Secession and civil war 2


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  • Lesson Plan for Monday, November 10, 2008: RQ 16A, Lincoln video part 1, Secession & Civil War Notes
  • Threats of secession were nothing new. Some Southerners had threatened to leave the Union during a Congressional debate over slavery in 1790, the Missouri Crisis of 1819 and 1820, the Nullification Crisis of 1831 and 1832, and the crisis over California statehood in 1850. In each case, the crisis was resolved by compromise. Many expected the same pattern to prevail in 1861. Drawing on arguments developed by John C. Calhoun, the convention held that the states were sovereign entities that could leave the Union as freely as they joined. Among the many indictments of the northern states and people, nothing seems more central than the issue of trust with respect to the capture and return of fugitive slaves
  • Some wished to “let the South depart in peace”
  • This plan maximized the North’s industrial advantages but required better leadership than North had
  • One reason why the Civil War was so lethal was the introduction of improved weaponry. Cone-shaped bullets replaced musket balls, and beginning in 1862, smooth-bore muskets were replaced with rifles with grooved barrels, which imparted spin on a bullet and allowed a soldier to hit a target a quarter of a mile away. The new weapons had appeared so suddenly that commanders did not immediately realize that they needed to compensate for the increased range and accuracy of rifles. The Civil War was the first war in which soldiers used repeating rifles (which could fire several shots without reloading), breechloading arms (which were loaded from behind the barrel instead of through the muzzle), and automated weapons like the Gatling gun. The Civil War also marked the first use by Americans of shrapnel, booby traps, and land mines. Outdated strategy also contributed to the high number of casualties. Massive frontal assaults and massed formations resulted in large numbers of deaths. In addition, far larger numbers of soldiers were involved in battles than in the past. In the Mexican War, no more than 15,000 soldiers opposed each other in a single battle, but some Civil War battles involved as many as 100,000 soldiers. The Civil War separated families in unprecedented numbers and freed women to assume many new roles. With the departure of many men into the military, women entered many occupations previously reserved for men only: in factories, shops, and especially, the expanding civil service, where women took jobs as clerks, bookkeepers, and secretaries. A number of women also served as spies (like Rose O'Neal Greenhow (1814-1864), a Confederate spy in Washington) and even as soldiers (like Albert Cashier, whose real name was Jennie Hodgers). But it was as nurses that women achieved particular prominence. Louisa May Alcott and Clara Barton were among thousands of women, North and South, who carried supplies to soldiers and nursed wounded men on the battlefield and in hospitals. Through organizations like the Christian Commission (formed by the North's YMCAs) and the U.S. Sanitary Commission (one of whose founders was Elizabeth Blackwell, the first American woman to earn a medical degree), women agents distributed medical supplies, organized hospitals, passed out Bibles and religious tracts, and offered comfort to wounded or dying soldiers. Initially, Lincoln and his generals anticipated a conventional war in which Union soldiers would respect civilians' property. Convinced that there was residual unionist support in the South, they expected to preserve the South's economic base, including its factories and rail lines. But as the war dragged on, the Civil War became history's first total war, a war in which the Union sought the Confederacy's total defeat and unconditional surrender. To achieve success, Union officers such as Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman believed that it was necessary to break the South's will to fight. Sherman summed up the idea of total war in blunt terms: "We are not only fighting hostile armies," he declared in 1864, "but a hostile people, and must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war.“ A year earlier, a general order was issued that declared that military necessity "allows of all destruction of property" and "appropriation of whatever an enemy's country affords necessary for the subsistence and safety of the Army." This order allowed soldiers to destroy anything that might be of use to the Confederacy.
