ContentsThe First Word Page 4Movies - Iron Man 3 Page 5Around the World - Paris Page 7Psychology - Short-term Memory Page 6Language - Common Mistakes in Speaking and Writing Page 8Idioms - Time Page 9Interview: Mohammad-Reza Shajarian - Part 1 Page 10ELT - What You Can Do With a Whiteboard Page 12Moral - Lesson for All of US Page 11Famous Figures - Napoleon Bonaparte Page 14Psychology - Understanding the Meaning of Colors in Color PsychologyDomestic - Iran’s Guinness World Record AmbitionsTechnology - RobotsBusiness - Job Interview TipsSports - How to Play a Good Chess GameTOEFL - Top 10 Listening Tips for the TOEFL TestGrammar - Phrasal Verbs - Part 2Page 15Page 17Page 16Page 18Page 19Page 21Page 22Vocabulary - Phrasal Verbs with “Go” Page 11Speaking - Find Your Tongue Page 203
The First Word41. The Size Of Candles May Differ But They Yield The Same Brightness. It’s Not The Matter Of Your Position, But YourAbility That Shines.2. In this world people may throw stones in the path of your success, it depends on you ….. What you make fromthem …… a wall or a bridge.3. As you climb the ladder of success, check occasionally to make sure that it is leaning against the right wall.4. In the Race of Life ….. Don’t waste your energy and time trying to compare with others….. Sometimes you areahead… Sometimes behind…. The race is long and in the end it’s only with your self…5. When one door closes another opens. But often we look so long so regretfully upon the closed door that we failto see the one that has opened for us.6. You may face many defeats in your life, but never let yourself be defeated7. Greatness cannot be achieved by doing big things, if you really want to be great. Do small thing in a great way!!!!8. It is not important to hold all the good cards in life, But it is important how well you play with the cards which youhold.9. The biggest enemy of success is “Fear of failure” so when FEAR knocks at your DOOR, send COURAGE to open theDOOR and success will wait for you.10. Take Risks in Your Life If u Win, U Can Lead! If u Lose, U Can Guide!So Go out...Become the best...You can do it...May God be always with You...Become the winner ...Today is your day…
Therearetwothingstoaimatinlife;firsttogetwhatyouwant,andafterthattoenjoyit.Onlythewisestofmankindhasachievedthesecond.Tony Stark recalls a New Years Eve party in 1999 with scientistMaya Hansen, inventor of Extremis—an experimental regenera-tive treatment intended to allow recovery from crippling in-juries. Disabled scientist Aldrich Killian offers them a placein his company, Advanced Idea Mechanics, but Stark re-jects the offer, humiliating Killian.Years later, Stark’s experiences during the alien invasionof New York are giving him panic attacks. Restless, he hasbuilt several dozen Iron Man suits, creating friction withhis girlfriend Pepper Potts. A string of bombings by terroristthe Mandarin has left intelligence agencies bewildered bya lack of forensic evidence. When Stark Industries securitychief Happy Hogan is badly injured in one such attack, Starkovercomes his stupor and issues a televised threat to the Man-darin, who responds by destroying Stark’s home with helicoptergunships. Hansen, who came to warn Stark, survives the attackalong with Potts. Stark escapes in an Iron Man suit, which hisartificial intelligence JARVIS pilots to rural Tennessee, follow-ing a flight plan from Stark’s investigation into the Mandarin.Stark’s experimental armor lacks sufficient power to returnto California, and the world believes him dead.Teaming with Harley, a precocious 10-year-old boy,Stark investigates the remains of a local explosion bear-ing the hallmarks of a Mandarin attack. He discoversthe “bombings” were triggered by soldiers subjected toExtremis, which at this stage of development can causecertain subjects to explosively reject it. After veterans start-ed exploding, their deaths were used to cover up Extremis’flaws by manufacturing a terrorist plot. Stark witnesses Ex-tremis firsthand when Mandarin agents Ellen Brandt and EricSavin attack him.With Harley’s help, Stark traces the Mandarin to Miami and infiltrates his headquarters using improvised weap-ons. Inside he discovers the Mandarin is actually a British actor named Trevor Slattery, who claims he is obliviousto the actions carried out in his name. The Mandarin is actually a creation of Killian, who appropriated Hansen’sExtremis research as a cure for his own disability and expanded the program to include injured war veterans.After capturing Stark, Killian reveals he is the real Mandarin; he has kidnapped Potts and subjected her to Ex-tremis to gain Stark’s aid in fixing Extremis’ flaws and thereby saving Potts. Killian kills Hansen when she has achange of heart about the plan.Killian has also manipulated American intelligence agencies regarding the Mandarin’s location, luring JamesRhodes—the former War Machine, now re-branded as the Iron Patriot—into a trap tosteal the armor. Stark escapes and reunites with Rhodes, discovering that Killian intendsto attack President Ellis aboard Air Force One. Remotely controlling his Iron Man armor,Stark saves some surviving passengers and crew but cannot stop Killian from abduct-ing Ellis and destroying Air Force One. They trace Killian to an impounded damagedoil tanker where Killian intends to kill Ellis on live television. The vice president willbecome a puppet leader, following Killian’s orders in exchange for Extremis to cure alittle girl’s disability.On the platform, Stark goes to save Potts, and Rhodes saves the president. Stark sum-mons his Iron Man suits, controlled remotely by JARVIS, to provide air support. Rhodessecures the president and takes him to safety, while Stark discovers Potts has survivedthe Extremis procedure. However, before he can save her, a rig collapses around themand she falls to her apparent death. Stark confronts Killian and traps him in an Iron Mansuit that self-destructs, but fails to kill him. Potts, whose Extremis powers allowed her tosurvive her fall, intervenes and kills Killian.After the battle, Stark orders JARVIS to remotely destroy each Iron Man suitas a sign of his devotion to Potts. The vice president and Slattery arearrested. With Stark’s help, Potts’ Extremis effects are stabilized, andStark undergoes surgery to remove the shrapnel embedded near hisheart. He pitches his obsolete chest arc reactor into the sea,musing he will always be Iron Man.In a present day post-credits scene, Starkwakes up Dr. Bruce Banner, who fell asleeplistening at the beginning of Stark’s story.Iron Man 3crippling: causing se-vere pain and makingit difficult or impossiblefor sb to walkhumiliate: to make sbfeel ashamed or foolishbewilder: to confusesomeoneprecocious: having de-veloped particular abili-ties at a younger agethan usualplot: a secret plan by agroup of people, to dosth harmful or illegalinfiltrate: to enter aplace or an organizationsecretly to get informa-tionlure: to persuade or tricksb to do sth by promis-ing them a rewardabduct: to kidnapsummon: to ordersomeone to come to aplaceintervene: to becomeinvolved in a situationin order to change whathappens5
