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The Jesuit Relations
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  • 1. The Jesuit Relations
    By Karee Ann Klein
  • 2. Who are the Jesuits?
    The Jesuits are members of the society of Jesus
    Founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534
    They took special vows of poverty and obedience
    What are the Jesuit Relations?
    Annual reports of French missionaries in their efforts to convert the natives
    Ignatius of Loyola
  • 3. Jesuits “knew what they were talking about”
    They are a primary source
    Learned local languages
    Lived with the people
    Even though they disapproved of the pagan acts of the natives, they observed and recorded them accurately
    They were literate unlike many of the fur traders that lived among the Natives, so they were able to descriptively compose letters of the acts they witnessed
    Introduction cont.
  • 4. Paul Le Jeune
    Wrote earliest publication of Jesuit Relations
    Converted to Catholicism after being raised Protestant
    Worked as an educator and administrator at various Jesuit colleges in France
    Traveled to Canada when he was 40
    Witnessed to the Montagnais
    Le Jeune described the Montagnais
    Hunting-gathering, dispersed and nomadic people
    Traded fur with the French
    Practiced “Animism” as their religion
    Nature focused
    Animals and natural phenomena were considered spirits
    Tried to appease these spirits so they would help them
    Told myths to explain the world, looked to dreams
    Consulted “jugglers”
    People possessed by special spiritual powers
    Paul Le Jeune
  • 5. Characteristics
    “Tall, erect, strong, well proportioned, agile”
    Even tempered and patient
    Cooperated with each other well
    Great hunters
    Beavers and porcupines in light snow
    Moose and caribou in deep snow
    Strong religious beliefs
    “Atahocam created the world and Messou restored it” (after the flood)
    “All animals…have an elder brother, who is…the source and origins of all individuals”
    Nipinoukhebrings spring and summer, Pipinoukhebrings winter and cold
    Khichikouai– “spirits of light”
  • 6. Jean de Brebouf
    Missionary that lived with the Hurons from 1626-1629 and 1634-1649
    Established a mission
    Martyred during the Iroquois invasion
    Huron people
    Most well-documented early tribe
    Lived around present day Lake Ontario
    Fishing was a large part of their society
    Religion mirrored Christian myths, suggesting they had come into contact with other missionaries many years past
    Regarded dreams and feasts as very important
    Jean de Brebeuf
  • 7. Language
    Words composed of mostly vowels
    Use compound words
    Words are universally conjugated
    Believed they were descendants of Aataentisic, a woman who fell from Heaven
    Iouskeha was her son, and he controlled their harvests
    Had faith in dreams
    Dreams usually related to feasts, dances, games, or mania
    Believed animals possessed certain attributes
    Fish had reason
    Athataion: feast of farewells
    Enditeuhwa: thanksgiving and gratitiude
    Atourontaochian: singing and eating
    Awataerohi: deliverance from sickness
    Way of Life
    Live assembled in villages
    Get along harmoniously
  • 8. Jean Pierron
    Arrogant tone in describing the Iroquois
    Combatted the Indians’ sins using fear of God’s judgement
    He threw a fit when asked to leave during one of their religious ceremonies
    Claude Chauchetiere
    Encouraged a group of young women to become nuns
    Denounce marriage, live lives devoted to prayer
    Encouraged Iroquois to practice “mortification of the flesh”
    Self-torture that atoned for sins by mirroring the pain that martyrs and Jesus experienced
    Worked at a mission that had a strict schedule
    Included Mass, catechism class, and prayer
    Used allegories to communicate to the Indians
    Iroquois Missionaries
  • 9. Food
    They grew Indian corn and French wheat
    Wheat took longer and was harder on soil, but they enjoyed the bread that resulted from it
    Men hunted meat
    Women searched for firewood
    Enjoyed liquor and drunkenness was common
    The Indians dressed up for Sundays and feast days
    Wear fine white shirts
    Women dress very modestly
    Button up the shirt which falls to their knees
    Wear petticoats
    Tie their hair back with red ribbon (eel skin)
    Grease their hair black
    “Poorly but modestly clad”
    Always have hair up in “some unique way”
  • 10. Born in Orleans, France
    Sent to New France in 1636
    First martyr of the Jesuit martyrs of New France
    Captured by the Mohawk raiding party in 1642
    Held in captivity for many months
    Escaped to a Dutch settlement
    Returned as a diplomat after the war between the French and Iroquois ended
    He was accused of sorcery and was killed on the spot
    His story is narrated by Father Jerome Lalemant after his death
    Isaac Jogues
    Isaac Jogues
  • 11. Massacred Indians allied to the French
    Torture techniques
    Beat with clubs
    Tore out fingernails with their teeth
    Crushed the bleeding fingers after
    Pierced through hands with a knife
    Used sticks and thorns
    Prisoner conditions
    Took away all clothes and left them naked
    Wounds became worm infested with no bandages or dressings
    Hurled insults and beat continually
    Forced to carry Indians’ supplies when traveling
    Ate what they could gather along the way
    Wild fruits
    Used their blood as sacrifices
    Would not allow them to die
    “Cruel compassion”