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  • 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)
    • Chapter 8
    • Learning
    • James A. McCubbin, PhD
    • Clemson University
    • Worth Publishers
  • 2. Learning
    • Learning
      • relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
  • 3. Association
    • We learn by association
      • Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence
      • Aristotle 2000 years ago
      • John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago
    • Associative Learning
      • learning that two events occur together
        • two stimuli
        • a response and its consequences
  • 4. Association
    • Learning to associate two events
    Event 1 Event 2 Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics
  • 5. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    • We learn to associate two stimuli
  • 6. Operant Conditioning
    • We learn to associate a response and its consequence
  • 7. Classical Conditioning
    • Ivan Pavlov
      • 1849-1936
      • Russian physician/ neurophysiologist
      • Nobel Prize in 1904
      • studied digestive secretions
  • 8. Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation)
  • 9. Classical Conditioning
    • Pavlov’s device for recording salivation
  • 10. Classical Conditioning
    • Classical Conditioning
      • organism comes to associate two stimuli
      • a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus
  • 11. Behaviorism
    • John B. Watson
      • viewed psychology as objective science
        • generally agreed-upon consensus today
      • recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes
        • not universally accepted by all schools of thought today
  • 12. Classical Conditioning
    • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
      • stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response
    • Unconditioned Response (UCR)
      • unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
        • salivation when food is in the mouth
  • 13. Classical Conditioning
    • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
      • originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
    • Conditioned Response (CR)
      • learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
  • 14. Classical Conditioning
    • Acquisition
      • the initial stage in classical conditioning
      • the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response
      • in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
  • 15. Classical Conditioning UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CS (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual arousal)
  • 16. Classical Conditioning
    • Extinction
      • diminishing of a CR
      • in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS
      • in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced
  • 17. Classical Conditioning Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR
  • 18. Classical Conditioning
    • Spontaneous Recovery
      • reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR
    • Generalization
      • tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses
  • 19. Classical Conditioning
    • Discrimination
      • in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS
  • 20. Generalization Drops of saliva in 30 seconds 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Hind paw Pelvis Shoulder Front paw Thigh Trunk Foreleg Part of body stimulated
  • 21. Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea)
  • 22. Operant Conditioning
    • Operant Conditioning
      • type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
    • Law of Effect
      • Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
  • 23. Operant Conditioning
    • Operant Behavior
      • operates (acts) on environment
      • produces consequences
    • Respondent Behavior
      • occurs as an automatic response to stimulus
      • behavior learned through classical conditioning
  • 24. Operant Conditioning
    • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
      • elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect
      • developed behavioral technology
  • 25. Operant Chamber
    • Skinner Box
      • chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer
      • contains devices to record responses
  • 26. Operant Conditioning
    • Reinforcer
      • any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
    • Shaping
      • operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal
  • 27. Operant Conditioning
  • 28. Principles of Reinforcement
    • Primary Reinforcer
      • innately reinforcing stimulus
      • i.e., satisfies a biological need
    • Conditioned Reinforcer
      • stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer
      • secondary reinforcer
  • 29. Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Continuous Reinforcement
      • reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs
    • Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement
      • reinforcing a response only part of the time
      • results in slower acquisition
      • greater resistance to extinction
  • 30. Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Fixed Ratio (FR)
      • reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
      • faster you respond the more rewards you get
      • different ratios
      • very high rate of responding
      • like piecework pay
  • 31. Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Variable Ratio (VR)
      • reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
      • average ratios
      • like gambling, fishing
      • very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability
  • 32. Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Fixed Interval (FI)
      • reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
      • response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near
  • 33. Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Variable Interval (VI)
      • reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
      • produces slow steady responding
      • like pop quiz
  • 34. Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval Number of responses 1000 750 500 250 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (minutes) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Steady responding Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 80
  • 35. Punishment
    • Punishment
      • aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows
      • powerful controller of unwanted behavior
  • 36. Punishment
  • 37. Cognition and Operant Conditioning
    • Cognitive Map
      • mental representation of the layout of one’s environment
      • Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
    • Latent Learning
      • learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
  • 38. Latent Learning
  • 39. Cognition and Operant Conditioning
    • Overjustification Effect
      • the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do
      • the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task
  • 40. Cognition and Operant Conditioning
    • Intrinsic Motivation
      • Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
    • Extrinsic Motivation
      • Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments
  • 41. Operant vs Classical Conditioning
  • 42. Observational Learning
    • Observational Learning
      • learning by observing others
    • Modeling
      • process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
    • Prosocial Behavior
      • positive, constructive, helpful behavior
      • opposite of antisocial behavior
  • 43. Observational Learning
    • Mirror Neurons
      • frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
      • may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy