8. what is progressivism social progressives 2006 2007compressed

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  • Lesson Plan for Tuesday, January 16, 2006: Warm-up question, introduce Progressivism, Mindsparks for Progressives
  • Quick class discussion
  • Samuel Hopkins Adams
  • WCTU formed in 1870s (obviously well before the progressives) but grew to become the largest organization of women in US History up through 1920s.
  • WTUL Supported Triangle demands for safer factory in 1909
  • No strike at Amoskaeg from 1885 to 1920
  • Keating-Owens Act (1916) & Second Child Labor Act (1919) both overturned by Supreme Court


  • 1.
    • Essential Question :
      • How did the chaotic conditions of urban America contribute to new “progressive” reforms in the early 20 th century?
    • Warm-Up Question:
      • Let’s look at the DBQ
  • 2. What is Progressivism?
    • From 1890s to 1914, progressives addressed the rapid economic & social changes of the Gilded Age
    • Progressive reform had wide appeal but was not a unified movement with a common agenda
    • Progressive reforms included prostitution, poverty, child labor, factory safety, women’s rights, temperance, & political corruption
    Democrats, Republicans, & Socialists all found reasons to support progressivism Some reformers targeted local community problems, others aimed for state changes, & others wanted national reforms
  • 3. What is Progressivism?
    • But, Progressive reform had distinguishing characteristics:
      • Progressive Themes
    Evangelical Protestantism (Social Gospel) inspired reformers to intervene in people’s lives Optimism & belief in progress (“investigate, educate, & legislate”) Change the environment to change people (no Social Darwinism) Desire to “humanize” industry Led by the new, educated middle-class “professionals” (doctors, ministers, etc) Looked to the gov’t to help achieve goals Their actions impacted the entire nation; not regions like the Populists
  • 4. Quick Class Discussion: Why did America Need Progressivism?
  • 5. Reforming Society
  • 6. The Beginnings of Progressivism
    • Progressivism 1 st began in the 1890s in response to urban & factory problems:
      • Early reformers realized that private charity was not enough to cure all social ills
      • Called for tenement house laws & new labor laws to help women & children workers
  • 7. The Beginnings of Progressivism
    • Charity Organization Society collected data on poverty, slums, & disease which led to the NY Tenement House Commission
    • Nat’l Conference of Social Work used “professional” social workers to press for minimum wages, maximum work hours, workers’ compensation, & widow pensions
  • 8. New Journalism: “Muckraking”
    • New journalism drew attention to America’s problems:
      • Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives (1890) was the 1 st expos é of urban poverty & slums
      • Cheap monthly magazines, like McClure’s & Collier’s used investigative journalism & photos to yield huge circulations
    Urban poverty Political corruption The plight of industrial workers “ Big business” practices Lincoln Steffan’s Shame of the Cities (1902) revealed corruption of political machines Ida Tarbell’s History of the Standard Oil Company (1904) revealed Rockefeller’s ruthless business practices
  • 9. Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives included photographs!
