[Apush] apush ch 11
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  • 1. The South and Slavery, 1790s-1850s Chapter 11
  • 2. King Cotton and Southern Expansion
    • Despite a decrease in slavery after the Revolution, it would rapidly increase as cotton became the dominate economic crop
    • Cotton’s major drawback:
      • It took a day to clean one pound of cotton
      • Eli Whitney (and Catherine Greene) created the cotton gin that could clean 50 pounds per day
  • 3. King Cotton and Southern Expansion
    • SC and GA, followed by other Southern states, began expanding rapidly (AL fever)
      • Cotton, grown quickly, depletes the soil
      • They expanded into the Black Belt (AL, MS, GA)
      • The slaves would clear the forests, drain swamps, build houses and plant first crops in the region
    • MS population doubled and AL went from 9K to 144K in 10 years
      • Most were from SC
  • 4. King Cotton and Southern Expansion
    • “ Civilized” Indians were not allowed to stay in slave areas due to confusion it created
    • As cotton crops expanded all the way to TX, the question of the expansion of slavery also rose
    • Most slaves worked under the gang system
      • Each slave had a particular job to do
  • 5. King Cotton and Southern Expansion
    • Because slave owners could not convince indentured servants to do what was needed, southerners believed slavery was necessary to their economy
    • Beliefs about slavery were changing though
      • All Northern states had some law banning or phasing out slavery
      • All Southern states (except SC and GA) either banned or heavily taxed slave trade
    • All Southern states banned importation of foreign slaves after the slave revolt in Haiti (1791)
      • Southerners feared revolutionaries would cause their own slaves to revolt
  • 6. King Cotton and Southern Expansion
    • With the cotton gin came slave smuggling (into SC especially)
      • By 1804 slave trade was reopened in SC
      • Charleston became the largest slaving port (40K)
    • In 1808 (earliest date permitted by Constitution) Congress banned international slave trade
      • After this, increase in slave labor force depended primarily on natural methods
  • 7. King Cotton and Southern Expansion
    • Internal slave trade skyrocketed
      • As much as 50% of the slave population was moved for southern expansion
      • They were transported like cargo or walked in “coffles”
        • “ Sold down the river”
      • After reaching New Orleans, Natchez, or Mobile they were auctioned off
  • 8. King Cotton and Southern Expansion
    • The Industrial Revolution in Europe led to a dramatic increase in the demand for cotton
      • Cotton eventually accounted for 60% of American exports, with five million bails being produced
      • As Senator James Henry Hammond (SC) said, “cotton is king”
  • 9. King Cotton and Southern Expansion
      • Cotton’s profitability led to America’s participation in the Industrial Revolution
      • While production occurred in the South, shipping, insuring, and other support activities were done by Northern companies
      • The North failed to realize that the South was critical to their existence
  • 10. King Cotton and Southern Expansion
    • Southern cities, although not as populous as Northern ones, were not able to build up their infrastructure
      • Money was sucked away to support the plantations
      • The South did not keep up with industrialization or railroad construction
      • They preserve the status quo in order to ensure stability
        • Sidenote: more acreage was actually devoted to corn, not cotton
  • 11. To Be a Slave
    • By 1790 there were more than 4 million slaves
      • A distinctive culture would emerge amongst the slaves
    • Slaves did a variety of jobs
  • 12. To Be a Slave
    • Slaves were not equally distributed
      • 50% of owners had 5 or fewer
      • 75% of all slaves lived with 10 or more on a farm
    • Southern slavery was the only slave institution to be grown by natural methods versus slave trade
    • The first challenged a slave faced was survival
      • Mortality rates for kids under 5 was double that of whites
  • 13. To Be a Slave
    • Death was common due to poor conditions
      • During pregnancy the women still worked in the fields and ate little
      • They had kids every year to year and a half
      • White people lived 40-43 years, black people 30-33
    • The owners argument was that they were being more humane than northern industries
      • At least the fed, clothed, and housed their “slaves”, and they took care of them from birth to death
      • Very few cases of manumission (freeing of a slave)
  • 14. To Be a Slave
    • Children lived with their mom (and dad if on same farm)
      • The “house” was a wood shack with no floor, little furniture and a corn-shuck mattress
      • Food included meat, corn meal, and some molasses—slaves were encouraged to keep their own gardens
      • Clothing included two pants, two shirts, 1 pair of shoes, and enough cloth for the women to make frocks and kids clothes—very inadequate in winters
      • To the age of 7, children played with others (even white kids)
  • 15. To Be a Slave
    • Children also learned survival—they watched their parents and siblings being beaten, raped, sold OR rewarded for loyal behavior
    • The owners believed that the slaves were both less intelligent and more loyal than the owners themselves
      • Frederick Douglass said: “As the master studies to keep the slave ignorant, the slave is cunning enough to make the master think he succeeds.”
  • 16. To Be a Slave
    • Read p. 304-306 regarding slave professions
  • 17. To Be a Slave
  • 18. To Be a Slave
  • 19. To Be a Slave
  • 20. To Be a Slave