Every story has an end. But in life, every ending is just anew beginning. Life goes on – not always the way we hadenvisioned it would be, but always the ways its supposedto be.Remember, we usually cant choose the music life plays forus, but we can choose how we dance to it. Make yours abeautiful memory.Short term MemoryMost people can remember a phone number forup to thirty seconds. When this short amount oftime elapses, however, the numbers are erasedfrom the memory. How did the information getthere in the first place? Information thatmakes its way to the short term memory(STM) does so via the sensory storagearea. The brain has a filter which onlyallows stimuli that is of immediateinterest to pass on to the STM, alsoknown as the working memory.There is much debate about the ca-pacity and duration of the short termmemory. The most accepted theorycomes from George A. Miller, a cog-nitive psychologist who suggestedthat humans can remember approximatelyseven chunks of information. A chunk is defined as a meaningful unit of informa-tion, such as a word or name rather than just a letter or number. Modern theoristssuggest that one can increase the capacity of the short term memory by chunk-ing, or classifying similar information together. By organizing information, one canoptimize the STM, and improve the chances of a memory being passed on to longterm storage.When making a conscious effort to memorize something, such as informationfor an exam, many people engage in “rote rehearsal”. By repeating somethingover and over again, one is able to keep a memory alive. Unfortunately, this type of memory maintenance only succeedsif there are no interruptions. As soon as a person stops rehearsing the information, it has the tendency to disappear.When a pen and paper are not handy, people often attempt to remember a phone number by repeating it aloud. If thedoorbell rings or the dog barks to come in before a person has the opportunity to make a phone call, he will likely forgetthe number instantly.* Therefore, rote rehearsal is not an efficient way to pass information from the short term to longterm memory.* A better way is to practice “elaborate rehearsal”. *This involves assigning semantic meaning to a pieceof information so that it can be filed along with other pre-existing long term memories.Encoding information semantically also makes it more retrievable. Retrieving information can be done by recognitionor recall. Humans can easily recall memories that are stored in the long term memory and used often; however, if amemory seems to be forgotten, it may eventually be retrieved by prompting. The more cues a person is given (such aspictures), the more likely a memory can be retrieved. This is why multiple choice tests are often used for subjects thatrequire a lot of memorization.elapse: to passstimuli: (plural of stimulus)something that makes some-one or something move orreactchunk: to divide (something)into piecesconscious: intentionaltendency: trend, will, talentrehearsal: repetition,practiceeventually: finally6
Don’tjudgeeachdaybytheharvestyoureap,butbytheseedsyouplant.7Paris is the capital of France. It’sknown as the City of Light because of itsbeauty. It’s a place to enjoy great food,great art, and great buildings. It’s also aplace to sit back and enjoy life in a side-walk café.For hundreds of years, artists and writershave celebrated Paris. Many have gone tolive there.Visitors come to admire the city.It’s a center of fashion and style. It’s alsothe business, financial, and industrial cen-ter of France.THE EIFFEL TOWERThe Eiffel Tower is the best-known land-mark in Paris. France built this lacy, irontower for the Paris World’s Fair of 1889.The fair honored the French Revolutionthat began in Paris 100 years earlier.The Eiffel Tower rises nearly 1,000 feet(300 meters). Elevators take visitors tothe top. At the time it was built, the towerwas the tallest structure in the world. Thetower was named for its designer, GustaveEiffel.ParisThe City of LightCITY ON THE SEINEThe river Seine runs through Paris andcuts it in half. The part of Paris on thenorth side of the river is called the RightBank. The part on the south side is calledthe Left Bank.Most of the businesses and large stores inParis are on the Right Bank. Many govern-ment buildings and the University of Parisare on the Left Bank. The university is in theLatin Quarter. Students at the university orig-inally spoke Latin, giving the neighborhoodits name.The oldest part of Paris is on the Île de laCité, an island in the Seine. Notre Dame ca-thedral is on the island. Workers began tobuild the cathedral in 1163.BUILDINGS AND MONUMENTSThere’s a lot to see in Paris. You could takea walk down the Champs-Élysées. This wide,tree-lined boulevard is one of the most fa-mous streets in the world.At one end of the Champs-Élysées is theArc de Triomphe (Arch of Triumph). Thismonument was built to honor the victoriesof French emperor Napoleon I. At the otherend is the Place de la Concorde (Square ofPeace) with its huge fountains andstatues.The Louvre is an old palace in themiddle of Paris. It’s also one ofthe world’s great museums. Leon-ardo da Vinci’s famous painting,the Mona Lisa, is here. If you likepaintings by the French impres-sionists, be sure to visit the Muséed’Orsay. This museum used to be arailroad station.When you’re tired, sit for a whilein one of Paris’s pleasant parks.The