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  • 1. An Agrarian Republic, 1790-1824 Chapter 9
  • 2. The Growth of American Communities From Coast to Coast
    • By 1800 2/3rds of the population still lived within 50 miles of the coast
      • Typically lived on farms in or small towns
    • It took two days to get from NYC to Philadelphia; 4 days to Boston
      • Horse & carriage only went 3-4 mph
    • Population was increasing rapidly however
      • 1790-1800 pop. went from 3.9M-5.3M
      • No one knew that within 50 years we would be throughout the entire continent
      • By 1850 we were populating from Atlantic to Pacific
  • 3. The Growth of American Communities From Coast to Coast
    • Vitus Bering sailed under the Russian Flag to explore the Aleutian Islands
      • He died, but his crew brought back otter furs, discovery of Alaska, and report on Atlantic waterways
      • By the 1750s Russian and Siberian trappers were exporting furs from Russian America
    • Russians were sometimes brutal, taking the furs by force
      • The Inuits and Aleuts grew tired of Russia’s behavior
      • The Aleuts lead the Aleut Revolt in 1762, destroying a Russian fleet
      • They were eventually destroyed, and became intermarried with the Russians
      • The Russians settled all the way down to just north of San Francisco Bay, into Spanish-claimed territory
  • 4. The Growth of American Communities From Coast to Coast
    • Spain feared encroachment into their fur trade from the Russians and British
      • Their navy explored the entire West Coast, and laid claim to the Columbia River
      • The Spanish establish missions throughout California, the largest of which was Los Angeles
      • Spain tried to keep its territory out international trade, but California soon started trading with the US
    • The Spanish took control of New Orleans following the Seven Years War
      • The city’s population was extremely diverse, with French, Cajun, English, German, Irish, Creole, and African residents
      • 1/3 of the Africans were free people who had the same rights as whites
  • 5. The Growth of American Communities From Coast to Coast
    • New Orleans gained prominence as a port and international shipping center
      • Numerous boats from American settlements upriver made their way to New Orleans
      • The Americans were well aware that any foreign power controlling New Orleans had the ability to choke off trade
    • People also began settling along the Missouri River, using it as another route for trade
      • This led to the development of St. Louis
    • Within the US itself, the greatest population boom occurred west of the Appalachians
      • Kentucky (1792) and Tennessee (1796) were the first trans-Appalachian states admitted to the union
  • 6. The Growth of American Communities From Coast to Coast
    • People began to move west in the early 1800s
      • They typically moved as family groups
      • Journeys were long and difficult
    • Cincinnati began as a military fort defending settlers against Miami and Shawnee Indians
      • People tended to live communally because of fear of Indian attacks
      • Cincinnati grew into the gateway of the interior northwest (Ohio and Illinois)
    • The growth of Cincinnati and increased shipping along the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers added to the importance of New Orleans
  • 7. The Growth of American Communities From Coast to Coast
    • The most important cities in the east were the Atlantic seaports
      • Charleston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, Boston
    • Charleston was very diverse, with many ethnicities and languages
      • Center of the slave trade until 1808
    • Baltimore came to prominence as a tobacco port
      • Merchants sought ways to tap the Ohio Valley’s resources
    • Philadelphia Quakers were developers of commerce and banking
      • Philadelphia was considered to be the nation’s cultural and intellectual center
      • Capital through the 1790s
  • 8. The Growth of American Communities From Coast to Coast
    • New York soon outgrew the other cities
      • Used British auction system to sell imported goods from Britain
      • Shipping, banking, insurance, and supporting industries become the largest in the country
      • ¼ of all American shipping was owned by New York merchants
    • Boston was the capital of Massachusetts
      • Industry diversified into shipbuilding, shipping, banking, and insurance
    • While these cities remained dependant on Europe, other cities that traded to the west began to thrive
  • 9. A National Economy
    • In 1800, 94% of Americans lived in communities of less than 2,500
      • Middle states:
        • Four or five families would farm the same piece of land for themselves or others
        • Most crops were grown for home use, and most goods such as clothes and tools were made at home
        • Surpluses were sold within the local community (only 20% were sent out of town)
      • Southern states:
        • Plantation agriculture was commercial and international
        • Demand for rice and tobacco declined, meaning slave owners were seeing little return on their large capital investments (slaves)
        • In the 19 th Century, cotton became the staple crop of US foreign trade
  • 10. A National Economy
    • The world economy was still dominated by Britain and France
      • The US was subject to their whims and duties
    • Read page 235 – 236; Shipping and the Economic Boom
  • 11. The Jefferson Presidency
    • Jefferson started his presidency by symbolically showing the difference between himself and his predecessors
      • Rather than riding in a fancy carriage, he walked to the Capital, rejecting the elaborate methods of Adams and Washington
      • It was a peaceful transition from one party to another, showing that a divided nation does not have to end up in revolt or dictatorship
      • Jefferson’s years in France made him believe they were incapable of guaranteeing life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
  • 12. The Jefferson Presidency
    • Jefferson feared the industrialization he saw going on in the East
      • Rampant industrialization could lead to the social injustice and disparity he had witnessed in Europe.