  • 10. New Journalism: Muckraking
    • Muckraker Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906) prompted federal investigation of meatpacking
      • Meat Inspection Act (1906) required gov’t inspections & set sanitation rules for meatpacking
    • Muckraker Sam H Adams exposed the dangers of patent medicines
      • Pure Food & Drug Act (1906) required listing of ingredients & banned “adulterated” drugs
    “ I aimed at the public’s heart & by accident I hit it in the stomach.” Led by Dr. Harvey Wiley’s “Poison Squad” division of the US Dept of Agriculture & teamed with American Medical Association
  • 11. Prohibition & Prostitution
    • Reformers were shocked by growing reports of alcohol abuse:
      • By 1916, 19 states outlawed booze & in the 18 th Amend passed in 1920
    • Reformers focused on prostitution
      • By 1915 almost all states banned brothels
      • The Mann Act (1910) banned the interstate transportation of “immoral” women
    Membership grew in the Women’s Christian Temperance Union
  • 12. Standardizing Education
    • Psychologist William James promoted the idea that one’s environment dictates behavior
    • School leaders applied these ideas to reform pubic education:
      • Schools became a primary vehicle to assimilate immigrants
      • John Dewey promoted “creative intelligence” not memorization or strict teaching
  • 13. Working-Class Reform
  • 14. Immigration to the USA, 1901-1920 From 1901-1920, 14.5 million “new” Europeans, Mexicans, & Asians immigrated to US to join the US labor force 60% of the US work force was foreign born in 1914; most immigrant laborers were unskilled, living in poverty & in ethnic conclaves
  • 15. Mexican Immigration to the USA, 1900-1920 Mexican immigrants worked in Western farms, railroads, & mines as well as Southern & California agriculture
  • 16. Angel Island, San Francisco This was not like Ellis Island in NYC; Instead of hours, processing took months
  • 17. Conflict in the Workplace
    • The new industrial advances like mass production & management sped up production but led to:
      • Long hours, low wages, dangerous settings for workers
      • Labor unrest & strikes
      • Increased union membership from 4% in 1900 to 13% in 1920
      • Progressive reforms for workers
  • 18. Labor Union Membership, 1897-1920
  • 19. Industrial Exploitation Case Study : The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (1911)
  • 20. Organizing Labor
    • Gompers’ American Federation of Labor was the largest US union but it was exclusive; led to:
      • Women’s Trade Union League (1903) formed to help working women & educate the public
      • Industrial Workers of the World (1905) urged revolution via sabotage & strikes & eventually to create a workers’ republic
    The WTUL strike against Hart, Schaffer, & Marx Co led to the 1st collective bargaining victory in US history Open to all workers regardless of race, sex, ethnicity, or skill Called the “Wobblies” “ It is our purpose to overthrow the capitalist system by forceful means in necessary… [There is nothing a worker can do that] will bring as much anguish to the boss than a little sabotage in the right place.” — IWW co-founder “Big Bill” Haywood
  • 21. Organizing Labor
    • Eugene V. Debs formed the Socialist Party of America & applied Marxist ideas into a moderate & appealing political platform
    Did not threaten to overthrow the capitalist system
  • 22. Working with Workers
    • Many businesses used police & violence to break up strikes, but others improved working conditions to avoid trouble:
      • Henry Ford introduced the “Five Dollar Day” & an 8-hour workday
      • The Amoskeag textile factory in NH used paternalism & benefits (playgrounds & health care)
    Led to increase production & a stable & loyal workforce
  • 23. Amoskeag Textile Company Amoskeag hired whole families Amoskeag built playgrounds & baseball fields for families & their children … and provided company housing
  • 24. The Women’s Movement & Black Awakening
  • 25. The Women’s Movement
    • Progressive reformers advocated for change for women & children
      • Working conditions led to the Nat’l Child Labor Laws (1930s)
      • The National Association of Colored Women advocated for the rights of black women
      • The National American Woman Suffrage Assoc (1890) was formed to gain women the vote
    “ Women’s vote will help cure ills of society” The 19th Amendment was passed in 1920
  • 26. Women’s Suffrage Before 1900
  • 27. The Women’s Movement
    • Margaret Sanger championed the cause for increased birth control for women:
      • Her journals provided contraceptive information for poor & middle-class women
      • In 1916, Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the US
  • 28. The Niagara Movement & NAACP
    • The condition of blacks in the early 20 th century remained poor:
      • 80% lived in rural areas, most as sharecroppers in the South
      • Segregation & violence were common
    • Niagara Movement (1905) led by W.E.B. Du Bios militantly called for political, social, & civil rights
    “ [African-Americans] have a right to know, to think, to aspire…We must strive for the right which the world accords to man.” — W.E.B. DuBois
  • 29. The Niagara Movement & NAACP
    • In 1909, National Assoc for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was formed by William Walling & others; Du Bios was put in charge of The Crisis publication
    • NAACP had some victories:
      • Guinn v US (1915) ended Oklahoma’s grandfather clause
      • Buchanan v Worley (1917) ended KY housing segregation
    But…“I have never seen the colored people so discouraged and so bitter as they are at the present time.” — Booker T. Washington, 1913 Lesson #33