Tuileries Gardens are on theRight Bank, and the LuxembourgGardens are on the Left Bank.Eiffel Tower, ParisThe Eiffel Tower is the best-known landmark in Paris.The tower rises nearly 1,000 feet (300 meters). Whenit was built in 1889, it was the tallest structure in theworld.Arc de TriompheThe Arc de Triomphe (Arch of Triumph) in Parisis the national war memorial of France. The archstands at one end of a famous tree-lined boulevard,the Champs-Élysées.Seine River in ParisThe Seine River runs through Paris. The part of Paris onthe north side of the river is called the Right Bank. Thepart on the south side is called the Left Bank.to sit back: to relax and donothingto admire: to have a goodopinion of sb/sthlacy: of or like lace (lace: deli-cate decorative cloth with anopen-work design of threads)to cut sth in half: to divide orcut sth into two equal partcathedral: the main church ofa districtfountain: decorating structurefrom which water is pumpedinto the airpalace: a large, magnificenthouse(esp, king or queenhouse)impressionist: a person whopaint in a way that gives ageneral impression
Noonecanclimbtheladderofsuccess,withbothhandsinthepocket!8Here are three errors that I regularly encounter inside and outside the classroom. Do you make these mis-takes? Listen to yourself, and check your writing. These are some errors that are not deadly or fatal becausenative speakers usually understand what you mean. Because of that, they will rarely correct you. Never-theless, these mistakes mark you as not quite as advanced or proficient in English as you may thinkyou are.Common Mistake 1At lunchtime, I often hear students asking each other if they want to go outsideand eat together.INCORRECT:A: “Do you like to eat lunch with us today?”B: “Yeah, sure. Where do you go?”What’s wrong with this dialog? To ask someone to join you for lunch, we would say,CORRECT:A: “ Would you like to eat lunch with us today?” OR “Do you want to eat lunch with us today?”(more informal)B: “Yeah, sure. Where are you going/are you going to go?”EXPLANATION:In English, the present simple using ‘do you like to...’ is not a request form. Also, B’s response askingfor more information using the simple present sounds odd because the speakers are talking about ‘right now.’ Thus, the appropri-ate question asking for more information about the plan for lunch would be “Where are you going/are you going to go?” (presentcontinuous/future plan)Common Mistake 2Another common error especially in speaking for the Cambridge or for the iBT (TOEFL) test isINCORRECT:“I would prefer to study by my own rather than study with others.”CORRECT:“I would prefer to study on my own/by myself rather than study with others.”EXPLANATION:Prepositions are such a pain in the you-know-what, aren’t they? I always telladvanced level students that prepositions are the last thing to master in English.These little words (in, on, at, by, for, to, and so on) quickly mark people - eventhose who have lived in the U.S. for decades - as foreign-born (including Brit-ish English speakers, e.g., ‘on the weekend’ vs. ‘at the weekend’). ;-)Common Mistake 3Students need to be able to express their opinions. Of course, the easiest way to startoff your sentence is to say, “In my opinion, .....” However, there are other ways to begin a discourseabout your personal views.INCORRECT:“In my point of view, we should raise taxes on gasoline.”CORRECT:“From my point of view, we should raise taxes on gasoline.”“In my view, we should raise taxes on gasoline.”To try to give a visual image of how to use these last two expressions correctly, I often draw a mountain peak with a little personstanding on top. From that point, the person can see a lot, but (s)he is not in that point.Common Mistakes in Speaking and Writing
Time idiomsSunriseseverywherebutcropgrowsonlywherethefarmerhasworkedhard.SimilarlyGODiseverywherebuthisgraceisfortheonewhoworkshard…Time is a precious. Most of us don’t have enough of it and wish we had more.There are lots of English expressions using time. Here are 20 of them and whatthey mean. Check them out, there’s no time to lose:on timeto be on time means not to be late. You arrive at the right time.‘The trains always run on time in my country. They are never late.’time fliesThis common idiom means that time passes quickly.‘Time flies when you are having fun.’in the nick of timeThis expression means that you arrive or finish something just before itis too late. At the last possible moment.‘My team scored in the nick of time. The game was in the last few seconds.’turn back the hands of timeTo turn back the hands of time means to go back to the past.‘If I could turn back the hands of time, I wouldn’t have done what I did.’save timeWe save time when we do something the quick way.‘We will save time if we drive instead of taking the bus.’spare timeIn natural English, spare time has the same meaning as free time. The things we do when we are not busy withwork or study, for example.‘In my spare time I like to learn English.’as time goes byAs time goes by means as time passes or moves. The passing of time.‘As time has gone by I have become less interested in going to nightclubs on the weekends.’out of timeOut of time means that there is no more time left to do something. The time limit or deadline has been reached.‘Please stop writing. You are out of time. The exam has finished.’make timeTo make time means to find the time to do something. We have to clear some time in our schedules to do some-thing.‘I know that you are busy, but you will have to make time to attend the meeting.’time for a changeTime for a change means to stop what you are doing and start doing something else with your life.‘After working in the same job for 5 years, I now feel like it is time for a change.’time is moneyThe famous expression time is money means that your time is a valuable commodity.‘I can’t wait here all day. Time is money, you know?’time heals all woundsTime heals all wounds means that our feelings of hurt will leave us time passes by. This expression usuallyrefers to emotional hurts and not physical ones.‘I was sad for a long time after I broke up with my boyfriend, but time heals all wounds. I’m fine now.’only time will tellOnly time will tell means that we can not find out the truth or the answer yet. We will have to wait and then wewill find out in the future.‘Will we ever have peace in the world? Only time will tell.’9