      • Jefferson dreamed of an agrarian republic, based on family farms
        • A man who depends on himself for his own wellbeing will be more inclined to look out for the common good of the community
        • Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God
  • 13. The Jefferson Presidency
    • Thomas Malthus wrote Essay on the Principle of Population
      • He postulated that an impending population crisis would lead to widespread poverty and starvation
    • Jefferson uses Malthus’ work as the impetus for American expansionism
      • Constant movement west caused high mobility, creating unstable communities
      • Overfarming caused soil exhaustion
      • Fostered a violent hostility toward Indians
  • 14. Jefferson’s Home: Monticello
    • Ariel View
    • West front
  • 15. The Jefferson Presidency
    • When Jefferson took office, he promised to cut all taxes, reduce the military and government staff, and eliminate the national debt
      • He kept all of his promises
      • Jefferson believed a small government was the key factor in a successful republic
    • Their were only 130 federal officials when Jefferson took office
      • The main duty of the federal government for average citizens was the postal service
      • Issues such as education, road maintenance, law and order, economic control, and welfare rested with the state or local governments
  • 16. The Jefferson Presidency
    • Small government explains why it took so long to develop the federal city
      • The designs developed by Pierre L’Enfant went unfinished due to lack of funds
        • The President’s House lacked a staircase to the second floor until 1808
        • The center portion of the Capitol did not exist; the House and Senate were connected by a boardwalk
  • 17. The Jefferson Presidency
    • Jefferson did attempt to have a somewhat bipartisan administration
      • He kept some Federalist officials on board
    • In the last minutes of his administration, Adams appointed several Federalists to federal judgeships
      • The Democratic-Republican congress retaliated by repealing the Judiciary Act, denying the appointees their jobs
      • William Marbury sued James Madison, Jefferson’s Secretary of State, to get his appointment back
  • 18. The Jefferson Presidency
    • In Marbury v Madison , Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Supreme Court had final authority over interpretation of the law (pleasing the Federalists), while also ruling that the Court could not force the executive branch to appoint Marbury to a post that technically no longer existed (pleasing the Democratic-Republicans)
      • This case solidified the power of judicial review
      • Also helped delineate the three branches and their role in the government
      • Under Marshall’s tenure as Chief Justice, the Supreme Court became a powerful unifying and nationalizing force
  • 19. The Jefferson Presidency
    • In 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte reacquired Louisiana from Spain in a secret treaty
      • This drainage area for the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers could be used to stage attacks against the British in Canada
    • When Jefferson learns of the agreement, he rightfully fears it will disrupt commerce and force the US into military action
      • The Spanish commander of New Orleans closed the port to American ships
      • Jefferson offered to buy New Orleans for $2 million (would have gone up to $10 million)
      • Napoleon, in need of cash, offered the entire Louisiana territory to the US for $15 million (828K square miles, or 529.9M acres, ~2¢ per acre)
      • James Monroe, special envoy to France, signed the deal which more than doubled the size of the US
  • 20. Louisiana Purchase
  • 21. The Jefferson Presidency
    • Jefferson came under fire because of his history as a strict constructionist
      • The Constitution did not provide the President the authority to purchase land
      • Jefferson is willing to take the criticism because he believes the purchase is vital to the future of the nation
    • The initial plan for Louisiana was to quickly remove its French culture and replace it with American institutions
      • However, given that there were only 6,000 Americans among a population of 43,000, this doesn’t happen
    • The governor of the Lower Louisiana Territory assists in incorporating French civil law rather than English common law
      • Even to this day, Louisiana’s legal system is based on civil law
  • 22. The Jefferson Presidency
    • Spain was upset about the sale of Louisiana because it created a second vague boundary between the US and Spanish territory
    • Internal violence in Spain led to trouble in its New World colonies
      • Two populist revolts in Mexico were squashed by Spanish loyalists
        • The revolutionary leaders were executed
      • In 1812, a Mexican named Bernardo Gutiérrez led a band of American adventurers in an invasion of Texas
