements of Importance :
      • Merrittstown (Clear Creek Twp., Warren County, Ohio)
      • Union Village (The Shaker Bishopric of the West, Warren Co., Ohio)
      • Some Stories Associated with Lebanon (Warren Co.)
      • Red Lion Tavern ~ Half Way between Lebanon & Springboro ~ Half Way between Dodds & Franklin
      • Gurneyville (Liberty Twp., Clinton Co., Ohio)
      • Wilmington (Union Twp., Clinton Co., Ohio)
      • The Gist Settlement and the Quakers ~ In Highland and Brown Counties & Other Black Settlements in Highland County
      © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007 The locations on this map illustrate the “ west ” and “ east ” routes from Butterworth Station .
      • The next section is
      • Quaker Meetinghouses :
      • Miami Monthly Meeting of Friends (Orthodox & Hicksite) ~ Waynesville
      • Springboro Monthly Meeting (Orthodox & Hicksite)
      • The Harveysburg Meetings (Orthodox & Hicksite)
      • Caesar’s Creek Monthly Meeting (Orthodox) ~ Near New Burlington
      • Springfield Monthly Meeting (Orthodox) ~ Clinton Co., Ohio
      • Center Monthly Meeting ~ Clinton Co., Ohio
      • Green Plain Monthly Meeting (Orthodox, Hicksite, and Congregational/Progressive)~ Clark Co., Ohio
      (Histories of other Quaker meetinghouse in the area are interspersed in the text.) © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007 White Brick Meetinghouse ~ Waynesville, Ohio
      • The last section of the report are a series of chapters about individuals and families who were involved in the Anti-Slavery Movement and/or the Underground Railroad .
          • Abijah O’Neall ~ Testimony against Slavery
          • Moses & Ruth Smith Tomlinson of Highland County, Ohio ~ Quakers Who Worked with the Gist Settlement
          • Robert G. Corwin & Family ~ Lebanon, Ohio
          • Job Mullin ~ Springboro
          • John Jay Janney ~ Educator & Politician~ An Abolitionist, but, Not Involved in the Underground Railroad
          • Jonah D. Thomas & His Son Ira ~ Springboro, Ohio
          • Thomas Miller ~ Springboro ~ Underground Railroad Conductor & Quaker Minster to the Sac & Fox Native Americans
          • William S. Bedford of Springboro ~ Participant in the Great Rescue
          • James Stanton ~ Quaker Minister to African Americans and Native Americans
          • Achilles Henry Pugh ~ Publishing against Slavery
          • Public Friend Thomas Arnett ~ Preaching against Slavery
          • Dr. Jesse Harvey ~ Teaching against Slavery
          • Elizabeth Burgess Harvey Mendenhall ~ Her School & the Wall Children
          • Other Harveys Who Were Involved ~ Henry Harvey, Isaac Harvey, Isaac H. & Sarah Edwards Harvey
          • Cyrus King ~ African American Conductor
          • Dr. John W. Scroggs ~ Methodist Physician & Newspaper Man
          • John Grant of Mt. Holly & New Burlington~ Friend of the Quaker Moses McKay Family
          • “ Moses McKay & the McKay House ” By Rosalie Yoakam
          • The Comptons ~ Near New Burlington
          • Abram Allen ~ “ The Mud Castle ” Near Oakland
      © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
        • Dr. Abram Brooke ~ Moral Suasion & God’s Government
        • Samuel Brooke ~ Agent of the American Anti-Slavery Society
        • Dr. George Fox Birdsall of Oakland
        • Nathan Linton & His Sons Seth & James , near Oakland
        • Wright Haynes & His Son Mark , near Oakland, Later lived in Harveysburg
        • Genealogy ~ How the Wales , Burgess , Nicholson , and Butterworth families are Intermarried.
        • Thomas Montgomery Wales
        • Valentine & Jane Finley Wales Nicholson
        • Henry Thomas & Nancy Irvin Wales Butterworth ~ Butterworth Station
        • Perry Dakin & His Son Dr. George M. Dakin
        • Amos & Isaac & Joel P. Davis
        • The Story of John & Jerry Thompson & Robert Green , Moses Frazier , Spencer Ballard , Benaja Ballard , Joshua Frazier , and Martin Marmot
        • Map of Chester Twp, Clinton County, Ohio
        • The McMillans at the McMillan Settlement ~ Chester Township, Clinton Co., Ohio
        • The Oren Family of Tennessee & Ohio
        • Elihu Oren ~ Passionate Quaker & Principal Conductor in Liberty Township, Clinton Co., Ohio
        • Mahlon Wall ~ Chester Township, Clinton County, Ohio
        • Edmund & Matilda Ballard Kinsey ~ Center Monthly Meeting
        • The Wickershams ~The McMillan Settlement ~ Chester Twp, Clinton Co., Ohio
        • Jacob Hadley ~Quaker Minister at Springfield Monthly Meeting
        • Artemas Nickerson
      © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
      • Methodology and Approach
      • This study has adopted the multi-disciplinary approach of Cheryl Janifer LaRoche as found in her “ On the Edge of Freedom: Free Black Communities, Archaeology and the Underground Railroad ”:
      • History (including oral traditions and family histories as well as national and world history)
      • Slave Narratives ~ first hand testimonies about the realities of slavery and prejudice
      • Archaeology & Landscape Studies (geographical interpretation)
      • Traditional written documentation
      © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Another guide we have used is " Exploring a Common Past: Researching and Interpreting the Underground Railroad " published by the National Park Service . Their list of sources are: oral tradition, autobiography and memoir, archaeology, local histories, scholarly sources such as books, articles, thesis and dissertations, unpublished manuscripts, county and township records, city directories, almanacs and gazetteers, calendars, photographs, records of anti-slavery societies, vigilance committees, benevolent groups and churches, contemporary newspapers and periodicals, legal and court records, manuscript collections, and maps.  This guide emphasizes that the best of historical and genealogical research should be conducted. http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/ugrr/exugrr1.htm © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Wilbur H. Siebert (1866-1961) was a Professor of History at the Ohio State University , 1891-1935, and Professor Emeritus , 1935-1961. With the help of his history students, W. H. Siebert collected testimony from surviving UGRR conductors or their children during the 1890s throughout the country. They are primarily white conductors. He used a standard questionnaire, often mailed to the surviving conductor or descendent. One must consider that the evidence collected in this manner is a collection of memories fifty years after the fact, or, they are memories of the active participants’ children. Consequently one must judge the quality of each testimony by comparing it with further evidence. However, in many cases, the statements made by the conductors are the closest thing to direct testimony to the actual events that we can achieve. The Wilbur H. Siebert Collection is on microfilm, sixteen rolls, located at the Archive of The Ohio Historical Society in Columbus, Ohio. Where possible we let the conductors speak for themselves. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
      • The Research Committee was also advised by Larry Gara. Larry is Professor Emeritus of History of Wilmington College in Wilmington, Ohio.  He has also taught at many other colleges:  Eureka , Blufton , the University of Delaware , Grove City College , and Mexico City College .  He has written a number of books:
      • The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad
      • The Underground Railroad Handbook ( National Park Service ), a contributor.
      • The Baby Dodds Story: As Told to Larry Gara
      • The Presidency of Franklin Pierce
      • A Few Small Candles: War Resisters of World War II Tell Their Stories, Compiled and edited by Larry and his wife Lenna Mae.
