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Practice exam 4

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  • 1. BIOTECHNOLOGY What is the difference between CLONING and DNA CLONING?CLONING: Production ofidentical copies of an organismthrough asexual meansDNA CLONING (or Gene Cloning)Production of many identical copies of asingle gene.
  • 2. USES FOR GENE CLONING1. Produce a large quantity of the gene’s product = Protein. Example: humulin or human insulin2. Learn about the function of the protein coded by thegene Example: Role of a particular protein in cancerprotection3. Make a transgenic organism Example: Pest resistant corn So do you think a transgenic animal is the same as a cloned animal?
  • 3. BIOTECHNOLOGY DNA FINGERPRINTING or PROFILINGWhat are the 4 steps of fingerprinting? 1. Collect DNA 2. Amplify DNA if necessary using Polymerase Chain Reaction 3. Cut DNA in fragments at specific locations 4. Run an electrophoresis gel
  • 4. EXERCISE 1 INVESTIGATE THE ROBBERYA woman has been attacked in her house. Her husband finds herand calls the police. She doesn’t remember her attacker. The policearrests a suspect. STEP 1: Collect Blood 1. From the woman 2. From the husband 3. From the suspect
  • 5. STEPS 2 and 3: Prepare DNA samples by PCR and digestion (amplify and cut)Crime Crime Victim’s Husband’s Suspect’sscene scene blood blood bloodblood hair
  • 6. STEP 4: Run an electrophoresis gelHas DNA a POSITIVE or NEGATIVE charge? NEGATIVE Crime scene Crime Victim’s Husband’s Suspect’s blood scene hair blood blood blood Holes in which the cut DNA is placed gel
  • 7. Let’s switch the current on…Crime scene Crime Victim’s Husband’s Suspect’s blood scene hair blood blood blood
  • 8. Whose blood from the crime scene belongs to? THE WOMAN Crime scene Crime Victim’s Husband’s Suspect’s blood scene hair blood blood blood
  • 9. Whose hair from the crime scene belongs to? THE HUSBANDCrime scene Crime Victim’s Husband’s Suspect’s blood scene hair blood blood blood
  • 10. Does the police have DNA evidence for the suspect? NO Crime scene Crime Victim’s Husband’s Suspect’s blood scene hair blood blood blood
  • 11. EXERCISE 2 THE WILLMarc was married to Julia. They had 2 children: Luke and Maria.Marc has died from a heart attack. He left a will.Robert comes in, introduces himself as Marc’s son and wants hisshare. STEP 1: Collect Blood 1. From Marc 2. From Julia 3. From Luke 4. From Maria 5. From Robert
  • 12. STEPS 2 and 3: Prepare DNA samples by PCR and digestion (amplify and cut)Marc Julia Luke Maria Robert
  • 13. STEP 4: Run an electrophoresis gelHas DNA a POSITIVE or NEGATIVE charge? NEGATIVE Marc Julia Luke Maria Robert Holes in which the cut DNA is placed gel
  • 14. Let’s switch the current on…Marc Julia Luke Maria Robert
  • 15. Is Luke Marc’s son? Is Luke Julia’s son?Marc Julia Luke Maria Robert
  • 16. Is Maria Marc’s daughter? Is Maria Julia’s daughter?Marc Julia Luke Maria Robert
  • 17. Is Robert Marc’s son? Is Robert Julia’s son?Marc Julia Luke Maria Robert
  • 18. HUMAN BODY ORGANIZATION WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION?What is the smallest level? A cellWhat is called a group of cells A tissue example?performing a similar function?What is called a group of tissues? An organ example?Organs are organized into? An organic system example?What is the largest level? The organism
  • 19. What is a tissue?A tissue is composed of similarly specializedcells that perform a common function in thebodyWhat are the 4 types of tissues? 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Muscular 4. Nervous
  • 20. What is the function of Epithelial tissue?1. covers body surfaces and lines cavities2. supports and binds body parts3. moves the body and its parts4. receives stimuli, processes that information, and conducts impulses 1
  • 21. What is the function of Nervous tissue?1. covers body surfaces and lines cavities2. supports and binds body parts3. moves the body and its parts4. receives stimuli, processes that information, and conducts impulses 4
  • 22. What is the function of muscle tissue?1. covers body surfaces and lines cavities2. supports and binds body parts3. moves the body and its parts4. receives stimuli, processes that information, and conducts impulses 3
  • 23. What is the function of Connective tissue?1. covers body surfaces and lines cavities2. supports and binds body parts3. moves the body and its parts4. receives stimuli, processes that information, and conducts impulses 2
  • 24. The only major type of tissue specialized formovement is the___________tissue. 1.Nervous 2.cardiac muscle 3.Muscle 4.connective
  • 25. How is Epithelial Tissue Classified? 1. Shape of the cells 2. Number of layersWhat shapes can you find? Squamous • (squashed) flat Cuboidal • Cube shape Columnar • Column shapeHow many layers of cells? Simple • Only one layer Stratified • Several layers Pseudostratified • Looks stratified but really is simple
  • 26. What kind of epithelial tissue is this? 1. Squamous 2. Cuboidal 3. Columnar A. simple B. stratified C. pseudostratified
  • 27. What kind of epithelial tissue is this? 1. Squamous 2. Cuboidal 3. Columnar A. simple B. stratified C. pseudostratified
  • 28. What kind of epithelial tissue is this? 1. Squamous 2. Cuboidal 3. Columnar A. simple B. stratified C. pseudostratified
  • 29. Epithelium that appears layered due to the varying levelsat which nuclei are found in cells, but in reality is notlayered, is: 1. Simple cuboidal epithelium 2. pseudostratified columnar epithelium 3. stratified squamous epithelium 4. stratified columnar epithelium
  • 30. The primary purpose of stratification, or layering, inepithelial tissue is for increased: (where could youfind this type of epithelial tissue?) 1. Protection 2. Secretion 3. absorption
  • 31. The structure of connective tissue correlates withits function. Where do you find Connective tissue?