        • They captured San Antonio and executed the governor, declaring independence
        • An army of Spanish loyalists pillaged the territory, destroying its economy
    • All of this action had many Americans looking to expand to the Southwest
  • 23. Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America
    • Jefferson’s success in his first term carried him to a second term
      • Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (Fed.) lost 162-14 in the electoral college
      • His second term will not be as successful as his first
    • Jefferson’s initial promise of keeping neutral became more difficult during the Napoleonic Wars
      • Britain was upset that the US “evaded” the naval blockade of France by claiming neutrality
      • Britain began seizing American ships, angering American’s as they violated the spirit of neutrality
      • 6000 Americans were impressed into the British Navy between 1803-1807
  • 24. Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America
    • Committed to staying neutral and maintaining shipping rights, Jefferson tried to negotiate with the British
      • Negotiations, diplomatic protests and even threats left the British unphased
      • In 1806 Congress passed the Non-Importation Act, boycotting British goods
      • Jefferson, in desperation, imposed the Embargo Act in 1807
        • This act forbid in imports or exports going into/out of any foreign ports
        • The American economy came to a standstill: exports fell from $108M to $22M in one year, send the country into a deep depression
        • Federalists, pointing out that our Navy was too weak because of Jefferson, began speaking against him and the Embargo…to a willing crowd
  • 25. Ograbme or Dambargo
  • 26. Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America
    • Jefferson will leave office accepting a defeat in his policy of “peaceable coercion”
      • Madison (Dem.) will win the election despite a backlash against his party for the Embargo Act
      • Americans viewed the act as “attempting to cure corns by cutting of the toes”
      • The French were unphased by the act, as were the British (if anything it made life easier for them)
      • In 1809, Congress rescinded the Embargo Act
      • Other acts were passed (Non-Intercourse Act, Macon’s Bill #2) to stop hostilities towards American ships, to no avail
  • 27. Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America
    • Jefferson’s presidency had internal issues with trade as well
      • The natives were not supposed to be forced off their lands according to the Indian Intercourse Act of 1790, but westward expansion was America’s “destiny”
      • Jefferson did not want to move/kill them, instead he wanted them to coexist with us; after all, everyone should be a yeoman farmer
        • He directed governors to “promote energetically” the ideal
      • Jefferson, indifferent to religion himself, supported the Christianization of Indians
        • Unfunded and unsupported, the policy only weakened and divided the already disoriented tribes
  • 28. Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America
    • After the LA Purchase Jefferson “offered” lands to the natives in present day MO area
      • He said that it would not be settled by whites for centuries
      • 20 years later the natives had to be moved again because MO was admitted as the 1 st trans-Mississippian state
    • Having only 3 choices; acculturation, removal, or extinction many natives were split between accommodating and armed resistance
      • Tecumseh , leading the Shawnees, choose resistance
      • William Henry Harrison, Gov. IN Terr., made many “treaties” with the natives taking their lands
      • Tecumseh’s brother, Tenskwatawa, preached refraining from consumption of American goods (alcohol, clothes, etc)
  • 29. Renewed Imperial Rivalry in North America
    • Tecumseh would take his brother’s message and turn it into a pan-Indian military movement
      • He also had British support, who sent guns and food
      • The alliance was primarily defensive until the Treaty of Fort Wayne (1809) that gave away 3M acres of native land
      • Tecumseh said that the land belonged to all natives and thus one tribe could night sign it away
        • He warned that any surveyor who came on the land risked his life
      • In Nov. 1811 Harrison marched 1000 soldiers into Tippecanoe
        • Tenskwatawa’s men led attacks on Harrison’s men
        • Each side lost 150 men, Harrison claimed victory, yet the natives not killed moved on to kill others in the IN and southern MI areas forcing settlers to flee
  • 30. War of 1812
    • Britain’s involvement with Tecumseh’s attacks was the second of two grievances that Madison cited when asking Congress to declare war on Britain
      • The first was shipping rights
      • On June 81, 1812 Congress declared war on Britain