      In his book “ The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underwood Railroad ”, Larry emphasizes the need for in depth research to avoid promoting ideas and images about the Underground Railroad that are legendary and possible not true. Many of the false images are about Quakers themselves and their role. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • The Quakers Where Not the Only Religious Denomination that Denounced Slavery It is true, however, that the Society of Friends was the first religious group to come out publicly against the slave trade and slavery on either side of the Atlantic Ocean. American Friends, in close communication with Friends in Britain, brought the issue into focus for English Friends since Americans lived closer to the actual practice of slavery in the colonies. Visits from traveling American ministers, attendance at each others Yearly Meetings, and encouragement from American Friends to petition Parliament concerning the slave trade and slavery convinced British Friends to take the lead. There were only 20,000 Quakers in England, but nine Friends were founding members of the important twelve member “ Committee for Abolition of the African Slave Trade ” founded in 1787. The first meeting of this committee took place in a Quaker Bookstore and print shop in London. Friends of London Yearly Meeting had previously founded a committee four years earlier with the same objectives, but due to the prejudice against religious dissenters in England, the Friends were not as effective as when they were united in alliance with Anglican abolitionists. From its very inception, the abolition movement was ecumenical. The momentum of the evangelical movement would unite Quakers, Presbyterians, Unitarians, Methodists, Anglicans and other denominations in this great work of humanitarianism. Quietly in the background, Quaker merchants and businessmen financed the abolition movement in England. The network of Quaker meetings throughout England was the foundation of the network of local abolitionist societies established through the hard work of Thomas Clarkson. The Quaker press printed abolitionist pamphlets. After decades of defending their dissenting religious position in England, the Friends could share their expertise in pamphleteering, publishing, and petitioning of the government with the new abolitionist organization. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • 1.) gathering objective evidence of the atrocities of slavery 2.) publishing the books of freedmen and women who could testify to the brutality of slavery 3.) participation in the legal process to protect freedmen and women 4.) the use of a brand or logo as a symbol of the movement (i.e. the Wedgewood medallion, see above) 5.) boycotts of merchandise produced by slaves (i.e. sugar, coffee, cotton, tobacco, etc.) 6.) political lobbying of Parliament , state and/or federal governments, and, 7.) the use of poetry, literature, theatre, and art to educate people about the evils of slavery. The non-violent techniques used by Friends in America paralleled the non-violent tools that British Friends and abolitionists used to solicit support for their abolitionist movement: © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • The slave ship “ Brookes ” showing how 482 people were to be packed onto the decks. The detailed plans and cross sectional drawing of the slave ship Brookes was distributed by the Abolitionist Society in England as part of their campaign against the slave trade, and dates from 1789. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007 http://africanhistory.about.com/od/slaveryimages/ig/Slavery-Images-Gallery/index.htm
    • LEFT: ‘ East India Sugar not made by slaves’ and dates from about 1822-34. The bowl is 80 mm high and 130 mm diameter. East India sugar merchants took advantage of the abolitionist campaign to market their sugar as not made by slaves. In reality the conditions on plantations in the East Indies may have been little better than the Caribbean but it helped sales and encouraged the boycott of sugar from the West Indies. Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery, 37.934 East India Sugar not made By Slaves. By Six families using East India, instead of West India Sugar, one Slave less is required. Colonial Williamsburg: http://www.history.org/history/teaching/enewsletter/volume2/february04/iotm.cfm © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
      • AM I NOT A MAN AND BROTHER?
      • AIR — Bride's Farewell.
              • Am I not a man and brother? Ought I not, then, to be free? Sell me not to one another, Take not thus my liberty. Christ our Saviour, Christ our Saviour, Died for me as well as thee. Am I not a man and brother? Have I not a soul to save? Oh, do not my spirit smother, Making me a wretched slave; God of mercy, God of mercy, Let me fill a freeman's grave!
      The Anti-Slavery Harp Compiled by William W. Brown (Boston: Bela Marsh, 1848). http://www.iath.virginia.edu/utc/abolitn/absowwbahp.html Dept. of English, University of Virginia ). © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • O, PITY THE SLAVE MOTHER AIR — Araby's Daughter I pity the slave mother, careworn and weary, Who sighs as she presses her babe to her breast; I lament her sad fate, all so hopeless and dreary, I lament for her woes, and her wrongs unredressed, O who can imagine her heart's deep emotion, As she thinks of her children about to be sold; You may picture the bounds of the rock-girdled ocean, But the grief of that mother can never be known. The mildew of slavery has blighted each blossom, That ever has bloomed in her path-way below; It has froze every fountain that gushed in her bosom, And chilled her heart's verdure with pitiless woe; Her parents, her kindred, all crushed by oppression; Her husband still doomed in its desert to stay; No arm to protect from the tyrants aggression— She must weep as she treads on her desolate way. O, slave mother, hope! see—the nation is shaking! The arm of the Lord is awake to thy wrong! The slave-holder's heart now with terror is quaking, Salvation and Mercy to Heaven belong! Rejoice, O rejoice! for the child thou art rearing, May one day lift up its unmanacled form, While hope, to thy heart, like the rain-bow so cheering, Is born, like the rain-bow, 'mid tempest and storm. The Anti-Slavery Harp Compiled by William W. Brown Boston: Bela Marsh, 1848 Young Black Professional Guide, http://ybpguide.com/2007/02/26/thurmond-family-owned-sharpton-family/ © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • I AM AN ABOLITIONIST AIR — Auld Lang Syne I am an Abolitionist! I glory in the name: Though now by Slavery's minions hiss'd And covered o'er with shame, It is a spell of light and power— The watchword of the free:— Who spurns it in the trial-hour, A craven soul is he! I am an Abolitionist! Then urge me not to pause; For joyfully do I enlist In FREEDOM'S sacred cause: A nobler strife the world ne'er saw, Th'enslaved to disenthral; I am a soldier for the war, Whatever may befall! The Granger Collection, Ltd © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • I am an Abolitionist! Oppression's deadly foe; In God's great strength will I resist, And lay the monster low; In God's great name do I demand, To all be freedom given, That peace and joy may fill the land, And songs go up to heaven! I am an Abolitionist! No threats shall awe my soul, No perils cause me to desist, No bribes my nets control; A freeman will I live and die, In sunshine and in shade, And raise my voice for liberty, Of nought on earth afraid. The Anti-Slavery Harp Compiled by William W. Brown Boston: Bela Marsh, 1848 This engraving depicts blacks and abolitionists being expelled from Tremont Temple in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 3, 1860. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Some of the dialog from a play published in The Anti-Slavery Offering and Picknick; A Collection of Speeches, Poems, Dialogues, Songs for Schools and A.S. Meetings, 1843 Edward. Do you observe that well dressed, intelligent looking man, who is coming towards us? He is a fugitive slave. It is but three years since he commenced taking care of himself, yet no one is more respected for ability and activity. Let us ask him some questions. [Enter Oliver Seward.] Edward. We wish to ask you the reasons which induced you to leave your master. Was he cruel in his treatment of you? Oliver. He was not. I had a very kind master; but it is hard to be a slave. I struggled long between my affection for my mother and brothers, and my love of liberty—and might, perhaps, have remained a slave to this day, had it not been for a flogging which I received for breaking, accidentally, one of the plantation tools. This roused my spirit, and I resolved to effect my escape, or die, rather than submit any longer. Albert. But do you not fear that you may be sick, and unable to provide for yourself? You would then wish for the protection and care of your master. Oliver. I hope to be able to guard against want in the case you suppose; but I would far prefer to die a FREE-MAN, than to live a slave. Albert. Would the slaves be contented to remain and labor for their masters, if they were made free, and offered fair wages? Oliver. They would be glad to do so. The climate of the South is more agreeable to them than the cold winters of the Northern States, and they are attached to the places which have always been to them a home.