  • The 1st battle of two ironclad warships was the Battle of Hampton Roads in March 1862
  • Lesson Plan for Tuesday, November 11, 2008: Warm-up question, Lincoln video parts 2-3, Finish Civil War Notes (from Total War to Conclusions)
  • 1 confederate dollar worth 8 cents in 1863
  • Emancipation in 1863
  • gave free land to western settlers created new colleges
  • Secession and civil war 2

    1. 1. <ul><li>Essential Question : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What factors led to the outbreak of the Civil War & contributed to Confederate successes from 1861 to 1863? </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Secession & the Outbreak of the Civil War
    3. 3. Secession in the South <ul><li>Lincoln’s election led to secession by 7 states in the Deep South but that did not necessarily mean “civil war” </li></ul><ul><li>Two things had to happen first: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One last failed attempt to reconcile the North & South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The North had to use its military to protect the Union </li></ul></ul>The failed Crittenden Compromise in 1860 Fort Sumter, South Carolina
    4. 4. SC seceded on Dec 20,1860 The entire Deep South seceded by Feb 1861 The Upper South did not view Lincoln’s election as a death sentence & did not secede immediately “ Lame duck” Buchanan took no action to stop the South from seceding Some Northerners thought the U.S. would be better off if the South was allowed to peacefully secede
    5. 5. The Decision to Secede
    6. 6. What is the “United States”? <ul><li>The Southern decision to secede was based on old arguments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The USA was a “compact between states,” not a national gov’t “ above the states” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, states could leave the Union freely & peacefully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States’ rights must be protected as a guarantee of liberty </li></ul></ul>Southerners had threatened secession during a Congressional debate over slavery in 1790, the Missouri Crisis of 1820, the Nullification Crisis of 1832, & the crisis over California in 1850 Individuals have the right to own property (slaves) & have the right to have their property returned (Fugitive Slave Law)
    7. 7. Secession & the Formation of the Confederate States of America On Feb 4, 1861, the Confederate States of America were formed The CSA constitution resembled the U.S., but with 4 key changes: (1) it protected states’ rights, (2) guaranteed slavery, (3) referenced God, & (4) prohibited protective tariffs Mississippi Senator Jefferson Davis was elected CSA president
    8. 8. The Deep South Secedes <ul><li>Moderate Republicans proposed the Crittenden Compromise to lure the South back into the Union: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>offered to extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promised a Constitutional amendment to protect slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both Lincoln & Davis rejected the compromise leaving the North with 2 choices… </li></ul>The South rejected it because they had created a new nation Lincoln rejected it because he was committed to free soil <ul><li>Allow for peaceful separation…OR… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fight to preserve the Union </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Fort Sumter, South Carolina In April 1861, a skirmish at Fort Sumter, SC led to the 1 st shots fired of the Civil War
    10. 10. Effects of Fort Sumter Many pro-slavery border states (Arkansas, TN, NC, & VA) viewed Fort Sumter as an act of aggression by the North & joined the CSA The attack rallied & unified the North for war Civil War was not technically between slave states & free states (the “border states” of MO, KY, DE, MD did not secede)
    11. 11. Adjusting to Total War
    12. 12. Northern Advantages <ul><li>At the outbreak of the Civil War, the North had lots of advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger population for troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater industrial capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge edge in RR transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem for the North: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had to invade the South to win </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to maintain enthusiasm & support for war over time </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Resources of the Union and the Confederacy, 1861
    14. 14. Southern Advantages <ul><li>Although outnumbered & less industrial, South had advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Davis knew that they did not have to “win” the war; the South only had to drag out the fight & make the North quit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had the best military leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England & France appeared more willing to support the South </li></ul></ul>Robert E “Stonewall” J.E.B. Lee Jackson Stuart “ King Cotton” diplomacy
    15. 15. Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan Blockade the Southern coast Take control of the Mississippi River Divide the West from South Take the CSA capital at Richmond Ulysses Grant in the West George McClellan was in charge of Army of the Potomac Southern strategy was an “offensive defense”: drag out the war & strategically attack the North to destroy Northern morale
    16. 16. Political Leadership During the Civil War <ul><li>Davis was less effective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concerned mainly with military duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neglected the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obstructed by state governors who resisted conscription </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lincoln expanded his powers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>declared martial law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>imprisoned “subversives” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>briefly closed down a few newspapers </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. The Diplomatic Struggle <ul><li>From 1861 to 1862, the South used “cotton diplomacy” to get England & France to aid them: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon III favored the South but wanted England to do so 1 st </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England offered “belligerent” status to the CSA; but otherwise chose a hands-off policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1863, “King Cotton” diplomacy failed because Egyptian & Indian cotton filled the European demand </li></ul>
    18. 18. Fighting the Civil War
    19. 19. The Civil War 1st battle was Bull Run (Manassas, VA) on July 21, 1861; “On to Richmond” campaign was repulsed by “Stonewall” Jackson The U.S. & CSA forces fought to a draw at Antietam in Sept 1862—the single bloodiest day of the Civil War From 1861-1863, the South consistently beat the North due to poor Union leadership & the Southern defensive strategy
