Ch01

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Ch01

  1. 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) <ul><li>Chapter 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking Critically with Psychological Science </li></ul><ul><li>James A. McCubbin, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Clemson University </li></ul><ul><li>Worth Publishers </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Need for Psychological Science <ul><li>Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Need for Psychological Science <ul><li>Hindsight Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overconfidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we tend to think we know more than we do </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Need for Psychological Science <ul><li>Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>examines assumptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>discerns hidden values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evaluates evidence </li></ul></ul></ul>The Amazing Randi--Skeptic
  5. 5. The Need for Psychological Science <ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a testable prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often implied by a theory </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Need for Psychological Science
  7. 7. The Need for Psychological Science <ul><li>Operational Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Need for Psychological Science <ul><li>Replication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually with different participants in different situations </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Description <ul><li>Psychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Description <ul><li>Case Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologists study one or more individuals in great depth in the hope of revealing things true of us all </li></ul></ul>Is language uniquely human?
  11. 11. Description <ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually by questioning a representative, random sample of people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Random Sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Description <ul><li>False Consensus Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Description
  14. 14. Description <ul><li>If marbles of two colors are mixed well in the large jar, the fastest way to know their ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller one and count them </li></ul>
  15. 15. Description <ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Correlation <ul><li>Correlation Coefficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other </li></ul></ul>Correlation coefficient Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) r = +.37
  17. 17. Correlation <ul><li>Scatterplot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>little scatter indicates high correlation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also called a scattergram or scatter diagram </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Correlation Scatterplots, showing patterns of correlations Perfect positive correlation (+1.00) No relationship (0.00) Perfect negative correlation (-1.00)
  19. 19. Correlation Height and Temperament of 20 Men 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 80 63 61 79 74 69 62 75 77 60 64 76 71 66 73 70 63 71 68 70 75 66 60 90 60 42 42 60 81 39 48 69 72 57 63 75 30 57 84 39 Subject Height in Inches Temperament Subject Height in Inches Temperament
  20. 20. Correlation <ul><li>Scatterplot of Height and Temperament </li></ul>55 60 65 70 75 80 85 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 Temperament scores Height in inches
  21. 21. Correlation <ul><li>Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationships </li></ul>(1) Low self-esteem Depression (2) Depression Low self-esteem Low self-esteem Depression (3) Distressing events or biological predisposition could cause could cause could cause or or and
  22. 22. Illusory Correlation <ul><li>Illusory Correlation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the perception of a relationship where none exists </li></ul></ul>Conceive Do not conceive Adopt Do not adopt disconfirming evidence confirming evidence disconfirming evidence confirming evidence
  23. 23. Two Random Sequences <ul><li>Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Experimentation <ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Experimentation <ul><li>Placebo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Double-blind Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commonly used in drug-evaluation studies </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Experimentation <ul><li>Experimental Condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control Condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Experimentation <ul><li>Random Assignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Experimentation <ul><li>Independent Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the experimental factor that is manipulated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the variable whose effect is being studied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Experimentation
  30. 30. Research Strategies <ul><li>Design of the subliminal tapes experiment </li></ul>Subliminal tape content Self-esteem Memory Memory Self-esteem Tape label
  31. 31. Statistical Reasoning Our Brand Brand Brand Brand X Y Z 100% 99 98 97 96 95 Percentage still functioning after 10 years Brand of truck
  32. 32. Statistical Reasoning Our Brand Brand Brand Brand X Y Z 100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage still functioning after 10 years Brand of truck
  33. 33. Statistical Reasoning <ul><li>Mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the most frequently occurring score in a distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the arithmetic average of a distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Median </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the middle score in a distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>half the scores are above it and half are below it </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Statistical Reasoning <ul><li>A Skewed Distribution </li></ul>15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 90 475 710 70 Mode Median Mean One Family Income per family in thousands of dollars
  35. 35. Statistical Reasoning <ul><li>Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard Deviation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistical Significance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology <ul><li>Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? </li></ul>
  37. 37. Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology <ul><li>Does behavior depend on ones culture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture-- the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology <ul><li>Does behavior vary with gender? </li></ul>
  39. 39. Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology <ul><li>Why do psychologists study animals? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it ethical to experiment on animals? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it ethical to experiment on people? </li></ul>
  40. 40. Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology <ul><li>Is psychology free of value judgments? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology <ul><li>Is psychology potentially dangerous? </li></ul>

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