    • Albert. But would not many of the slaves retaliate the injury then may have received, upon the masters, if they were emancipated? Oliver. Why should they? It is contrary to their nature to return injury for benefit. They would then have none but the kindest feelings towards their masters; now, they cannot but think on the wrongs they endure; and the time must come, when, if those wrongs are not redressed, the limit to their forbearance will be passed, and they will extort, by the strong hand of power, that justice so long denied. It is slavery, not freedom, which threatens violence to the masters. The happy results of emancipation in Mexico, Peru, Hayti, and the British West Indies, prove this. Albert. But do you think, Edward, that we are in any way responsible for this evil, as it exists in our country? Edward. I certainly do; for it is a moral blot on our country’s fame, which we must speedily wipe out, or it will mar its glory forever. Albert. I do believe slavery an evil, but I have not thought so deeply upon it before. The worst feature in it to my mind, however, is its cruelty in separating husbands and wives, and I had hoped that they did not feel so strong an attachment to relatives and friends as we do. Source John A. Collins [ed.], The Anti-Slavery Offering and Picknick; A Collection of Speeches, Poems, Dialogues, Songs for Schools and A.S. Meetings (Boston: H.W. Williams, 1843), 106-110. Edited by Old Sturbridge Village. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • The publication of slave narratives or biographies was a very effective way to promote the abolitionist cause. Olaudah Equiano published his memoir, “ The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or, Gustavus Vassa, the African. ” There were seventeen editions of this book in thirty years and translations into German, Dutch and Russian. In his book he relates that after being owned by several people that eventually he was acquired by Robert King, a Quaker merchant from Philadelphia who traded in the Caribbean. King set Equiano to work on his shipping routes and in his stores, promising him, in 1765, that he could one day buy his own freedom if he saved forty pounds, the price King had paid for Equiano. King taught him to read and write more fluently, educated him in the Christian faith, and allowed Equiano to engage in his own profitable trading as well as on his master's behalf, enabling Equiano to come by the forty pounds honestly. He had been employed as a clerk and a Captain’s assistant on ships trading in the West Indies and carrying slaves to the American colonies. In his early twenties, Equiano bought his own freedom. King urged Equiano to stay on as a business partner, but Equiano found it dangerous and limiting to remain in the colonies as a freed black. While loading a ship in Georgia, he had been almost kidnapped back into slavery. Equiano returned to Britain, where slavery was much more limited. Equaino’s book is one of the few books that is a first hand description of being a slave and description of the horrors of slavery. Olaudah Equiano © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
      • Some Other Examples of Slave Narratives & Biographies are:
        • A Narrative of the Most remarkable Particulars in the Life of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, an African Prince , Bath 1772
        • A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, a native of Africa: But resident Above Sixty Years in the United State of America by Venture Smith, New London 1798
        • Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave , New York 1825
        • The History of Mary Prince, a West Indian Slave , London 1831
        • Slavery in the United States: A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Charles Ball, A Black Man , Lewistown 1836
        • A Narrative of Adventures and Escape of Moses Roper from American Slavery , London 1837
        • A Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave , Boston 1845
        • Narratives of the Sufferings of Lewis and Milton Clarke, Sons of a Soldier of the revolution, during a Captivity of more than Twenty years among the Slaveholders of Kentucky , Boston 1846
        • Narrative of William Wells Brown, a fugitive Slave , Boston 1847
        • The Life of Josiah Henson, formerly a Slave, now an Inhabitant of Canada , Boston 1849
        • Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, an American Slave , New York 1849
      © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Headpiece illustration by Hammat Billings for Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly , by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Illustrated Edition. Original Designs by Billings; Engraved by Baker and Smith. (Boston: John P. Jewett and Company, 1853). Eliza, Harry. Clifton Waller Barrett Collection, University of Virginia. One of the most important books to influence the abolitionist movement in America was Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel, “ Uncle Tom’s Cabin ”. The first installment of Uncle Tom's Cabin was published in the The National Era newspaper on June 2, 1851. The first book edition came out in 1852. It was first dramatized in 1853. Panoramic paintings were created depicting scenes from the book and the stage versions. A number of these traveling panoramic paintings were displayed in Waynesville and this area. In 1862, Abraham Lincoln said to Harriet Beecher Stowe, “ Is this the little woman who made this great war? ” © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • William Wilberforce (August 24, 1759 – July 29, 1833) William Wilberforce was a British Member of Parliament that led the struggle against the slave trade and slavery itself in the British Empire. Wilberforce was a devout Christian who had been profoundly influenced by the Evangelical Movement. In 1787, Wilberforce and other Anglicans joined the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade and the lengthy campaign against slavery began . Ironically, Wilberforce died shortly after slavery was eradicated in the British Empire in 1833. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Abraham Lincoln was an admirer of William Wilberforce. In a fragment of a speech which is believed to have been part of the famous Lincoln ~ Douglas Senate race in 1858 ( Gilder Lehrman Collection , (GLC 05302), Lincoln said: "School-boys know that Wilbe[r]force. . .helped the [abolitionist] cause forward; but who can now name a single man who labored to retard it?" © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007 William Wilberforce at 29 years of age. John Rising (1753-1817) W ilberforce House
    • British Abolitionist Commemorative Medal Unsigned illustration for The Anti-Slavery Record , Vol. I, Appendix: p. 162 (New York: Published by R. G. Williams, for the American Anti-Slavery Society, 1835) Alderman Library, University of Virginia. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • The Abolition of the Slave Trade in England is celebrated on a new £2 coin for 2007. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • In 1787 Granville Sharp, Thomas Clarkson and Josiah Wedgewood (famous for Wedgwood Pottery ) and nine members of the Quaker Yearly Meeting in England establish the “ Committee for Abolition of the African Slave Trade, ” a national organization and ecumenical. They meet in a Quaker book store and print shop in London. The nine Quaker members are: John Barton (1755 - 1789); William Dillwyn ; George Harrison ; Samuel Hoare Jr ; Joseph Hooper (1732 - 1789); John Lloyd ; Joseph Woods ; James Phillips ; Richard Phillips , cousin to James Phillips (1756 - 1836). Josiah Wedgewood also created the famous “ Slave Medallion ” this year. Granville Sharp and Thomas Clarkson are both Anglican and Josiah Wedgewood is a Quaker. William Wilberforce , an Evangelical Anglican, is the Parliamentary spokesman for this group. Thomas Clarkson develops a network of traveling agents (speakers and organizers) and local country committees. This kind of auxiliary organization will be copied by American abolitionists. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • William Dillwyn (1743-1824) and John Lloyd (1750-1811) who were members of the original Quaker committee ( Meeting for Sufferings Committee on the Slave Trade ) had prepared a short address to the public that was published in December 1783 (see right). 