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[Psy] ch03


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  • 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)
    • Chapter 3
    • The Nature and Nurture
    • Of Behavior
    • James A. McCubbin, PhD
    • Clemson University
    • Worth Publishers
  • 2. Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
    • Chromosomes
      • threadlike structures made of DNA that contain the genes
    • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
      • complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
      • has two strands-forming a “double helix”--held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides
  • 3. Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
    • Genes
      • biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes
      • a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
    • Genome
      • the complete instructions for making an organism
      • consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes
  • 4. Genes: Their Location and Composition Nucleus Chromosome Gene Cell DNA
  • 5. Evolutionary Psychology
    • Natural Selection
      • the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
    • Mutations
      • random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides
      • the source of all genetic diversity
  • 6. Evolutionary Psychology
    • Evolutionary Psychology
      • the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using the principles of natural selection
    • Gender
      • in psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female
  • 7. Evolutionary Psychology
    • Men preferred attractive physical features suggesting youth and health
    • Women preferred resources and social status
  • 8. Behavior Genetics
    • Behavior Genetics
      • study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
    • Environment
      • every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
  • 9. Behavior Genetics
    • Identical Twins
      • develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
    • Fraternal Twins
      • develop from separate eggs
      • genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share the fetal environment
    Identical twins Fraternal twins Same sex only Same or opposite sex
  • 10. Behavior Genetics
    • Temperament
      • a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
    • Heritability
      • the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
      • may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
  • 11. Behavior Genetics
    • Interaction
      • the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity)
    • Molecular Genetics
      • the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
  • 12. Environmental Influence
    • Two placental arrangements in identical twins
  • 13. Environmental Influence
    • Experience affects brain development
    Impoverished environment Rat brain cell Rat brain cell Enriched environment
  • 14. Environmental Influence
    • A trained brain
  • 15. Environmental Influence
    • Culture
      • the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
    • Norm
      • an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
  • 16. Environmental Influence
    • Personal Space
      • the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
    • Memes
      • self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person
  • 17. The Nature and Nurture of Gender
    • X Chromosome
      • the sex chromosome found in both men and women
      • females have two; males have one
      • an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child
    • Y Chromosome
      • the sex chromosome found only in men
      • when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
  • 18. The Nature and Nurture of Gender
    • Testosterone
      • the most important of the male sex hormones
      • both males and females have it
      • additional testosterone in males stimulates
        • growth of male sex organs in the fetus
        • development of male sex characteristics during puberty
    • Role
      • a set of expectations (norms) about a social position
      • defining how those in the position ought to behave
  • 19. The Nature and Nurture of Gender
    • Gender Role
      • a set of expected behaviors for males and females
    • Gender Identity
      • one’s sense of being male or female
    • Gender-typing
      • the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
  • 20. The Nature and Nurture of Gender
    • Gender and Culture
  • 21. The Nature and Nurture of Gender
  • 22. The Nature and Nurture of Gender
    • Social Learning Theory
      • theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
    • Gender Schema Theory
      • theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
  • 23. The Nature and Nurture of Gender
    • Two theories of gender typing