    • War Hawks, such as Henry Clay (KY) and John C. Calhoun (SC), will seek to end British involvement in America
      • They believed in expanding and controlling others
      • They wanted to invade (control) FL to keep slaves from hiding
      • They wanted to control Canada to keep the British off their borders
  • 31. War of 1812
    • By this point, the Embargo Act had negatively affected the British, so they were in the process of adopting more conciliatory policies
    • Americans were divided on going to war (Federalists=no)
      • Other problems included Jefferson’s “economizing” the military
    • America first attempted the invasion of Canada
      • British/Indian forces captured Detroit and Fort Dearborn (Chicago) until American forces burned York (Toronto)
      • Cap. Oliver H. Perry defeated the British and reclaimed Lake Erie (during the battle Tecumseh was killed)
      • The invasion of Canada proved that neither side could gain ground on the other
      • The most significant part of this struggle: Canadians gained a sense of solidarity and agreed to never be invaded/absorbed by the US
  • 32. War of 1812
    • The war in the South was similar to the war against Tecumseh
      • The British allied with the natives (Red Sticks) and Spaniards
      • The Americans allied with the Red Sticks’ enemies, the Cherokee, Choctaws and Chickasaws (and a few Creeks)
      • With Andrew Jackson leading, the Red Sticks took the worst defeat in the Indian wars (800 killed)
      • At the end of the Creek War (1814) the US gained 23M acres in the Treaty of Fort Jackson (Jackson earned the name Sharp Knife)
    • US failed to capture FL from Spain, Mobile was captured in 1813, and Pensacola in 1814 (could hold it)
      • In 1815 Jackson earned his fame in the Battle of New Orleans
      • The peace treaty had actually been signed before the battle
  • 33. War of 1812
    • In the most humiliating battle of the war, Britain burned Washington forcing the President and Congress to flee
      • Dolly Madison is remembered for saving the portrait of George Washington as the president’s home burned
    • In the naval battle, Britain quickly blockaded the coast line
      • US forces withheld them from advancing on Baltimore and Fort McHenry
      • It was during Francis Scott Key’s time on the under British control where he sat offshore as it appeared that Baltimore was burning that he wrote “ The Star Spangled Banner ” (to be adopted as the national anthem under Woodrow Wilson ~100 years later
  • 34. War of 1812
    • In 1814 representatives from 5 New England states came together for the Hartford Convention
      • Initially there was talk of secession due to the war
      • Ultimately, they came up with a list of grievances and sent them to Congress
      • By the time the message reached Congress, peace had been reached with Britain, making the grievances a joke
    • The Treaty of Ghent was signed 12/24/1814
      • Did not discuss issues of impressment or neutrality rights
      • Britain did agree to withdraw troops from the west
    • The war accomplished little more than helping Americans finally feel independent of Britain
      • This is the last war the US ever fought against Britain
      • This was also the last gasp for Natives, by 1815 Americans were expanding again
  • 35. Defining the Boundaries
    • The Era of Good Feelings (1817-1823) brought political unity on the agenda of America
      • Westward expansion and national development were key
    • By 1820 25% of the population lived west of the Appalachians
      • Many sought to get away from overpopulated farmlands of the east, plus threat of native attacks were diminished
      • The price, now dropped from the Land Ordinance of 1785 prices, made westward movement most attractive
      • To deal with the “squatters” problem Congress passed the Land Act of 1820 setting the price at $1.25 per acre with a minimum of 80 acre purchase
        • Still had many farmers who could not afford this price
  • 36. Defining the Boundaries
    • The Second Great Awakening began in the 1790s in New England
      • By 1800 it had spread throughout Protestant churches across the country
      • The most common “event” during this was camp meetings
        • These meetings had as many as 20,000 in attendance (western towns only had ~2000 in them)
        • People would clap, sing, pray
      • This led to an increased importance of religion in westward expansion
        • Camps were the first time new settlers would come together in an area
        • Churches were often the first public buildings built
        • In absence of resident ministers, farmers would become lay preachers
        • Women were usually the largest percent in the crowd and played large role in planting new churches
  • 37. The Second Great Awakening
  • 38. Defining the Boundaries
    • James Monroe (last of the VA dynasty—Jefferson, Madison, Monroe) won the election of 1816 (183-34 against Rufus King, Fed.)