2,000 copies were originally published, and a further 10,000 copies in 1784. It was distributed to every member of parliament, the royal family and other notables, and, especially to anyone who might have influence. It was not very effective because of the attitude of most of the British towards a dissenting religious group like the Quakers. It wasn’t until the Friends banned with non-Quakers that political lobbying began in earnest and was effective. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Founded in 1856 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, Wilberforce closed temporarily in 1862 during the Civil War and reopened the following year after being sold to the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Growth drove the need to build a new campus in 1967, located one mile away. In 1974, a tornado destroyed much of the city of Xenia and the old campus, part of the Super Outbreak tornado storm. Wilberforce University : America's Single Greatest Institutional Memorial of the Great Abolitionist © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Thomas Clarkson was an Anglican Deacon who referred to himself as “ half a Quaker ”. He had great admiration for the Society of Friends and their persistent campaign against slavery. He adopted many Quaker customs although he remained Anglican. His two great works are: History of the Rise, Progress and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade and A Portraiture of Quakerism, Volume 1 ~ 3. “ half a Quaker ” Thomas Clarkson © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • We highly recommend that everyone see the movie ~ Amazing Grace Which is about the anti-slavery struggle in England and about William Wilberforce. http://www.amazinggracemovie.com/ © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Unlike Thomas Clarkson in England, the American Colonizationists not only advocated the return of freed slaves to Africa who had been born in Africa if they so chose to go back, but of all freed slaves even if they had been born in the United States and wanted to stay here. Clarkson did not advocate sending freed slaves born in America back to Africa against their will. William Lloyd Garrison’s radicalism divided the American abolitionist scene again. This time the divide would be over one of focus. Garrison advocated a multitude of social reforms as well as abolition, opposition to the death penalty, the freedom of women, temperance, health reform, non-resistance, and experiments in social governance (No-Human Government). Many abolitionists feared that emphasis on these other social reforms would damage the primary effort for the abolition of slavery. Unlike in England, the abolition movement in the United States would fracture into two major groups: The Colonization Society gradualists and the Garrisonian abolitionists seeking immediate emancipation. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • An early American Quaker abolitionist was John Woolman 1720-1772 " These are the people by whose labor the other inhabitants are in a great measure supported, and many of them in the luxuries of life. These are the people who have made no agreement to serve us, and who have not forfeited their liberty that we know of. These are the souls for whom Christ died, and for our conduct towards them we must answer before Him who is no respecter of persons. They who know the only true God and Jesus Christ whom he hath sent, and are thus acquainted with the merciful, benevolent gospel spirit, will therein perceive that the indignation of God is kindled against oppression and cruelty, and in beholding the great distress of so numerous a people will find cause for mourning." (Chapter IV, Journal of John Woolman , entries for 1757 while in Virginia) Photo: The John Woolman Page , w ww.accd.edu/sac/english/BAILEY/woolman.htm Like Wilberforce, John Woolman was against cruelty to animals, was an abolitionist, and also refused to pay taxes to help wage war against the Indians. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Library of Congress : http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/odyssey/archive/03/032200ar.jpg Quaker Benjamin Lay published the brochure, “ All slave-keepers that keep the Innocent in bondage, Apostates ” in 1737. Friend Lay was an unusual looking person. He was 4’ 7” tall, probably a dwarf, and was a hunchback. He had a long white beard. Like the prophet Jeremiah, he liked to dramatically demonstrate his prophet messages to the meeting. He once kidnapped a slaveholder’s child and hid the child until the grieving parents came to him for help to find their child. He then turned the child over to them driving home the obvious. Think how a slave family feels when you sell off their children! Once during a meeting, Lay rose to denounce slavery and during his testimony he suddenly tore off his Quaker garb under which he wore a military uniform exclaiming that slave owners were men of war and He held in one hand a large bible and then he drew his sword. "In the sight of God you are as guilty as if you stabbed your slaves to the heart, as I do this book!" He pierced a small bladder filled with the juice of poke-weed, which he had concealed between the covers, and sprinkling as with fresh blood those who sat near him.
    • Another Quaker prophet, a younger contemporary of John Woolman , was Friend Zechariah Dix ( Dicks ) (1735-1812). The testimony against slavery made by Friend Zechariah Dix , a member of Cane Creek Monthly Meeting in North Carolina, at Bush River Monthly Meeting began their discernment process to move to the Northwest Territory to escape slavery. Friend Dix was born in Pennsylvania and migrated to North Carolina around 1754 and settled near Cane Creek MM . He became a leader in the Society, preached and visited meetings as far south as Wrightsborough, Georgia. Dix warned Friends of a terrible and apocalyptic “ internecine war ”, which was to come upon American because of slavery within their lifetime. He also frightened people with descriptions of slave insurrections which he was sure were to come. From 1784 to 1804 he visited Europe. Dix eventually moved to Indiana and died there. In 1800 thousands of Quakers lived in South Carolina and Georgia. By 1809 almost all had moved to the Northwest Territory. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
      • Things to Remember about the Quakers     
      • The Underground Railroad in the United States was not a Quaker institution or invention.
      •          The Society of Friends did not “ own ” the UGRR , nor did Quakers direct it as if it were a private business or corporation. It was certainly not a church mission.
      • Although most members of the Society of Friends were anti-slavery in general opinion, many did not embraced the abolitionist agenda, which they viewed as too secular and too provocative. There was a wide diversity of opinion among Friends on the appropriate way to respond to slavery. Differing opinion eventually lead to a schism among Friends (both Orthodox and Hicksite ) over anti-slavery issues in 1843.
      • In the 1830s and 1840s there were a number of divides within American Quakerism. There had been a schism between the “ Orthodox ” and “ Hicksite ” Quakers in 1828. Ten years later in 1838, the Orthodox Friends divided again into two groups, the “ Gurneyites ” and the “ Wilburites ”.
      © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
      • British Friends were very evangelically oriented and united. They did not experience the schisms that the American Quakers experienced. British Friends, however, only corresponded with Orthodox Quakers and never with the Hicksite Quakers. None-the-less, British Friends could be rather critical of Orthodox Friends for their lukewarm attitude towards abolition.
      •          There were American Quakers who sadly harbored racist fears of African-Americans. Although living in a free state, many white people approved of slavery, or wanted to maintain the subordination of blacks through the notorious “ Black Laws ”, or wanted to avoid black people altogether. Many Friends were gradualists (advocating small steps towards emancipation), segregationalists, and rather paternalistic in their attitude.
      • There are courageous stories of Quaker involvement in the UGRR . To give one example, Richard Dillingham (June 18, 1823 – June 30, 1850) was a young Quaker from Peru Township, Morrow County, Ohio who was arrested in Tennessee during his attempted rescue of three slaves in 1848. He was sentenced to three years in the Tennessee State Penitentiary in Nashville. While in prison he died of cholera. The Quaker poet, John Greenleaf Whittier wrote the poem “ The Cross ” in his honor.
      © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • THE ANTI-SLAVERY/UNDERGROUND RAILROAD MOVEMENTS WERE ECUMENICAL Many people from a variety of churches were actively involved in the Anti-Slavery and UGRR movements in the United States: Reformed Presbyterians Wesleyan Methodists Free Will Baptists The African-American Methodist Episcopal Church The AME Zion (AMEZ) The African-American Baptist Church (Anti-Slavery Church). This parallels what happened in England where the abolition movement was ecumenical. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Source: Original Newspaper Article - CLEVELAND GAZETTE - January 31st, 1891 by Mr. J.J. Wheeler, Dayton, Ohio James Davis (1787-1862) James Davis, who is still fresh in the minds of many Daytonians, was the first Afro-American born in the state of Ohio. He was born at Harmar Village, (Marietta, Ohio) on March 6, 1787. A short sketch of his career may be interesting. He came to Dayton when he was quite a young man, and soon became a leader of our people here. He was (sixty-years ago) one of the leading hunters in Ohio, and had the credit of killing the largest bear of his day. He also was the leading violinist and barber of this city, and the first president of the American Sons of Protection, (Underground Railroad Affiliated) the oldest benevolent (colored) society in this city, which he helped to organize in February, 1849. This society today is worth in money and real estate, $3,000. November 6, 1811, he shaved General W.H. Harrison while the general sat upon a log. The next day the great battle of Tippecanoe was fought, and the red men of the great Shawnee chief -- Tecumseh -- killed upward of sixty men of Harrison's army and more than one hundred wounded. Father Davis, as he was called, was born to be conspicuous, and was a highly esteemed member of the Weslyan Methodist Church. He died a devout Christian January 17, 1862, aged seventy-four years, ten months and twenty days. He was laid to rest in the beautiful Woodland Cemetery where the remains of General Robert C. Schenek, the great Republican leader, and the remains of C. L. Vallandigham, the great Democratic leader, lie. The colored soldiers, and state and United States officials, the colored citizen and the white merchant are sleeping their last long sleep peacefully together, waiting for the general resurrection. The colored and white citizens (in Dayton) always buried their dead together. J.J. Wheeler. ___________________ See, Henry Robert Burke’s Southern Ohio site: http://www.lwfaah.net/oh/j_davis.htm The life of James Davis is an example of an African-American conductor and a member of the anti-slavery Wesley Methodist Church. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Most of us are aware of African-American abolitionists such as Frederick Douglas, Harriett Tubman, and Sojourner Truth. There were many more. For example: Peter H. Clark Samuel Cornish William Craft Martin Delany James Forten Henry Highland Garnet Frances Harper Lewis Hayden Terry Loguen John Parker James W. C. Pennington Gabriel Prosser Robert Purvis Charles Lenox Remond James McCune Smith John Brown Russwurm Benjamin “Pap” Singleton Austin Steward Maria W. Stewart William Still Nat Turner Denmark Vesey David Walker William Whipper Theordore S. Wright © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • John Mercer Langston was an African-American abolitionist with connections to Harveysburg, Ohio. In 1854 Caroline ( “ Carrie ” ) Wall of Harveysburg married the powerful African-American abolitionist John Mercer Langston in Oberlin, Ohio. Caroline was one of the children of the white North Carolinian plantation owner, Stephen Wall that brought his children to Harveysburg to be raised in freedom and be educated. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • John Mercer Langston, in his autobiography describes the “ guardianship ” relationships of the Wall children who received every consideration and every opportunity in education as they grew up in Harveysburg. Among other places visited by him, and in which he presented the claims and object of this association, was Harveysburg, already named, a Quaker village, where colored persons were treated with great favor, and the members of a single family among them were given superior advantages of education and social contact. Here Mr. Langston met Miss Wall for the second time, finding her family, consisting of three brothers and one sister besides herself, very handsomely located, very kindly treated by the whole community, with all the members of it accorded every educational and social opportunity possible. Indeed, if distinction were made at all with respect to them it was in their favor. The father of this family, Col. Stephen Wall, a very wealthy and influential citizen of Richmond County, North Carolina, had brought his children to this liberal Quaker village, and having thus made them all free, settled them in easy, in fact affluent circumstances, under wise and suitable guardianship, for their education and culture. So great was his constant interest in them, and so ample the provision which he made in their behalf, and so influential were those to whom he committed their business and education, that they were treated everywhere, in church, school and the community, as if they were children of its very best and most prominent family . . . Then they visited Harveysburg, where spending several days in the family of Mrs. Dr. Scroggs, a special friend of Mrs. Langston, they were accorded a warm-hearted reception and hospitable treatment. Thence they went to their own country home, to be received with every expression of kindly regard by those who proved to be in every sense their devoted and constant friends ” ( From the Virginia Plantation to the National Capitol or The First and Only Negro Representative in the Congress from the Old Dominion by John Mercer Langston (Hartford, Conn.: American Publishing Company, 1894), pp. 142-143). © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • The importance of rural African-American communities in southern Ohio in the abolitionist and underground railroad network can not be over emphasized. The Gist Settlements in Brown and Highland Counties Paynes Crossing, Ohio Pokepatch, Ohio Blackfork, Ohio Berlin Cross Roads, Ohio Pee Pee Settlement Stillguest Settlement Hicks Settlement Abram Depp Settlement Guinea Settlement Huston Hollow Carrs Run And Straight Creek Settlements And, We would like to add to the list: © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Harveysburg (1828) and Canbytown, Ohio The area around the future Harveysburg was settled early in the 19th century. The early community circled around Rhoden Ham ’s cabin and his farm atop a tall ridge overlooking the east bank of Caesar’s Creek . The area was abounding in rich virgin land, which only needed hard work to turn into productive farms. Also, nearby along the bluff overlooking the creek, were numerous mineral springs that ran down to the creek and many caves along Harveysburg Hill. Caesar’s Creek would lend itself to the establishment of mills: one group southwest of the town was built originally by Levi Lukens , another mill was at the foot of the town itself, and there was one at New Baltimore, which was located northwest of the town on a curve in the creek. It would later be renamed Canbytown after Joshua Canby who was the owner of the mill in 1835 and conducted a very successful business there. The mill provided jobs for freedmen who lived in the area. Also close by was the Caesar’s Creek Monthly Meeting of Friends . Canbytown, which is now under the water of Caesar’s Creek Lake was just a mile or so beyond the Quaker Meeting down in a ravine known as Brimstone Valley now underwater. There was indeed an arc of African-American communities reaching from Crosswick north of Waynesville, to Canbytown directly north of Harveysburg and Harveysburg itself, and then on into Chester Township of Clinton Co., Ohio. The committee believes that these communities of freedmen and women were in these locales because the areas north of the Wilmington and Springboro Road (now Rte. 73) was quite remote and so provided greater protection to African-Americans. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
      • Harveysburg was a remarkably integrated community before the Civil War . This should not be too surprising considering that the founder of the town was the son of UGRR conductor Isaac Harvey and abolitionist Lydia Dicks ( Dix ) Harvey . Harveysburg had a large and strong black/mulatto community living in the northern section of the village and just outside of it:
      • The Black School established by Elizabeth Burgess Harvey was built just outside the original boundary of the village on the north side (Out Lot #2) during the early 1830s.
      • On Lot 66 in the village, the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church was founded in 1846.
      • Antioch Chapel of the Anti-Slavery Colored Baptist Church of Harveysburg was founded on January 13, 1862. The trustees of this organization were: Henry Wiggins , Charlott Dudley , Sarah Brantley , Nancy A. Dawson , and Mahala Brantly were elected trustees and John Dodson was elected clerk. The exact location is not clear although it is most likely that this Anti-Slavery Colored Baptist Church developed into the Zion Baptist Church (see below). One of the concerns of Anti-Slavery societies was to promote Anti-Slavery churches to provide moral suasion for the movement.
      • On Lot 64 was located Zion Baptist Church , an African American Church. It was built using the old materials from the Harveysburg Academy founded by Dr. Jesse Harvey . Zion Baptist Church was rebuilt on the same site of the first academy. The cemetery of the Zion Baptist Church is located outside of the village across Rte. 73 in Fifty Springs Picnic Area of Caesar’s Creek State Park . The Black School was located behind (north of) the Academy / Zion Baptist Church building outside of the village limit.
      • In 1872 the Corner Stone Lodge #7 Masonic Lodge ( Prince Hall ) was established and built on Lot 68.
      © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • The relationship between African-Americans and white people in Harveysburg was usually very good. Indeed, evidence seems to indicate that the Friends and other anti-slavery persons in the village and the Black community worked together to promote anti-slavery and possibly helped each other on the Underground Railroad . The legend about Harveysburg is that once a fugitive slave got to Harveysburg, s/he could walk on the streets in daylight since almost everyone (black and white) was a strong abolitionist if not a conductor on the Underground Railroad . If any danger arose in Harveysburg itself, the fugitive could be quickly taken north to more remote locales such as the northern part of Chester Township, Clinton Co. Pro-slavery sympathizers did live in and near Harveysburg. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007 Crosswick
    • The Black School in Harveysburg ~ founded in 1831 by Elizabeth Burgess Harvey © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Illustration for page 15, The American Anti-Slavery Almanac for 1839 (New York: Published for the American Anti-Slavery Society, Vol. I, No. 4). Courtesy The John Hay Library, Brown University. Caption: © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • It is not our intention to romanticize the Underground Railroad , which was a highly dangerous and illegal activity. Both the Anti-Slavery and UGRR movements were counter-cultural and exceedingly controversial. Families that were involved usually made a lengthy and expensive commitment to this cause in the face of grave danger. We do not want to trivialize the reality of the sacrifices made by everyone involved. The Anti-Slavery and UGRR movements were commitments of individual conscience that ran against the common beliefs of the day. Participants usually defied their church and the state, and members of their local communities. Many good people of conscience chose involvement in the abolitionist movement but not directly in the UGRR since it was illegal. They worked towards the demise of slavery in other ways. Illustration taken from: INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF A SLAVE GIRL. Written by Herself. Harriet Jacobs (Linda Brent) http://xroads.virginia.edu/~Hyper/JACOBS/hj-site-index.htm
    • Although the iron railroad, which was the newest and most advanced mode of transportation at that time, lent its name to this road, the Underground Railroad “ lines ” were not rigid or inflexible. It was more like a winding river carrying people to freedom as it flowed around angry masters and slave catchers and unsympathetic communities. The railroad metaphor that white participants used to describe their activity should not be taken literally for the UGRR was neither underground nor a railroad. The committee believes that the railroad imagery was used in a rather tongue-in-cheek way by the participants. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • 1844 Chicago Western Citizen advertisement thinly disguised its purpose by announcing the "Liberty Line“. The Kansas Territorial Experience: Uncle Tom’s Cabin, http://www.kuce.org/kt/session1/discussion.html © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Two central Quaker figures involved in the abolition movement and Underground Railroad in Indiana and Ohio was Levi and Catherine Coffin Levi and Catherine Coffin move to Cincinnati from Newport, Indiana in 1847. He opens a free labor store in Cincinnati where no products would be sold that had been produced through slave labor. He is a conductor on the Underground Railroad. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007 A classic of UGRR literature is: Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, the reputed president of the underground railroad: being a brief history of the labors of a lifetime in behalf of the slave, with the stories of numerous fugitives, who gained their freedom through his instrumentality, and many other incidents ( Cincinnati: Western Tract Society, 1876).
    • The Coffins were not the only “conductors” in Cincinnati. Harriet Beecher Stowe House (Lane Seminary) 2950 Gilbert Avenue Cincinnati, Ohio 45206 The Samuel and Sally Wilson House is located at 1502 Aster Place, in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is a private residence, and is not open to the public. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • 1842 ~ One of the saddest stories concerning a white conductor on the Underground Railroad is that of John Van Zandt , whose life was immortalized in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin as John Van Trompe . Originally from Kentucky, Van Zandt freed his slaves and moved to Ohio. His farm was in what is now suburban Evendale (Cincinnati). It sat near the Miami-Erie Canal at the present site of Landmark Baptist Church , Oak and Chester Roads. Because of his UGRR activity, he was excommunicated from his Methodist Episcopal Church in Sharonville. He has only recently been re-instated by the church. Van Zandt was caught transporting eight fugitives owned by Wharton Jones between Cincinnati and Lebanon and brought to court and lost. He appealed to the U. S. Supreme Court, where he lost his case again. He lost everything and died destitute in 1847 at the age of 56. His family was devastated and his eleven children scattered among other families. Evendale is located about 20 miles southwest of Foster, Ohio, which was famous as “ Butterworth Station ”, a heavily used Underground Railroad Station. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007 Butterworth Station at Foster’s Crossing (near Maineville, Warren Co., Ohio) Home of Henry Thomas and Nancy I. Wales Butterworth built in 1820
    • © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • William Butterworth was the first secretary of the Hamilton Township Anti-Slavery Society , an auxiliary of the Warren Co. Antislavery Society ( Western Star , April 7, 1843). William and his brothers Thomas and Samuel were conductors on the Underground Railroad and lived near Maineville in southeast Warren County, Ohio. Part of an Obituary of Elizabeth Linton Butterworth, wife of William Butterworth, daughter of Nathan and Rachel Smith Linton: When the name of Abolitionism was an insult; and a rep_____’ she was content to feed and clothe the hungry and naked and speed the fugitive to freedom. She gave little heed to legal quibbles but dedicated ________. She only knew that all suffering _______ has imperial claims and she had heard _____ _____ Congress or the Supreme Court but from the Divine Master “Inasmuch as Ye ______ it to one of the least of these My little Ones, ye did it unto Me.” And so with out concealment and ____ ____ ____ ______ _____ she responded. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Valentine b. May 27th, 1809 in Clinton County-d. March 24, 1904 in Indianapolis, Indiana Jane b. February 1st, 1806 in Iredale Co., North Carolina-d. September 9th, 1906 in Indiana Valentine & Jane F. Wales Nicholson © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007 Images from Ohio Historical Society
    • “ When the division in the Society of Friends took place, I found myself most in the line of sympathy with those called Hicksites. And when the Slaveholding force in this Nation became so spread over all the northern States that a man was liable to meet with much violence for reading or quoting in public, the sentiments contained in the “Declaration of Independence,” it was impossible for me to keep back from the very front ranks of those who had enlisted in the course of universal emancipation. I do not very well remember dates, but, think from and after the year 1830, there began to be a regular stream of slaves escaping from masters and slave traders in the south and going toward the North Star hoping to reach Canada. Many of them were captured and taken back. The fact of bounty money offered all over the northern states ready to help man hunters and slave catchers for the reward offered; it was dangerous as a member of the most benevolent, humane and courageous persons to combine for the protection of those traveling in pursuit of their own freedom. All of this number (known as agents of the Underground Railroad) were in as cool and reliable earnest as we may suppose the people were who bid defiance to the laws of England and throwed the Tea overboard in Boston Harbor. I kept no record and could only guess at the number I have helped on their way, but it would be up among the hundreds I should think . . . This was before Garrison began to publish the “Liberator”. Dr. Brooke had not come to live at Oakland that early day, neither had any of the Brooke families , who were friends of the slave, were not numerous in those days. Jesse Harvey , was the most active one in Harveysburg. Abram Allen and Nathan Linton , the Wickershams , and Haynes’s and Davis’s were true friends in Oakland ” (Memoir of Valentine Nicholson) © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Nancy Irvin Wales Butterworth and Jane Finley Wales Nicholson are sisters. Valentine Nicholson and Jane F. Wales Nicholson were married on November 3rd, 1830. They were married on the same day along side Jane ’s sister Nancy I. Wales who married Henry Thomas Butterworth. The double wedding was held at the Hicksite Grove Preparative Meetinghouse in Harveysburg . The Valentine Nicholson farm was located between the Samuel Welch and the Thomas Montgomery Wales properties at the foot of the " S " curve leading up to Harveysburg. See the 1856 Map of the Waynesville-Harveysburg area on the left. Jane and Valentine were Underground Railroad conductors for twenty years. The topography of the land lent itself to the need to hide and do things clandestinely. Caesar’s Creek rolled south along a 100 foot eastern plateau. On the side of this plateau were fresh water springs and caves. Where Caesar’s Creek enters the Little Miami there is a long and deep gorge. All the land around is farm land except for the small village of Harveysburg and a few mills on the creek. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Jane and Nancy Wales are sisters to Thomas Montgomery Wales Photoagraph taken from Biography of Thomas M. Wales found in 1882 Beer’s History of Warren Co ., pp. 1019-1020 Sadly this wonderful old home is no longer extant. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • This story was told in T. M. Wale’s obituary: He worked with the early Abolitionists in assisting fugitives from slavery to freedom. Once, while driving thro’ Springboro, John Potts accosted him, saying: “Thomas, thee had as well wait until evening and then drive around thro’ the alley.” Mr. Wales did not wait until the sun went down and then drive through he alley, where a barn door flew open and a shy colored man, hardly daring to be seen, stepped into the carriage and to the back seat, while he was driven to the next station on the Underground Railroad. Thomas Montgomery Wales , known as T. M. Wales , was active politically in every enterprise of Harveysburg and was president of the Waynesville ~ Wilmington Pike Co . T. M. was a Freemason, a Temperance man and was a noted anti-slavery person. His home was a station on the Underground Railroad and he help to spirit many a fugitive slave to Canada and safety. In October of 1874, T. M. was elected on the Republican ticket to represent Warren Co. in the House of Representatives of the General Assembly of Ohio (See, Combination Atlas Map of Warren County, Ohio by L. H. Everts, 1875, p. 22½). He was also one of the first subscribers to the Miami Cemetery Association in 1866. He was one of the first trustees of the cemetery in Corwin. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Oakland Chester Township, Clinton County A Tiny Village that Wanted to Reform the World The small village of Oakland in Chester Township, Clinton Co., Ohio, and the immediate area around it, was where the two major lines of the Underground Railroad ; one from Ripley, the other from Cincinnati converged. Oakland was a center of dedicated Garrisonian abolitionists. Nearby Harveysburg had a few Garrisonians and radicals as well as Orthodox and Hicksite Quakers. Most of the Quakers in Oakland joined the Congregational/Progressive Friends . Those involved and who worked together through Oakland were Abram Allen, David Allen, Seth Linton, Nathan Linton, Dr. Abram Brooke, Samuel Brooke, William Brooke, James Brooke, Perry Dakin, Dr. G. F. Birdsall, John L. Thompson (lived outside of Chester Twp.) , the Wickershams, the Potts, Wright Haynes, Joel P. Davis, and Edmund “ Ed ” and Matilda ( Ballard ) Kinsey (Liberty Twp.). © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • John Jay Janney told Wilbur H. Siebert that: “ Oakland, Clinton County, Ohio was an important station. Abram Allen lived here and was probably as active a man as Levi Coffin . ( Mr. Janney knew both of these men personally and helped to persuade the latter to issue his reminiscences in book form). Oakland is about four miles west of Wilmington where there lived half dozen families. Mr. Allen ’s post office was Oakland, Clinton County, Ohio, but he resided about a mile out in the country. My memory is, said Mr. Janney that Allen told me that about 3300 slaves had passed through his hands and that not one so far as he knew was ever captured. Dr. Abram Brooke was also very prominent in the work at Oakland. The Potts family (not Quakers), but they were always ready to travel with fugitives .” (Siebert MIC 192, Roll #11, Box 59, vol. #11, Item 22). © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Abram Allen was a weaver. This 1840 coverletis located in the Clinton County Historical Society Museum in Wilmington, Ohio. In 1820 Abraham Allen , a weaver, and his wife Cata ( Katy Wooley Howland Allen ) and his son David moved their membership to Center Monthly Meeting in Clinton Co., Ohio from Oswego Monthly Meeting in New York, 1820.8.19. Abraham and Katy Allen would have nine children all together. They would become important and very active conductors on the UGRR . In 1820 Abraham Allen began the construction of his unusual house ~ a house of mud. The walls were yellow clay mixed with enough cut oats straw to hold the mud together. The walls were two feet thick. Construction took two years. His home, that became a well-known UGRR station, was located a short distance from the old Center Meetinghouse in Clinton Co. not far from Oakland. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Abram Allen built a large carriage, which was called “The Liberator”, which was used many years in the UGRR service, and would carry eight or ten persons. A company of leading philanthropists from Clinton Co., went in it to N.Y. in 1840 to attend a meeting of the American Anti-Slavery Society. The men slept in the carriage at night. The ladies were entertained at the farmhouses during the trip. The Underground Railroad wagon pictured above is at the Mendenhall Plantation site in North Carolina near Jamestown. Abram Allen’s “ Liberator ” was probably similar to this wagon. Photos: Mendenhall Plantation website: http://www.mendenhallplantation.org/ © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Dr. Abram Brooke ~ Moral Suasion & God’s Government “ Dr. Brooke was a tall, thin man, with gray hair, and beard quite unshaven. His face reminded me of the ancient Philosophers. His only clothing was a shirt and pantaloons; nothing else on either body, head, or feet. He invited us into his comfortable parlor, which was neatly furnished and had a good supply of books and papers. Our breakfast consisted of cold baked apples, cold corn bread, and I think potatoes. ~~ The History of American Socialism by John Humphrey Noyes , p. 314-315 (The above description of Dr. Brooke dates from 1844) Dr. Abram ( Abraham ) Brooke was born in Sandy Spring, Maryland. The Brooke family was a leading family in the area. There he attended Quaker schools and eventually medical college in Baltimore. He married Elizabeth Lukens in Maryland and they had six children. In 1828 during the Hicksite Schism, Abram and his family remained Hicksite Friends. In 1831 Abram Brooke and family moved to Stark Co., Ohio to a Quaker community in Marlboro. There he became very active in the Underground Railroad © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • In 1838, Dr. Brooke , his parents and most of his family moved with him to Clinton Co., Ohio, to the village of Oakland. Abraham and Elizabeth first came to Oakland (early 1838) followed by his brother William and his wife Lydia Gilpin (late 1838). Their parents Samuel, Sr. and Sarah moved from Marlboro in Stark Co. to Oakland the following year (1839). Samuel, Sr. died Feb. 6, 1844 and was buried on the family plot in Oakland. After Samuel Sr. ’s death, Sarah and her daughter Margaret lived next door to the Dr. Abram Brooke ’s. Another brother, James B. Brooke moved first to Springboro, Ohio from Marlboro in 1837 but then moved his membership to Center Meeting in Clinton Co. in 1839. Abram Brooke ’s farm on the east side of Oakland. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Dr. Brooke’s property as it looks today. The church is The Living Word World Outreach . © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • In 1842 Dr. Abram Brooke builds a “ Liberty Hall ” on his property on the edge of Oakland, Clinton Co., Ohio. It is a large shed or barn structure. A “ Liberty Hall ” is needed for meetings since conservative Friends have refused to allow their meetinghouses to be used for abolitionist meetings. The following is a description of Dr. Abram Brooke from the Communist newspaper: “ DR. BROOKE : This indefatigable Reformer, we understand faithfully adheres to his No-Human-Government and No-Property Principles, though standing quite alone. A friend who has been spending some time with him says, that, notwithstanding his great love of literature, so determined in his opposition to governments, that he utterly refuses to take a letter or paper from the Post Office or to use it in any way, He neither buys nor sells. ~~ His services as physician are gratuitous, and when is in want of any thing he can not command, which is seldom, he sends to his neighbors for it, unconditionally, and is generally responded to. What an individual, standing alone, may accomplish, if he should be as faithful as Milton’s very best devil, we are not able to say, no doubt very much” ( The Communist , Vo. 1, No. 13, Nov 13, 1844 ~ found at the Clinton Co., Ohio Genealogical Society ). © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • In 1843 the New England Anti-Slavery Society at its annual meeting, resolved, with the support of Mr. Garrison , to hold a series of one “ hundred conventions ” in the following states: New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Ohio, Indiana, and Pennsylvania. Frederick Douglas was one of the traveling speakers. After a convention in Cleveland, Frederick Douglas and the other speakers came to Oakland and a large convention was held in Dr. Brooke ’s “ Liberty Hall ”. The Nicholson home at Harveysburg was also used during this convention. In his autobiography, Douglas mentions Valentine Nicholson and Dr. Abram Brooke . Douglas states that thousands of people came to the convention in Oakland and that it had a positive and wide effect. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Because of the radical abolitionists that lived in Oakland, many famous abolitionist people of the day spoke in Oakland. In 1842, influenced by radicals John A. Collins and John O. Wattles , Dr. Abram Brooke helped to organize in October the Society for Universal Inquiry and Reform at an Ohio Anti-Slavery Society convention, which was held in Oakland. Valentine Nicholson and Abram Allen were also members of the Society for Universal Inquiry and Reform . The goal of this new organization was to establish utopian communities based on non-coercion and cooperation. Seven communities were eventually attempted including Prairie Home in Logan Co., Ohio. These “ utopias ” would not last long since these were communities that were to function on sheer moral suasion, not through politics or anything that appeared to be binding or coercive, such as laws or leadership authority. In 1843 the first meeting of the Society for Universal Inquiry and Reform was held in New York City but broke up because Dr. Abram Brooke refused to function as president since he believed that even that much organization was an immoral restraint on liberty. The organization, however, would continue on to sponsor seven utopian communities which strove to model God’s government: three in Ohio ( Marlborough , Prairie Home and Highland Home ) and in Indiana ( Union Home , West Grove or Fraternal Home , Kristeen and Grand Prairie ). The longest lasting community was the one in Marlborough, Stark Co., Ohio. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • John O. Wattles was involved in the establishment of the Society for Universal Inquiry and Reform in 1842 at Oakland, Ohio, along with Valentine Nicholson , Dr. Abram Brooke , and Abram Allen . They were hoping to transform the world through example, by modeling the healthiest way to live. They hoped that their ideals would become so popular that it would be adopted everywhere. Unfortunately, their ideals did not have a system or order of any kind. Consequently, the communities were not sustainable. The newly married Wattles moved into the “ Prairie Home ” community in Logan County, but this ill directed community collapsed within a few months. Two years later they would be involved in the disastrous utopian experiment with the Cincinnati Brotherhood. They procured an abandoned Fourierist phalanx in Clermont County, Ohio, that they renamed Excelsior (it had been called Utopia ). They made the mistake of building their main edifice directly on the shore of the river. A horrible flood on the Ohio River in December 1847 destroyed the community. There is a little town still on the site named “ Utopia ”. Quaker Esther Whinery Wattles (1819-1908), wife of John O. Wattles ( Dorothy Carter Collection ) Congregational John Otis Wattles ( July 22, 1809- Sept. 20, 1859) © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
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    • Achilles Henry Pugh (1805- 1876) Publishing against Slavery Orthodox Quaker, Publisher, Anti-Slavery Leader, Ecumenist, and Resident of Waynesville & Cincinnati The story of Achilles Pugh is on our website at: http://www.mlcook.lib.oh.us/Achilles%20Pugh%20-%20Orthodox%20Quaker-Publisher-Anti-Slavery%20Leader.htm The story of Achilles Pugh is also a podcast on our website at: http://campbeka.libsyn.com/index.php?post_id=182433 © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Illustration for page 11, The American Anti-Slavery Almanac for 1839 (New York: Published for the American Anti-Slavery Society, Vol. I, No. 4). Courtesy The John Hay Library, Brown University. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • The Achilles Pugh Home in Waynesville © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • Another important figure that lived in Waynesville was Public Friend Thomas Arnett Called for the Immediate Elimination of Slavery.   Resident of Waynesville, Ohio & Orthodox Quaker Minister The story of Thomas Arnett is on our website at: http://www.mlcook.lib.oh.us/Thomas%20Arnettl.htm Listen to a podcast about Thomas Arnett: http:// campbeka.libsyn.com/index.php?post_id =184494 The prominent Quaker Minister, a " Public Friend ", Thomas Arnett (1791-1877), was a member of Miami Monthly Meeting ( Orthodox ) of the Society of Friends in Waynesville, Ohio.  The Arnett family would have attended meeting in the Orthodox " Red Brick Meetinghouse " on top of " Quaker Hill.  The Orthodox meetinghouse was located one block up the hill from his second home in Waynesville, which was located on Third Street.   © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • The Thomas Arnett House in Waynesville © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • In his work Address to the Christian Traveler there is a chapter on “ Slavery .”  In it he does not mince words about the evil of slavery: “ The subject is so vast, and of such manifest atrocity, that it appears to me to be one of the greatest crimes in the whole world ”, (page 122). The points he makes in his chapter are as follows: ·          Christ died for all human beings.  Everyone is entitled to the inalienable blessings of the gospel. ·          Slave owners interfere with the person’s worship and relationship with God thus banning him from salvation. ·          Slave owners deprive persons of the gifts that God has bestowed on them. ·          Slavery does not destroy the person’s realization that s/he, who is free by nature, is being grossly devalued and degraded, and so, their situation is felt to be intolerable. ·          Slavery leads to the debasing of morals for slave and owner alike. ·          The slave trade is inherently violent. ·          Slavery should be brought to an end immediately.  Christians are called to follow their consciences and do what they can. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • “ I feel myself engaged, in the love of the Lord Jesus Christ, to call upon all my fellow beings, every where, and especially upon those who profess to believe in Him, to do what is in their power, in the spirit of the gospel, to promote the utter and immediate extinction of slavery; to consider what is their duty to do, as the divine sight; to set the oppressed free, and to avail themselves of every suitable opportunity to plead their cause with those who are in authority . . . (pp. 115-116). ~ Thomas Arnett © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007
    • The work of Granville Sharp, Thomas Clarkson, Josiah Wedgewood and William Wilberforce; the work of Olaudah Equiano, Frederick Douglas, and John Mercer Langston; the work of John Woolman, Benjamin Lay, and Zechariah Dix; the work of Harriet Beecher Stowe, Phyllis Wheatley, Hallie Q. Brown, and Linda Brent; the work of William Lloyd Garrison, John Van Zandt, Dr. Abram Brooke, Abram Allen, Valentine and Jane Wales Nicholson, and Thomas Henry and Nancy Wales Butterworth, Esther Whinery and John Otis Wattles, Achilles Pugh, and Public Friend Thomas Arnett; and the work of all the abolitionists and Underground Railroad people, black or white, Quaker or of other denominations, in Warren, Clinton and Highland Counties ; CONTINUES AS LONG AS SLAVERY EXISTS TODAY. © The Mary L. Cook Public Library, 2007