MindsarelikeParachutes;theyonlyfunctionwhentheyareopen.Vocabu-Interview: Mohammad-Reza ShajarianThe Iranian singer and composer Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, who bringshis 17-piece Shahnaz Ensemble to the Durham Performing Arts Center onApril 28, is known around the world as the greatest living master of tra-ditional Persian music.Most familiar to Western listeners from his two “Best World Music” Gram-my nominations and his placement in NPR’s “50 Great Voices” series, Sha-jarian had already been a popular icon in Iran for decades when, in 2009,he withdrew his music from state radio toprotest the Iranian presidential election re-sults, becoming, according to Duke religiousstudies professor Mohsen Kadivar in a re-cent Duke Today profile, “the voice of libertyand justice and freedom for Iranians.”In anticipation of this rare North Carolina concert, Duke Professor of Psychiatry AmirH. Rezvani arranged a telephone interview with Shajarian, who was lecturing and lead-ing seminars at Stanford and Berkeley at the time. Rezvani took a voice recorder to thehome of UNC Religious Studies Professor Omid Safi. They made Persian tea and spokeextensively with Shajarian about his life, his music, and his legacy. “For both of us,”Rezvani told The Thread, “it was an historic moment.”With the kind permission of all involved, we present the following transcript of the con-versation, as translated by Omid Safi.Omid Safi: I wanted to begin by asking about your own biography and where you firstbecame exposed to music.Mohammad-Reza Shajarian: I sought it myself. My parents didn’t have anything to dowith it. I didn’t have any teachers. I studied poetry and music on my own, and pursuedit.OS: Were there particular poets that were especially influential to you?M-RS: Hafez and Sa’di. Those two were especially important for me.OS: Did you begin with poetry, and then add music?M-RS: In the beginning it was music and singing, and then I studied poetry more systematically alongside music.OS: I am aware that many Iranian friends first became acquainted with you through the Radio.M-RS: It was actually quite simple. In those days you just went to the Radio [building], dida reading, and if they liked you, you would get a program. That’s how it happened to me.OS: There is a special prayer that many of us associate with you. It is the “OurLord”, Rabbana, prayer. This is the prayer that Iranian TV/Radioplays for the occasion of breaking the fast during the monthof Ramadan. Can you tell us about how you came to be as-sociated with it?M-RS: It was an amusing story. Many people that I knewin Radio and TV [of Iran] asked for my help in training peoplethat could recite prayers and poems for the breaking of the fast[iftar] during the fasting month of Ramadan. I became involved, and put together some prayers andsome poems for it. It wasn’t supposed to be; I was only supposed to be training people. I taught themhow to recite these lines, and it took three to four months to do so, but in the end they decided to have merecite it myself instead of my students. So I did, and it has come to mean a lot to people.Part 1To be continued...10composer: a person whowrites musicmaster: a person who is veryskilled at sthicon: sb famous who is ad-mired by many peopleto withdraw: to stop giving oroffering sth to sbanticipation: when you are ex-pecting sth to happenextensively: largely, mainlylegacy: sth that happens as aresult of some earlier eventsto pursue: to try to achieve sthover a period of timealongside: besideamusing: funny and entertain-ingto recite: to say a poem, etcaloud from memory
Aunt Agather and the French ChefMy Aunt Agather is looking for a boyfriend. I suggested a friend who isa chef. She said he once went out with a chef. She didn’t want to gothrough that experience again. She has met him the year before. Hisname was Jean-Paul, he was a famous French Chef. She wanted to im-press him but she didn’t know anything about cooking so she went on acookery course. On the first day she bought the necessary ingredientsfor the first lesson, some milk. It was very expensive, the price had goneup! Prices are always going up, she thought. And when she opened thecarton, she realised it had gone off! Then the teacher arrived! It was herboyfriend. She decided to carry on. He went through the first recipe. “Thisis a famous English recipe that goes back to the Romans.” ExplainedJean-Paul. It was very complicated. Aunt Agather knew she could nevermake it. Then the teacher went out of the room. She suddenly had anidea. She stuck her fork into the electric socket. Bang! The lights went out,and then the alarms went off. Then the sprinklers went off. It was chaos.Aunt Agather never went back to the cookery class and she never sawJean-Paul again.go out with sb:to have a ro-mantic relationship with sbgo through sth: 1. to experi-ence sth difficult or unpleas-ant, 2. to study or considersth in detailgo on a course: to take partin a course, continuego up: to rise, become highergo off: 1. (of food, etc) tobecome unfit to eat, 2.(of analarm, etc) to suddenly makea loud noise, 3. to explodego back:1. to extend back-wards in space or time, 2. toreturn go out: 1. to leave yourplace, 2. (of a fire, light, etc)to stop burning or shiningLessonforAllofUSThebestcosmeticforlipsistruth,forvoiceisprayer,foreyesispity,forhandsischarity,forheartislove,andforlifeisfriendship.In ancient Greece, Socrates was reputed to holdknowledge in high-esteem.One day an acquaintance met the great phi-losopher and said, “Do you know what I justheard about your friend?”Hold on a minute,” Socrates replied.” Be-fore telling me anything, I’d like you to passa little test. It’s called the Triple Filter Test.”“Triple filter?”That’s right,” Socrates continued. “Before youtalk to me about my friend, it might be agood idea to take a moment and filterwhat you’re going to say. That’s why Icall it the triple filter test. The firstfilter is TRUTH. Have you madeabsolutely sure that what youare about to tell me is true?”No,” the man said, “actually I justheard about it and...”