  • 32. Loose connective tissue (under the skin) Blood Fibrous connective Tissue (tendons)Bone Cartilage (at the end of the bone) Adipose Tissue Fat droplets
  • 33. Which of these is NOT a connective tissue? 1. Blood 2. Bone 3. Muscle 4. cartilage
  • 34. Choosing from the following list of connective tissues,which one consists of cells in a fluid matrix? 1. loose connective tissue 2. adipose tissue 3. Bone 4. blood
  • 35. How many types of Muscle tissues there is? 3 types What are they? Cardiac muscle • Not striated • In the heart Skeletal muscle • Striated (lines) • In muscle attached to skeleton • VOLUNTARY Smooth muscle • Not striated (no lines) • In blood vessel walls, digestive tract • UNVOLUNTARY
  • 36. WHERE DO YOU FIND SMOOTH MUSCLE? 1. Intestinal Wall 2. Heart 3. Blood vessels 4. Biceps
  • 37. WHERE DO YOU FIND CARDIAC MUSCLE? 1. Intestinal Wall 2. Heart 3. Blood vessels 4. Biceps
  • 38. WHERE DO YOU FIND SKELETAL MUSCLE? 1. Intestinal Wall 2. Heart 3. Blood vessels 4. biceps
  • 39. Only Skeletal muscle is voluntary. TRUE FALSE
  • 40. What is the function of Nervous tissue?1. covers body surfaces and lines cavities2. supports and binds body parts3. moves the body and its parts4. receives stimuli, processes that information, and conducts impulses
  • 41. What is the basic unit of the nervous system? NEURONWhere do you find nervous tissue? Brain Spinal Cord
  • 42. CAVITIES Cranial cavity Dorsal cavity Vertebral canal Thoracic cavity diaphragmVentralcavity spinal cord Abdominal cavity vertebrae Pelvic cavity
  • 43. Which of these are located in the thoracic cavity? 1. Lungs 1 and 5 2. Stomach 3. Intestine 4. Ovaries 5. Heart 6. Rectum 7. Liver 8. Brain 9. Spinal Cord
  • 44. Which of these are located in the pelvic cavity? 1. Lungs 2. Stomach 4 and 6 3. Intestine 4. Ovaries 5. Heart 6. Rectum 7. Liver 8. Brain 9. Spinal Cord
  • 45. Which of these are located in the Abdominal cavity? 1. Lungs 2. Stomach 3. Intestine 4. Ovaries 5. Heart 2, 3 and 7 6. Rectum 7. Liver 8. Brain 9. Spinal Cord
  • 46. Which of these are located in the cranial cavity? 1. Lungs 2. Stomach 3. Intestine 4. Ovaries 5. Heart 6. Rectum 7. Liver 8. Brain 8 9. Spinal Cord
  • 47. Which of these are located in the vertebral cavity? 1. Lungs 2. Stomach 3. Intestine 4. Ovaries 5. Heart 9 6. Rectum 7. Liver 8. Brain 9. Spinal Cord
  • 48. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
  • 49. WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM?1. Supports body2. Protects soft body parts3. Produces blood cells4. Stores mineral and fat5. Along with muscles, permits flexible body movement
  • 50. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Axial skeleton Skull:Appendicular skeleton cranium mandible clavicle Thoracic cage: scapula sternum ribs humerus Costal cartilages Vertebral column ulna Pelvic girdle radius sacrum carpals coccyx metacarpals phalanges femur patella fibula tibia tarsals metatarsals phalanges
  • 51. Which of these is found in the axial skeleton? 1. Sternum 2. Carpals 1, 3, 4 and 5 3. Ribs 4. Vertebra 5. Cranium 6. Patella 7. Tibia 8. Femur
  • 52. Which of these is found in the appendicular skeleton? 1. Sternum 2. Carpals 2, 6, 7 and 8 3. Ribs 4. Vertebra 5. Cranium 6. Patella 7. Tibia 8. Femur
  • 53. What are the 3 types of skeletal joints? Don’t move - FIBROUS • skull Move a little bit - CARTILOGENOUS • Ribs, sternum , vertebra Move - SYNOVIAL
  • 54. What are synovial joints and what are the different types? What kind of movement can you do?permit movement in all permit movement in permit onlyplanes one direction only rotational movement
  • 55. Give an example of a ball and socket joint.
  • 56. Give an example of a hinge joint.
  • 57. Give an example of a pivot joint.
  • 58. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. cartilage spongy bone epiphysis (contains red bone marrow) compact bone Central cavity(contains yellow bone marrow) diaphysis Fibrous connective tissue blood vessel epiphysis
  • 59. epiphysis Where is the yellow bone marrow located? In the diaphysis What does the yellowdiaphysis bone marrow store? 1. Fat 2. Red blood cellsepiphysis
  • 60. epiphysis Where is the red bone marrow located? In the epiphysis What does the red bonediaphysis marrow produce? 1. Fat 2. Red blood cellsepiphysis
  • 61. THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM• Pull on bones to produce movements• Skeletal muscles = voluntary movements• Attached to the bone by tendons• 650 human skeletal muscles
  • 62. Name the muscleABDUCTOR sorry about themistake in class
  • 63. Name the muscle
  • 64. Name the muscle
  • 65. Name the muscle
  • 66. Name the muscle
  • 67. Name the muscle
  • 68. Name the muscle