      • This is the last election the Federalist Party ran a candidate
    • In the election of 1820, Monroe ran unopposed and nearly elected unanimously (231-1)
      • By this time it appears that the Federalist Party has disappeared, however, the Democratic-Republicans had adopted many of the Federalists’ beliefs
    • Monroe is the first since Washington to tour the country, going as far as Detroit
      • Even in Federalist stronghold Boston, he was welcomed warmly
  • 39. Defining the Boundaries
    • Monroe sought a government of national unity
      • The included people from both North and South, Democratic-Republican and Federalist in his cabinet positions
      • He chose John Q. Adams as Sec. of State, and John C. Calhoun as Sec. of War
    • Monroe supported the American System (associated with Henry Clay, Speaker of the House)
      • The American System (initially proposed by Hamilton) broke with Jefferson’s agrarian society and endorsed:
        • A national bank
        • Tariff on imported goods
        • National system of roads/canals
  • 40. Defining the Boundaries
    • Because the Democratic Republicans were willing to accept that the federal government needed to play a role in commercial development, the Federalists were willing to accept Monroe as President
      • Congress chartered the Second Bank of America in 1816 for 20 years (farmers not happy)
      • The Tariff of 1816 was the first serious protective tariff in American history
        • After the war of 1812 cheap British goods flooded American markets, making it hard for Americans to sell their goods
        • Congress responded with a tariff on wollens, cottons, iron, leather, hats, paper, and sugar
  • 41. Defining the Boundaries
    • The 3 rd part of the American System was roads and canals
      • Projects such as a road going from Cumberland, MD to Vandalia, IL was needed
      • Monroe, as Madison had, vetoed bills to spend money on local projects
    • These three components of the American System—bank, tariffs, and roads—were agreed upon during the Era of Good Feelings and will become the source of heated debate and divison
    • Adams, as Sec. of State, was one of the most important people during the Era of Good Feelings
      • He established the border with Canada at the 49º in the Rush-Bagot Treaty 1817
      • He also established a policy of coexistence with Britain in the debate territory of Oregon
  • 42. Defining the Boundaries
    • Adams greatest work was the Adams-Onís (Transcontinental) Treaty
      • After Jackson illegally entered FL and proved that he could take it, Adams convinced Spain to cede FL to the US, give up claims to LA and OR territory
      • In exchange the US agreed to give up claims to TX and assumed the $5M that Americans were trying to get from Spain in legal suits
    • Monroe’s greatest foreign policy (written by Adams) is called the Monroe Doctrine (1823)
      • Written after South American colonies became independent (European nations were attempting to help Spain regain them)
      • Britain initially wanted to help US (Adams declined their offer)
      • The Doctrine calls for end to European colonization in the Western Hemisphere, any interference would be met with force
      • In return we would not interfere with European affairs, or their remaining colonies
  • 43. Defining the Boundaries
    • Fortunately, Britain still decided to help enforce such a policy (our military was too weak to follow up our claim)
      • The US would finally be able to back it up at the end of the century
    • The policy was enough to convince Russia to give up its claim to the OR territory, accepting the 54º 40´ as the southern border
    • The excitement of the diplomatic successes were dulled by the Panic of 1819
  • 44. Defining the Boundaries
    • The Panic of 1819 was a delayed reaction to the end of the War of 1812
      • Demand for American goods went down throughout the world as Britain was able to offer goods again
      • Domestically, the Panic was brought on by land speculation gone crazy
        • Speculators bought land and then sold it for up to $100/acre
        • Getting loans from “wildcat” banks, many citizens could not afford the loan, especially when demand for goods went down
        • The Second Bank of the US forced state banks to foreclose on bad loans, ruining small farmers and leading to a 6 year depression
      • When the banks failed, taking creditors with them, the farmers protested, blaming the Bank of the US
  • 45. Defining the Boundaries
    • Urban workers were not untouched by the Panic
      • Because of the decline in demand, they were getting laid off
    • The South argued that the protective tariffs needed to be reduced since they were making less money off of cotton
    • The North argued that the tariffs needed to be higher to increase domestic demand for their goods
      • The North eventually won the argument and the tax went up
      • Southerners began to wonder about the federal government
    • The Panic gave Andrew Jackson a strong platform to stand on
  • 46. Defining the Boundaries
    • The issue of slavery would be revived in 1819 when the northern and southern settlers collided in MO
      • In 1819 MO applied for statehood as a slave state
      • Northerners (where slavery had been abolished) did not want slavery to expand and destroy the balance in the Senate
      • Southerners believed that Congress did not have the right to limit slave expansion since it was a property matter
    • Some argued in favor of MO gradually becoming a free state, others said no slaves
      • This is the first time the South openly threatens to secede
    • Henry Clay, earning the nickname “ The Great Pacificator ,” created the first of many compromises he would accomplish
  • 47. Defining the Boundaries
    • The MO Compromise
      • ME would be admitted as a free state and MO would be admitted as a slave state (keeping balance in Senate)
      • From here out slavery was to be prohibited north of the 36º 30´ and permitted south of the line