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  1. 1. What is an OT.operating room (OR) or operating suite, the modern facility within a hospital where surgicaloperations are carried out in a sterile environment.**** Operating theaters had a raised table or chair of some sort at the center for performingoperations, and were surrounded by several rows of seats (operating theaters could becramped or spacious) so students and other spectators could observe the case in progress. Thesurgeons wore street clothes with an apron to protect them from blood stains, and they operatedbare-handed withunsterilized instruments and supplies (gut and silk sutures were sold as openstrands with reusable, hand-threaded needles[citation needed]; packing gauze was made ofsweepings from the floors of cotton mills[citation needed]). In contrast to todays concept of surgery asa profession that emphasizes cleanliness and conscientiousness, at the beginning of the 20thcentury the mark of a busy and successful surgeon was the profusion of blood and fluids on hisclothesOperating rooms are spacious, easy to clean, well-lit with typically overhead surgical lights, andmay have viewing screens and monitors. Operating rooms generally have no windows and acontrolled temperature–humidity environment. Special air handlers filter the air and keep roomsslightly pressurized in relation to the outside. Electricity support has backup systems in case ofa black-out. Rooms are supplied with wall suction, oxygen, and possibly other anesthesiagases. Key equipment consists of the operating table and the anesthesia cart. In addition, thereare tables to set up instruments. There is storage space for common surgical supplies. Thereare containers for disposables. Outside the operating room is a dedicated scrubbing area that isused by surgeons, anaesthetists, ODPs (operating department practitioners), and nurses priorto surgery. An operating room will have a map to enable the terminal cleaner to realign theoperating table and equipment to the desired layout during cleaning.Several operating rooms are part of the operating suite that forms a distinct section within ahealth care facility. Beside the operating rooms and their wash rooms, it contains rooms forpersonnel to change, wash, and rest, preparation and recovery rooms(s), storage and cleaningfacilities, offices, dedicated corridors, and possibly other supportive units. In larger facilities, theoperating suite is climate- and air-controlled and separated from the remainder so that onlyauthorized personnel have access.
  2. 2. Old operation theatre One of the oldest surviving operating theaters is the Old OperatingTheatre in London. Built in 1822, it is now a museum of surgical historyhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/3343555/Operation-Theatre-Managementhttp://www.ehow.com/list_6745080_list-occupational-hazards-operating-room.htmlhttp://www.indmedica.com/journals.php?journalid=6&issueid=72&articleid=907&action=article
  3. 3. Table 1: Recommended Schedule of Accomodation Area (sq Room/Space Remarks m)Reception 10 many may be required depending on size of hospitalAnaesthetic Induction 15 -do-RoomOperating Room (major) 42-50 -do-Scrub up/gowning 6 may be co-located between operating roomsSupport AreasAnaesthetic room 10-15 many may be required depending on size of hospitalMobile Equipment bay 4 many may be required depending on size of hospitalBay Linen 3 -do-Cleaners room 4 -do-Clean up room 10 -do-Disposal room 8 -do-Flash sterilizing 5-6 -do-Laboratory/Frozen section 4-12 -do-(Optional)Set up Room 20 -do-Store Anaesthetic 20 -do-Store Equipment 20-40 depending on size of hospital
  4. 4. Store Sterile 20-80Store Non sterile 20-30Blood Store 4Recovery AreaBay Patient 9 many may be required depending on size of hospitalBay Linen 3 generally 2 bays for patient per operating roomBay Resustation trolley 2Bay Hand washing 1 -do-Clean utility 12Dirty utility 10Staff station 6-14 depending on size of hospital Administrative Staff and Shared Areas Area in Area/Space Remarks sq.m Many may be required depending on type and size ofChange room 10-30 hospitalOffice single person 9 -do-Store 10 -do-Toilet staff 2 -do-Shower staff 2 -do-Staff lounge 10-30 Depending on size of hospital and staffing
  5. 5. establishmentShared Areas Meeting 20-30RoomStore general 9Waiting 4Circulation areas of 40% should be catered.
