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  • 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)
    • Chapter 16
    • Psychological Disorders
    • James A. McCubbin, PhD
    • Clemson University
    • Worth Publishers
  • 2. Psychological Disorders
    • Psychological Disorder
      • a “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be:
        • atypical--not enough in itself
        • disturbing--varies with time and culture
        • maladaptive--harmful
        • unjustifiable--sometimes there’s a good reason
  • 3. Historical Perspective
    • Perceived Causes
      • movements of sun or moon
        • lunacy--full moon
      • evil spirits
    • Ancient Treatments
      • exorcism, caged like animals, beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, blood replaced with animal’s blood
  • 4. Psychological Disorders
    • Medical Model
      • concept that diseases have physical causes
      • can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured
      • assumes that these “mental” illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital
  • 5. Psychological Disorders
    • Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective
      • assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders
  • 6. Psychological Disorders
  • 7. Psychological Disorders--Etiology
    • DSM-IV
      • American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)
      • a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
      • presently distributed as DSM-IV-TR (text revision)
  • 8. Psychological Disorders- Etiology
    • Neurotic Disorder (term seldom used now)
      • usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially
    • Psychotic Disorder
      • person loses contact with reality
      • experiences irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
  • 9. Anxiety Disorders
    • Anxiety Disorders
      • distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
    • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
      • person is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
  • 10. Anxiety Disorders
    • Panic Disorder
      • marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation
  • 11. Anxiety Disorders
    • Phobia
      • persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation
    • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
      • unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
  • 12. Anxiety Disorders
    • Common and uncommon fears
  • 13. Anxiety Disorders
  • 14. Anxiety Disorders
    • PET Scan of brain of person with Obsessive/ Compulsive disorder
    • High metabolic activity (red) in frontal lobe areas involved with directing attention
  • 15. Mood Disorders
    • Mood Disorders
      • characterized by emotional extremes
    • Major Depressive Disorder
      • a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
  • 16. Mood Disorders
    • Manic Episode
      • a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
    • Bipolar Disorder
      • a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
      • formerly called manic-depressive disorder
  • 17. Mood Disorders-Depression
  • 18. Mood Disorders-Depression
    • Canadian depression rates
  • 19. Mood Disorders- Suicide
  • 20. Mood Disorders-Bipolar
    • PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with emotional switches
    Depressed state Manic state Depressed state
  • 21. Mood Disorders-Depression
    • Altering any one component of the chemistry-cognition-mood circuit can alter the others
  • 22. Mood Disorders-Depression
    • The vicious cycle of depression can be broken at any point
  • 23. Dissociative Disorders
    • Dissociative Disorders
      • conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
    • Dissociative Identity Disorder
      • rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
      • formerly called multiple personality disorder
  • 24. Schizophrenia
    • Schizophrenia
      • literal translation “split mind”
      • a group of severe disorders characterized by:
        • disorganized and delusional thinking
        • disturbed perceptions
        • inappropriate emotions and actions
  • 25. Schizophrenia
    • Delusions
      • false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
    • Hallucinations
      • sensory experiences without sensory stimulation
  • 26. Schizophrenia
  • 27. Schizophrenia
  • 28. Schizophrenia
  • 29. Schizophrenia
  • 30. Personality Disorders
    • Personality Disorders
      • disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
      • usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions
  • 31. Personality Disorders
    • Antisocial Personality Disorder
      • disorder in which the person (usually man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members
      • may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
  • 32. Mood Disorders-Depression
    • Boys who were later convicted of a crime showed relatively low arousal
  • 33. Personality Disorders
    • PET scans illustrate reduced activation in a murderer’s frontal cortex
    Normal Murderer
  • 34. Personality Disorders
  • 35. Rates of Psychological Disorders