American Colonies
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American Colonies

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American Colonies American Colonies Presentation Transcript

  • American colonies
    Karee Ann Klein
  • Glorious Revolutions
    • King James I favored the Catholics
    • This alarmed the Protestants
    • King James had a son, which promised a Catholic dynasty
    • The Protestants contacted Prince William of Orange
    • They asked him to bring an army to overthrow the king on behalf of the Protestants
    • William invaded England
    • James fled to France
    • Found sanctuary in the court of Louis XIV
    • William took the crown
    • Promised religious freedom to the Protestants
    • His political party became known as the Whigs
  • Men and Money
    • England was at war with France
    • William overthrew James II
    • England had to build a better army than France to compete
    • Increased taxes on the people
    • At one time they were the lightest taxed people in all of Europe, and now they were up there with the highest
    • English fought the Nine Years War
    • To uphold Protestant regime
    • Maintain England’s hold over Ireland
    • Preserve the American Colonies
    • Defend their new allies the Dutch
    • Parliament created a permanent funded national debt that paid annual interest to private financiers
    • To manage the debt, they created the Bank of England
  • War of the Spanish Succession
    • There was peace for five years starting in 1697
    • By 1702, Louis XIV had rebuilt his military and made plans to expand
    • Louis claimed the throne of Spain for his grandson, Philip de Bourbon
    • This threatened to reunite the Spanish and French and throw off the balance of power in Europe
    • England revived the alliance against Louis XIV
    • King William and Queen Mary of England had died
    • Queen Anne, Mary’s younger sister, resumed the throne
    • England was succesful in Europe, but the English colonies were not
    • The Carolina attacked the capital of Florida and failed
    • For fear of loss, Queen Anne cashed in her victories before their luck ran out
  • Pirates
    • England used piracy to attack the Spanish
    • Queen Elizabeth I protected and invested in pirate enterprises
    • Pirates were called “privateers”
    • Hired to loot enemy ships during wartime
    • New York, South Carolina, and Jamaica hosted pirates
    • British reassessed their support of piracy at the end of the 17th century
    • Pirates began looting ships from their own country
    • Pirates became a liability
    • Pirates became countercultural outlaws
    • “A merry life and a short one” became their motto
    • Crews codified their own rules
    • Crew members divided the loot among themselves
    • Operated as a democracy
  • News
    • Colonists were concerned about hearing news from Europe
    • “We are here at the end of the World, and Europe may be turned topsyturvy ere we can hear a word of it” – William Byrd
    • Colonists felt isolated
    • By the 1730’s ships came more frequently
    • Ships brought letters, pamphlets, and newspapers from England
    • They were able to learn more about the wars at home
    • Newspapers became popular in the Colonies
    • Boston News-Letter appeared in 1704 as the first enduring colonial newspaper
    • Copied official items from the London press
    • Very little local stories
  • English Emigrants
    • British ships brought many emigrants
    • Most of them were not English
    • Emigration increased during times of peace
    • Many soldiers and sailors were demobilized
    • Work was difficult to find
    • Many emigrants became indentured servants
    • Crime surged
    • People stole to live
    • Government imposed the death penalty for “grand larceny”
    • Stealing anything that cost more than a shilling
    • Many criminals were transported to America
    • Planters employed the convicts as field hands, equal to a slave
  • Growth and Limits
    • A vast array of churches developed in the colonies
    • At least 2/3 of colonial adults attended church
    • Denominations
    • Congregationalists ranked largest with 450 churches
    • Anglicans ranked second with 300 parishes
    • Quakers ranked third with 250 churches
    • Presbyterian were fourth with 160
    • Hosted some Catholic churches
    • Hosted a few Jewish synagogues as well
    • Churches fought over beliefs
  • Dependence
    • Paris felt that French America was a disappointment
    • New France and Louisiana annually cost the crown more money than what they sent back to France from the fur trades
    • Heavy cost to maintain forts
    • Expensive gifts to appease the Indians
    • Indians needed the French
    • They had become dependent on metalware, firearms, and gun powder
    • “Every necessary thing in life we must have from the white people” – Skiagunsta, Cherokee chief
    • French tried to get Indians to trade with only them
    • They discouraged trade with the British
    • Found that the French needed the Indians more than the Indians needed their trade