    20. 20. Fighting “Total War” <ul><li>The Civil War was the world’s 1 st “total war” in which the entire economy was devoted to winning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North & South drafted soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North & South employed female workers to meet supply demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New weapons, old tactics, & sheer numbers of troops in battle led to massive casualties </li></ul></ul>Women took gov’t jobs as bookkeepers, clerks & secretaries; A number of women also served as spies (Rose Greenhow, CSA) Women’s most prominent role were as nurses on the battlefield: distributing medical supplies, organizing hospitals, & offering comfort to wounded or dying soldiers Cone-shaped bullets & grooved barrel rifles Repeating rifles & the Gatling gun Shrapnel, booby traps, & land mines Massive frontal assaults and massed formations with as many as 100,000 soldiers
    21. 21. Battle of the Ironclads (1862) : CSS Virginia vs. USS Monitor Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia was built using the remains of the USS Merrimack USS Monitor was a revolutionary design: rotating turret & low profile
    22. 22. Casualties of the Civil War
    23. 23. <ul><li>Essential Question : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What factors helped the North turn the tide of the Civil War in 1863 that inevitably led to a Union victory in 1865? </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Mobilizing the Home Fronts <ul><li>Both the North & South faced problems supporting the war: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides began running out of troops; in 1862, the North & South began conscription (draft) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding the war was difficult; both sides printed paper money ( greenbacks ) to accommodate spending needs; led to runaway inflation (9,000% in the South) </li></ul></ul>The draft was unpopular among Southern governors & Northern, antiwar “Copperheads”
    25. 25. The Coming of Emancipation <ul><li>At the beginning of the war, the North was fighting to preserve the Union , not to abolish slavery </li></ul><ul><li>By mid-1862, many Northerners called for immediate emancipation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress refused a gradual plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many thought immediate freedom for slaves would lure England & France into alliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern victories pressured the North to “strike back” </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. &quot;My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that.&quot; —Abraham Lincoln, 1862
    27. 27. The Emancipation Proclamation <ul><li>Union “success” at Antietam led Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln freed all slaves in Confederate territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This did not free a single slave but it gave the North a new reason fight the Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspired slaves to flee North </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pushed for the 13 th Amendment </li></ul>Passed after the Civil War ended
    28. 28. Emancipation in 1863 The border states could keep their slaves (until 13 th amendment passed in 1865)
    29. 29. The Tide Turns in 1863 <ul><li>By early 1863, the North & South both faced morale problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South —economic & diplomatic collapse, runaway slaves, & many yeomen refused to fight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North —consistent losses against Lee, draft riots in NYC, anti-war “Copperheads” played on war failures & racial anxieties </li></ul></ul>New York City Draft Riot
    30. 30. Fight to the Finish <ul><li>But by 1863, the war began to turn in favor of the North: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern supremacy in industry & manpower began to take its toll on the exhausted South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The North began enlisting blacks into the Union army; 200,000 fought as soldiers & many others served as labor in the Northern war effort </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. The Civil War In July 1863, General Grant took Vicksburg & gained control of the Mississippi River Lee led an attack into the North, but lost at Gettysburg; North’s 1st real victory in the east Due to Grant’s success in the west, Lincoln made Grant supreme commander of Union army in 1864; Grant devised a strategy to invade the South on all fronts Grant began a siege on Richmond and… William Sherman began his “march to the sea” (Atlanta to Savannah) & destroyed everything of military value
    32. 32. Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our forefathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow this ground. For the brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note or long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion— — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, and for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
    33. 33. Election of 1864 <ul><li>Meanwhile, Lincoln faced a tough re-election in 1864 against General George McClellan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War failures were a key issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical Republicans considered dropping Lincoln from the ticket </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But, when Atlanta fell during Sherman’s “March to the Sea,” Lincoln regained support and was overwhelmingly reelected </li></ul>In his 2 nd inaugural address, Lincoln promised a Reconstruction Plan for the Union with “malice towards none & charity for all”
    34. 34. Union Gains in the Civil War by 1865 In April 1865, Grant faced off with Lee outside Richmond; Lee was cut off from the South
    35. 35. On April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, ending the fighting of Civil War
    36. 36. The Death of Lincoln <ul><li>Northern celebration was short lived; On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was shot by pro-Southerner John Wilkes Booth </li></ul>
    37. 37. Effects of the War
    38. 38. Effects of the War <ul><li>Social changes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>618,000 troops were dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women in both the North & South were forced to take on more non-domestic roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13 th Amendment ended slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nativism decreased as many immigrants fought in Civil War </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Effects of the War <ul><li>Political changes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Civil War established that the national gov’t is supreme over the states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With no Southern opposition, Republicans passed new laws: Homestead Act (1862), Morrill Act (1862), a protective tariff, land grants to RR companies, & a national banking system </li></ul></ul>Ended the Southern argument over nullification & states’ rights
    40. 40. Conclusions <ul><li>The turning point of the war: 1863 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Civil War began as a conflict “to preserve the Union,” but by 1863 it became a war for human liberty ( Emancipation Proclamation was issued) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The South dominated the early campaigns of the war due, but by 1863 ( Gettysburg ) the weight of Northern industry & population wore down the South </li></ul></ul>