  6. 6. The dangers of operating theatres: to patients and staffThe operating theatre is a risky environment for the patient, being the one to go under the knife,but it can be a hazardous place for the operating theatre staff too. They can be injured by theequipment, harmed by escaping gases such as those used in anaesthesia, or succumb toinfections, for instance from bacteria or viruses escaping the patient or from used swabs.A further potential dangerous source is surgical gases. During some surgical procedures,particularly those that heat or burn away tissues like electrocautery and laser resection, thetarget cells are heated strongly until they rupture, emitting harmful smoke into the operatingroom. The nature of the smoke depends on various factors, such as temperature, energy, thetype of surgery, the type of tissue and the pathology.However, up to 80 organic compounds have been identified to date in surgical smoke, includinghydrocarbons, nitriles, fatty acids and phenols. Some of these are known carcinogens. Theycould be supplemented by viruses and bacteria, made airborne by the procedure. The potentialrisks of inhalation include airway inflammation, hypoxia/dizziness, coughing, headaches andnausea and, more seriously, pulmonary congestion, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, hepatitis,carcinoma and AIDS.A recent survey of general surgical consultants and senior theatre nurses concluded that manystaff were unhappy with the current level of precautions taken against surgical smoke, so clearlythere is still work to be done on operating theatre safety.Improved operating theatre procedures to protect patients and staffAlthough the carcinogen levels are relatively low, they still represent a health hazard tooperating room personnel and the patient. Staff are particularly at risk due to repeated exposureduring their working lives in the theatre.
  7. 7. It is likely that other irrigation solution compositions will produce a different gas profile duringelectrosurgery, so the team proposed a set of general safety procedures to deal with surgicalsmoke in general.A continuous irrigation and suction system should be employed during transurethral surgery toremove the gases at source. In addition, an inline filter in their own studies eliminated 97% ofthe released compounds.Surgical masks prevent particles down to 5 µm from being inhaled but the researchers pointedout that surgical smoke contains smaller particles which would penetrate the mask. So, finersurgical masks would also help to address problems of exposure to the harmful compoundsreleased during electrosurgery.O.T TableOverall sizes approximately given below. Length of Table Top : 200cm Width of Table Top : 53cmMinimun Height : 75cm Maximum Height : 100cm Lateral tilt : 200 + 20 Trendelenburg : 200 + 20 BackSection : up/down : 900 / -150 Leg Section : up/down : 200 / -900ANAESTHESIA MACHINE:FEATURES. Rigid top tray for monitors with SS railing and stainless steel Table Top.. Two built in self sealing Schrader type Oxygen outlets (4.22kg/ cm square). Circle Absorber (optional) can be mounted on the left side of the SS Pull-Push Front handle.. Extended rear platform for two 10litres water capacity cylinders.Overall sizes and other sizes approximately given below.OPTIONS. Selectatec back bar for fitting Temparatures & Flow Compensated vaporiser. Gas pipeline connection at the back, in place on Two 10 litres water capacity cylinders.STUCTURETubular rigid electrostatically powder coated rust free extruded Aluminium structure.WHEELSFour large diameter antistatic castor wheels with ball bearing. Front castors have individual brakes.DIATHERMY Description
  8. 8. FEATURES Advanced Micro controller based Technology ELSY-360 series Electro-surgical generators are equipped with latest micro controller based sensing technology to give consistent performance over wide range of surgical procedures. Its unique circuitry monitors all the functions constantly to produce excellent performance. Smart Auto Stop Coagulation and Endicott Mode Micro controller measures the tissue impedance and automatically stops the H.F delivery after obtaining "optimum coagulation" without charring the tissue. Sticking effect & heat produced on instrument is reduced which increases life of the instrument. Thermal spread is also minimized in this mode because the machine senses increase in tissue impedance and stops the delivery at appropriate time. Programming Mode for 9 different surgeries In this mode surgeon can store programs for 9 different surgeries. Program can be recalled by selecting the program number. On each program all the parameters can be stored as per requirement. 8 modes in Monopole & 4 Special modes for bipolar · Split type Patient plate contact quality monitoring system for maximum patient safety PPCM with Split Type (Dual Pad) Patient Plate With this contact quality monitoring takes place. The moment the contact area with the patient reduces it stops the HF delivery, gives an Error message on front panel and PPCM LED will glow with an audible alarm. PPCM with Conventional Patient Plate With this sinle pad plate wire disconnection is monitored and on disconnection of anyone wire, the Unit will stop the HF delivery, gives an Error message on front panel and PPCM LED will glow with an audible alarm. Alan strongly recommends use of Split type Neutral Electrode (Patient Plate) for maximum safety.SUCTION MACHINE Description Cabinet made of mild steel sheet epoxy powder coated with stainless steel top. . High-powered vacuum pump oil immersed assembled to 1/2 HP heavy-duty motor. . Two graduated glass bottles of 1.5 Itr. each. . Synthetic Air-tight rubber lids. . Non-collapsible tubing. . Overflow cut-off device.
  9. 9. . Complete with vacuum gauge, fuse & fuse blowen device,vacuum control knob.. Vacuum -700t10mm Hg.. Mounted on four heavy duty castors.