American urbanization & new york


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American urbanization & new york

  1. 1. American Urbanization & New York<br />Karee Ann Klein<br />
  2. 2. Order and Disorder<br /><ul><li>The Erie Canal was built in October of 1825
  3. 3. Connected the Great Lakes to the Hudson River
  4. 4. New York City was the largest city near the Hudson River, so it became a pass through for many people
  5. 5. Many new factories and offices sprung up, drawing in thousands of people looking for jobs
  6. 6. NYC Became first exclusively industrial area
  7. 7. By Civil War, NYC was the biggest industrial city in US</li></li></ul><li>Order and Disorder<br /><ul><li>Newspapers were expensive, had a small circulation, and were politically biased
  8. 8. Modern journalism began developing in the 1830’s
  9. 9. “Penny papers” began the revolution
  10. 10. Sold by boys for a penny
  11. 11. Included scandalous stories about crime, vice, sex
  12. 12. New York Herald was created by James Gordon Bennet in 1835
  13. 13. Became the most successful newspaper in world
  14. 14. Inexpensive
  15. 15. Politically independent
  16. 16. “Didn’t instruct reader what they wanted him to know, but told reader what he wanted to know”
  17. 17. Walt Whitman was a reporter for it</li></li></ul><li>Order and Disorder<br /><ul><li>New York City was not welcome to immigrants, whoever was coming in was hated
  18. 18. Many Irish farmers and day laborers came to NYC
  19. 19. There were more than100,000 Irish immigrants by 1842
  20. 20. Brought Catholicism
  21. 21. They have been called the “Blacks of the 19thcentury”
  22. 22. Potato Famine
  23. 23. 1.5 mill came to US summer 1845-1855
  24. 24. “Great Migration”
  25. 25. Blacks and Irish immigrants fought for the lowest jobs
  26. 26. Protestant missionaries came to the slums</li></li></ul><li>Sunshine and Shadow<br /><ul><li>Post Civil War, New York City was flourishing
  27. 27. This era became known as the Age of Machines
  28. 28. Many new inventions were created
  29. 29. Oil
  30. 30. Telegraph
  31. 31. Cheap steal – railroads were being built to unify the country
  32. 32. NYC became the richest city in America
  33. 33. New York Stock Exchange
  34. 34. Wall Street
  35. 35. NYC based completely on making money
  36. 36. There were no rules for businesses
  37. 37. Businessmen such as Fisc, Gould, and Vanderbilt ruthlessly ran things the way the wanted to
  38. 38. NYC was rapidly changing and developing, straying far from the Dutch settlement that it once was</li></li></ul><li>Sunshine and Shadow<br /><ul><li>Because of the rapid expansion of people and business in NYC, people were constantly trying to better working conditions
  39. 39. There was no “down time,” because businesses were constantly fighting each other to make money
  40. 40. The Brooklyn Bridge was built in 1869
  41. 41. Created a way to travel even when the river was frozen over
  42. 42. New York City expanded into Brooklyn through the bridge
  43. 43. John A Roblin created wire rope
  44. 44. Died, his son Washington took over building</li></li></ul><li>Sunshine and Shadow<br /><ul><li>Politics were even more corrupt than they are now
  45. 45. Men like Boss William M. Tweed were in charge
  46. 46. Boss Tweed is known as the most corrupt politician of the time
  47. 47. Completely manipulated New York City businesses in order to make money for himself
  48. 48. Tammany Hall
  49. 49. Ground zero for all the corruption
  50. 50. It became Tweed’s headquarters
  51. 51. Tweed died in prison in 1828</li></li></ul><li>Merger that puts NYC on Top<br /><ul><li>America Online (AOL), the world’s leading internet company, bought Time Warner, the world’s leading media-entertainment company
  52. 52. New York will be the headquarters of AOL Time Warner, and will therefore take the lead in the race to be the “cultural and economic center” of the United States
  53. 53. New York City has always been a top innovative city in the US
  54. 54. Leaders have always been able to look forward at the future of the economy, as well as develop strategies to stay on top
  55. 55. Electricity, the telephone, motion pictures, wireless radio, television, steel, oil, and automobiles all kept NYC on top of the economy
  56. 56. Though many of these were created elsewhere in the country, New York found a way to capitalize on their rivals
  57. 57. It is left to the rest of the country to try and beat NYC</li></li></ul><li>The City in the Land of the Dollar<br /><ul><li>Our cities are unlike any other cities in the world
  58. 58. Chicago, the fasted growing city in the US at the end of the 19th century, shaped how we construct cities
  59. 59. “Twentieth-century American urbanism got its start here”
  60. 60. Skyscraper was invented here
  61. 61. American commercial downtown took root
  62. 62. Formed by the commercial and industrial expansion after the Civil War
  63. 63. Chicago took advantage of all the technologies of the time
  64. 64. The Chicago fire wiped out the city, leaving land developers freedom to build however they wanted
  65. 65. Inventions like the elevator expanded the realm of what was possible for architecture</li></li></ul><li>The City in the Land of the Dollar<br /><ul><li>Most people lived outside of the city
  66. 66. Land was very expensive around the Loop, Chicago’s central business district
  67. 67. There were several new fire codes that prohibited inexpensive wood-frame construction
  68. 68. There were industrial neighborhoods close to the factories
  69. 69. Low-paid workers lived here to be close to work
  70. 70. There was also residential housing
  71. 71. Skilled craftsman and white-collar workers could afford to live in these areas
  72. 72. They took the trolley or train to get to work, which was relatively cheap
  73. 73. Fire codes did not apply
  74. 74. Land was cheap
  75. 75. Mostly consisted of detached houses with gardens
  76. 76. Exclusively for housing</li></li></ul><li>The City in the Land of the Dollar<br /><ul><li>World’s Columbian Exposition
  77. 77. Fair that took place during the summer of 1893 beside Lake Michigan
  78. 78. Devised by Olmstead and his associate Codman
  79. 79. They worked with architects Burnham and Root
  80. 80. Root died and Burnham took over the project
  81. 81. Burnham asked several talented architects to help design the individual pavilions
  82. 82. The exposition became known as the White City because of the grand white public buildings
  83. 83. The Columbian Exposition was the prototype of what Burnham thought a city should be</li>