“All right,” said Socrates. “So you don’t really know if it’s true or not. NowLet’s try the second filter, the filter of GOODNESS. Is what you are about to tell me about my friend something good?” No, onthe contrary...”“So,” Socrates continued, “you want to tell me something bad about him, but you’re not certain it’s true. You may still pass thetest though, because there’s one filter left: the filter of USEFULNESS. Is what you want to tell me about my friend going to beuseful to me? “ “No, not really.”“Well,” concluded Socrates, “if what you want to tell me is neither true nor good nor even useful, why tell it to me at all?”This is why Socrates was a great philosopher & held in such high-esteem.Friends, use this triple filter each time you hear loose talk about any or anything.Pharsal Verbs with «GO»reputed: according to whatsome people say, but not def-initelyesteem: good opinion, re-spectacquaintance: a person thatyou know slightlyon the contrary: used whenyou want to disagree with astatement by someone else,to answer no to a questionconclude: to decide that sth istrue after considering all theinformation you haveloose talk: impure talk, vulgar11
12In this article, we examined the chalkboard vs. whiteboard dilemma in our article, Whiteboard Markers – StinkingMonsters or Life Savers? and yes, we agree that whiteboard markers have their weak points, but one of theadvantages is that you can use them to play some great, fun ESL games with your students.How You Can Use A Whiteboard: 10 ESL GamesJeopardyBased on the classic TV game show, this gamewill require your students to put on their think-ing caps. Divide your whiteboard into columnsfor vocabulary categories and rows with dif-ferent point values. Divide your students into two teams. Eachteam chooses a category and the pointsthey want to play for: We choose Countriesfor 25 points. Supply a clue or definition:This country is south of the US, and they eattacos there. They must guess the right coun-try in the form of a question: What is Mexico? Ifthey answer correctly you erase the points fromthe chart and add them to the team’s tally untilthey’re all wiped off. Adapt this game to any level ofdifficulty and include as many categories as you wish.Suction Cup BallBuy one (or several!) inexpensive suction cup balls, and your whiteboard games will never be the same! Theseballs are made up of several tiny suction cups that stick to whiteboards. There are many games you can play- as many as your imagination will allow- but here are two:- Draw a target with concentric circles on the whiteboard, each with a different point value. Quiz students andif they give you the right answer they get to throw the ball for points.- Fill your whiteboard with letters or syllables and each student has to supply a word that starts with the letteror syllable they hit.PictionaryThis is a classic and one that may easily be adapted to any level. Students are split into two teams and theytake turns drawing words, actions, or situations that they have drawn from a pile of cards. Teammates guesswhat is being drawn.HangmanAnother popular game that may be adapted to your needs. Play the classic game where students have toguess a word, or a more sophisticated version where they have to guess entire phrases, expressions, movie orbook titles.Tic Tac ToeToo simple? Not really. Make it as challenging as you like. Say you want your students to practice the simplepast tense. Draw a 3 by 3 grid on the whiteboard. Write a sentence in each square, with a gap where the verbshould go. Write a list of 10 verbs on the side (one of them won’t be used). They must supply the right form ofthe verb to complete the sentence till one of the teams gets a Tic Tac Toe. Try it with any gap-filling exercise!And expand the 9-square grid to a bigger 16 or 25-square grid as suggested in this Tic Tac Toe worksheet.Hot SeatWhat You Can Do With a Whiteboard10 Creative ESL Games for english teachers
13Idiom: on the back burnerIf a plan or a project is on the back burner, it isnt being worked onat present, but it might be completed in the future.Idiom: in a nutshellYou can say «in a nutshell» if you›re about to describe something asbriefly as possible, or you›re going to sum something up.Place one student in the hot seat, in front of the whiteboard, with his or her back to it. You and another stu-dent stand behind the student in the hot seat. Write a word, movie, or book that the student must describefor the other to guess.EarthquakeDraw a 5 by 5 grid on the whiteboard and label each column from A to E and each row 1 to 5. Each teamchooses a square, say “A5”; you ask a question youhave previously prepared. Before starting the gamechoose three squares that won’t have any questions,and when a team chooses one of these, tell theman earthquake has just swallowed up some of theirpoints–deduct 5 points.Barnyard DashThe goal is for students to identify a barnyardanimal from the sound it makes. Depending onyour students’ level, you can either draw thepictures of animals on the board or write thewords for each. Give each team a differentcolor marker and have them line up. Make thesound yourself, i.e. crow like a rooster, or havea CD ready with animal sounds. As they heareach sound, students race to the board andcircle the right word or picture. You can adaptthis game to all types of sounds, like a phoneringing, a car honking a horn, or someone sneezing. You may also record expressions or phrases that theyhave to circle on the board, like “Thanks!” and “You’re welcome”.Writing RaceThis game is similar to the race mentioned above but in this case students race to the board to write a letter,a word, or a complete answer to a question. You can have each student write the complete answer or playit like a relay race where each student in the team only writes one word, then races to pass the marker to ateammate who must write the next one, and so on.Backs to the BoardGreat for practicing numbers, especially those tricky ones like 16 and 60, 13 and 30, etc…Write severalnumbers on the board. Give each team a different color marker. Have students stand with their backs toboard. Call out a number. Students turn, try to find the number and circle it. At the end of the game, tally upthe scores by counting the different color circles.
execute: to kill someone,especially legally as a pun-ishmentdeclare: to state sth offi-cially and publiclyseize: to take control of aplace, using military forceuphold: to defend or sup-port a lawcrown: to declare sb asa new king or queen byputting a crown on theirheadruthless: cruelinvade: to attack or enter acountry or area using mili-tary force.ally: to help and supportother countries, especiallyin a war.crushing: very hard to dealwith and making you losehope or confidence14Napoleon BonaparteTheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness.The French called Napoleon Bonaparte “a man ofdestiny.” A hero in France, Napoleon was hated else-where in Europe. Today, Napoleon is remembered asone of the greatest military leaders of all time. He builtan empire that covered much of Europe.ARMY CAREERNapoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 on Corsica, anisland in the Mediterranean Sea. At the age of 16, Na-poleon chose a career in the French army.THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONIn 1789, a revolution began that rocked France. Theking and queen were executed. Hungry working peo-ple demanded new freedoms. Revolutionary govern-ments in France swept away old laws. They declaredwar on supporters of the former king. The French Rev-olution lasted until 1799.RISING STARNapoleon first showed his military skill fighting for theFrench Revolution. In 1794, he captured the Frenchcity of Toulon, which supported rule by royalty. For thissuccess, Napoleon was made a general at the age of24. In 1795, Napoleon saved the revolutionary govern-ment from rioters in Paris, the capital.From 1796 to 1797, Napoleon commanded the Frencharmy on the Italian-French border. While there,he managed to defeat bigger armies from Austria,France’s chief enemy of the day. Napoleon went on toinvade Egypt in 1798. Napoleon’s victories enlargedFrance’s territory.NAPOLEON RULES FRANCENapoleon returned to France as a hero. The Frenchpeople had lost confidence in the revolutionary gov-ernment. So Napoleon decided to seize control. In No-vember 1799, Napoleon set up a new government withhimself as leader.Could Napoleon lead his country as well as he couldcommand an army? At first, he was a great success.Napoleon reorganized national and local government.He made new laws that upheld religious freedom andother rights of the people. He introduced fairer taxesand a new education system. From 1800 to 1802, heforced European countries that had joined togetheragainst France to agree to make peace.In 1804, Napoleon crowned himself emperor ofFrance as Napoleon I. He paid top artists to portrayhim in proud, powerful poses.WARS OF CONQUESTFrance was now the strongest nation in Europe. ButNapoleon wasn’t satisfied. Ruthless, restless, and al-ways seeking glory, he dreamed of a mighty empire.Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia (north Germany)united to fight him.In 1805, Britain defeated France’s ships off the south-ern coast of Spain in the famous Battle of Trafalgar. Butby 1807, Napoleon had smashed Russian and Prussianarmies and won more land for France.DEFEAT AND EXILEIn 1808, Napoleon invaded Spain.Spanish fighters put up a fierce resis-tance. They used guerrilla tactics (sur-prise attacks and rapid retreats), mak-ing it impossible for Napoleon to win.Worse was to come. In 1812, Napo-leon led 500,000 soldiers to invadeRussia. Through bitter winter weather,they marched to Moscow, Russia’scapital. But they found themselvesstranded. The Russians had set fire tomuch of the city, destroying food andshelter needed by Napoleon’s troops.Napoleon had to retreat. Over half hismen died.Soon after this loss, Napoleon sufferedanother defeat at Leipzig, Germany.The countries allied against Franceforced Napoleon to step down. He wassent into exile on the Mediterraneanisland of Elba, near Italy, in 1813.FINAL DEFEAT AT WATERLOONapoleon was not a man to give in.In 1815, he escaped from Elba anddashed back to Paris. There, he wasgreeted by cheering crowds. Napoleongathered an army and marched northinto Belgium to face enemy forces.The campaign in Belgium ended in disaster. Napoleon’s outnum-bered troops met a crushing defeat in the Battle of Waterloo, oneof history’s most famous battles.AFTER WATERLOONapoleon spent his last years as a prisoner on the island of SaintHelena in the Atlantic Ocean. He died in 1821. But Napoleon’s influ-ence on France has lasted long after his death. Many of his reformsin law, government, and education still govern French life today.Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon Bonaparte was one of the greatest military leaders of all time. As the leader of France,he built an empire across much of Europe. Napoleon also made reforms in law, government, andeducation in France.
Thebestcosmeticforlipsistruth,forvoiceisprayer,foreyesispity,forhandsischarity,forheartislove,andforlifeisfriendship.May God gift you all the colors of life,colors of joy, colors of happiness, colorsof friendship, colors of love and all othercolors you want to paint in your life.15Understanding the Meaning of Colors in Color PsychologyThe meaning of colors can vary dependingon culture and circumstances. Each color hasmany aspects to it but you can easily learnthe language of color by understanding a fewsimple concepts.Color is a form of non verbalcommunication. It is not astatic energy and itsmeaning can changefrom one day tothe next withany individual.For example,a personmay chooseto wear thecolor red oneday and thismay indicatethey are readyto take action,or they may bepassionate aboutwhat they are goingto be doing that day,or again it may meanthat they are feeling angrythat day, on either a conscious orsubconscious level.The color orange is the color of social com-munication and optimism. From a negativecolor meaning it is also a sign of pessimismand superficiality.In the meanings of color in color psychology,the color yellow is the color of the mind andthe intellect. It is optimistic and cheerful. How-ever it can also suggest impatience, criticismand cowardice.Green is the color of balance and growth. Itcan mean both self-reliance as a positive andpossessiveness as a negative, among manyother meanings.Blue is the color of trust and peace. It can sug-gest loyalty and integrity as well as conserva-tism and frigidity.Indigo is the color of intuition. In the mean-ings of colors it can mean idealism and struc-ture as well as ritualistic and addictive.Purple is the color of the imagination. It canbe creative and individual or immature andimpractical.The color meaning of turquoise is communi-cation and clarity of mind. It can also be impractical and idealistic.The color psychology of pink is unconditional love and nurturing. Pinkcan also be immature, silly and girlish.In the meaning of colors, magenta is a color ofuniversal harmony and emotional balance. It isspiritual yet practical, encouraging commonsense and a balanced outlook on life.The color brown is a serious, down-to-earth color that relates to security, pro-tection and material wealth.From a color psychology perspective,gray is the color of compromise - beingneither black nor white, it is the transi-tion between two non-colors.The colorsilver hasa feminineenergy; it isrelated to themoon and the ebband flow of the tides - itis fluid, emotional, sensitive andmysterious.Gold is the color of success, achieve-ment and triumph. Associated withabundance and prosperity, luxury andquality, prestige and sophistication,value and elegance, the color psychol-ogy of gold implies affluence, mate-rial wealth and extravagance.White is color at its most completeand pure, the color of perfection. Thecolor meaning of white is purity, inno-cence, wholeness and completion.Black is the color of the hidden, thesecretive and the unknown, creat-ing an air of mystery. It keeps thingsbottled up inside, hidden from theworld.aspect: one part of a sth thathas many partsindicate: to showPessimism: A tendency to be-lieve that bad things will hap-penwholeness: all of sthaffluence: wealth; money,houses, expensive thingsabundance: a large quantityof sthimmature: childishimpractical: not sensible orpossible for practical reasonritualistic: always follow thesame pattern, especially be-cause they form part of a ritualfrigidity: not friendly or kindcowardice: lack of courage
Thebestcosmeticforlipsistruth,forvoiceisprayer,foreyesispity,forhandsischarity,forheartislove,andforlifeisfriendship.exact: correct in every de-tail, precisebend: to make sth thatwas straight into a curvedshapejoint: a place where twobones are joined togetherfigure sb/sth out: to thinkabout sb/sth until you un-derstand them/ithip: the part on either sideof the body above thelegs and below the waistsunken: that has fallen tothe bottom of the seamine: to dig coal, etc fromholes in the groundexamine: to consider orstudy an idea, subject, etccarefullyskyscraper: very tall build-ingchore: ordinary or boringtaskclog: to (cause sth to) be-come blockedeventually: in the end, fi-nally16When you think about robots you may imagine metal machines from science fiction that look a lot like people.There are already almost a million robots at work in the world. Almost none of themlook like the robots in science-fiction movies.Robots are machines. They are machinesthat are controlled by computers. Robotsdo work. You probably would not like todo the work that robots do. Some ro-bots do jobs that are dangerous. Somerobots do jobs that are boring. Theyjust do the exact same thing over andover again. Robots that do these jobsare called industrial robots. Almost allrobots in use today are industrial robots.WHAT DO INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS LOOKLIKE?Most industrial robots are just mechanical arms. Robotarms can bend. Some robot arms bend like an elephant’strunk. Some robot arms can make themselves longer orshorter.Many robot arms have parts on the end that can holdthings. The parts are called grippers. They work like a hu-man hand, but they often don’t look much like a hand.Special kinds of grippers can handle tools or move thingsaround.HOW DOES A ROBOT ARM MOVE?Your muscles move your arm. Electric motors move a robot’s arm. Arobot arm has joints that allow it to bend just as your arm does. Your arm has shoul-der, elbow, and wrist joints. A robot arm can have as many joints as it needs to do its job.A computer figures out how the robot’s arm and gripper should move. The computer sendssignals to the electric motors.Some robot arms have sensors. The sensors tell the computer where the arm is. The computermakes the motors move the arm if it is not in the right place.WHAT KINDS OF JOBS DO ROBOTS DO?Robots do things over and over in exactly the same way. The robots can move quicker thanhumans can, and they never get bored. Most robots are designed to do only one specific job.A different robot must be specially made for each job that needs to be done.Many robots work in plants that make automobiles. Robot arms weld metal car parts together.They spray paint on cars. Other robots work in factories that build radios, TVs, computers, andother electronic products.Some robots help doctors do operations. Robots help replace hips. They help doctors operateon eyes.Some robots handle chemicals that are dangerous for humans to touch. Some robots go to dangerous places. Robotscan go deep underwater to search for sunken ships or look for minerals to mine. Robots can go into active volcanoes.Robots help explore Mars and other planets. They find out what the planets look like and what they are made of. Ro-bot rovers that look like little wagons landed on the planet Mars. They rolled around and examined the rocks and soil.WILL ROBOTS EVER BE LIKE HUMANS?Robots
Iran’sGuinnessWorldRecordAmbitionsChoopan dairy of Iran has set its eye on snagging an entry in the Guinness Book of World Records forproducing the largest carton of ice cream on Earth.In a televised report by Press TV, a large group of men are seen hoisting the mon-strous ice-cream carton from a truck amid confetti and fanfare, before a crowdof thousands near the ski resort of Tochal north of Tehran on Monday.The enormous tub (6.5 feet wide by 5.2 feet tall), which contained five tons ofchocolate ice cream, cost the firm $30,000 to produce.The dairy firm was motivated by a desire to put Iranian dairy on the map witha new Guinness World Record and boost ice cream consumption among Iranians,who eat an average of 1.5 kilograms worth annually.“Right now, we are breaking the record which was registered in 2005 by Baskin-Robbins for about four tons,” event organizer Khashayar Baheri told Iran’s state-run Press TV. “We’re breaking that record by one ton.”While some reports seem to indicate that the record has beensecured, Guinness representatives have not yet confirmed the of-ficial results. At present, United States ice cream empire Baskin-Robbins holds the record after scooping out 8,865 pounds of va-nilla ice cream on September 13, 2005, the company’s 60thbirthday.According to the BBC, the conservative website Ba-ztab-e-Emrooz reported that the crowd’s initial en-thusiasm dwindled when the organizers handed out ice cream that did notcome from the tub, raising suspicions about the ice cream’s safety, aswell as the legitimacy of the record.Choopan, Farsi for “shepherd,” launched its ice cream line last yearand claims to be among the nation’s three top producers of dairyproducts, with plans to expand into the Gulf, Middle East and Rus-sian markets.Alas, even if Choopan manages to dethrone Baskin-Robbins as theproducer of the largest tub, the American ice cream giant still holdsthe Guinness World Record for the “World’s Largest Ice Cream ScoopPyramid,” an 800-pound, four-feet-tall structure ambitiously builton May 18, 2000, with 3,100 scoops.17TheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameScientists and engineers are working to make better robots. They are trying to make robots with computers that aresmarter. They are trying to make robot legs that walk. It is very hard to make a machine that can walk on two legs theway you can.One day there will be robots that make highways and build steel skyscrapers. Inventors are starting to make robotsfor use at home to clean carpets and mow lawns. There may someday be robots that help with many chores aroundthe house.Tiny robots may one day be able to go into clogged blood vessels and clean them out. Tiny robots may be able to goinside broken machines and fix them. Very smart robots may eventually be able to run a whole factory by themselves.snag: to succeed to getsth quicklyhoist: to raise, lift, or pullsomething up, especiallyusing ropesfanfare: a large amount ofactivity and discussion ontelevisionboost: to make sth in-crease or become betterannually: once a yeardwindle: to become grad-ually less or smallerlegitimacy: for whichthere is a fair and accept-able reasondethrone: to removesomeone from a positionof authority or power
18ramble on: to talk or write fora long time in a way that otherpeople find boringblunder: a careless or stupidmistakeanticipate: to expect that sthwill happenconcisely: brieflycover sth up: to prevent peoplefrom discovering unpleasantfactsstraight-laced: having strict,old-fashioned ideas about moralbehaviorJob Interview TipsTheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness.Be ConciseInterviewees rambling on isone of the most common interviewblunders Fogarty sees. “You reallyhave to listen to the question, andanswer the question, and answer itconcisely,” he says. “So many peoplecan’t get this basic thing down. Youask them a question, and they go offon a tangent. They might think youwant to hear what they’re saying,but they didn’t answer your ques-tion.”Provide ExamplesIt’s one thing to say you can dosomething; it’s another to give ex-amples of things you have done.“Come with a toolbox of examples ofthe work you’ve done,” advises Fog-arty. “You should come and antici-pate the questions a recruiter’s go-ing to ask based on the requirementof the role. Think of recent strongstrategic examples of work you’vedone, then when the question isasked, answer with specifics, not ingeneralities. You should say, ‘Yes, I’vedone that before. Here’s an exampleof a time I did that…,’ and then comeback and ask the recruiter, ‘Did thatanswer your question?’”Be HonestSomehow, candidates get the im-pression that a good technique isto dance around difficult interviewquestions. “If you don’t have a skill,just state it. Don’t try to cover itup by talking and giving examples thataren’t relevant. You’re much better offsaying you don’t have that skill but per-haps you do have some related skills,and you’re happy to tell them about thatif they like.”Keep Your Guard UpAccording to Fogarty, you can split re-cruiters into two schools. There arethose who are very straight-laced andserious, and candidates had better takethe process seriously as well when deal-ing with them.“Then you have recruiters like me,” hesays, chuckling. “I’m going to be thatcandidate’s best friend when they callme. My technique is to put them at ease,because I want them to tell me every-thing, and a lot of candidates mess up in this area. They start to think,‘Oh, this guy is cool. I can tell him anything.’ And then they cross theline.” And that can take a candidate out of contention. Remember: Al-ways maintain your professionalism.Ask Great QuestionsAnother of Fogarty’s interviewtips is to come ready with goodquestions to ask. He says nothingimpresses him more than a reallygood question that not only showsyou’ve researched the companyin general, but also the specificjob you’re hoping to land inparticular. “That makes mego, ‘Wow, this person hasreally done their home-work. They not only knowthe company, but theyknow the role.’”Like many career advice experts, Steve Fogarty, staffing partner at Waggener Edstrom,says candidates should research a company thoroughly before an interview. And ifthe company is a private firm, that’s not an excuse to skip doing your homework.Where there’s a will, there’s a way, and finding a way to gather information on a com-pany “distinguishes the great candidates from the good candidates,” says Fogarty.Consider Fogarty’s company, a large independent public relations agency. He saysthat if someone were trying to find out about Waggener Edstrom, the candidatecould take a number of steps. In addition to simply visiting the company’s Website, joining a trade organization like the Public Relations Society of Americawould almost certainly give someone interested in his company exposure topeople who work there.Fogarty offers a less conventional method as well: “People might beable to find a press release that one of our PR people has writtenand contact that person and say, ‘I saw your press release. It looksreally good. Would you be open to me asking a few questions?I’m doing research on your company.’ That’s a way to getinformation.”What else can you do to improve your chancesat the interview? Try these tips fromFogarty.
foundation: a basic idea, princi-ple, situation etc that somethingdevelops fromadvancing: forwarding movementof a group of peoplepromotion: the activity of helpingsth to develop or increasedesire: to want something verymuchultimate: main and most impor-tantsufficient: enoughin conjunction with: working,happening, or being used with sbor sth elseviolate: to disobey or do sthagainst the lawsacrifice: when you decide not tohave something valuable, in orderto get something that is more19How to Play a Good Chess GameTheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness.1. Control the center of the board: If you are playing white, begin with 1. e4 or 2.d4. Moving the king or queen pawn two spaces is the foundation to a goodcenter.2. Develop your pieces: Pieces are not the same things as pawn. Mau-riceAshley, G.M. once said that “pieces before pawns.” What he meansby this is that you should activate your knights and bishops beforeadvancing the pawns. Such good moves after 1.e4 e5 would be 2.nf3 nc6 and 3. bc4 bc5. These pieces will be helpful for tactics inthe middlegame as well as the endgame. The outside pawns will beused more towards the endgame for potential promotions to amore desired piece like a queen.3. Castle early: The ultimate goal in chess is“checkmate.” In order to achieve victo-ry, it is necessary and sufficient to pro-tect your king while attacking your op-ponent’s king. Once you accomplishedguideline #2 in chess (either on the kingside or queen side, wherever appropri-ate), you can castle your king to safety. Not only is your king safe, but castlingalso develops your rook towards the center of the board. Castling is two fold,and provides a great benefit to your game.4. Do not bring your queen out too early: There is a good reason for not doingthis kind of strategy in the opening. If you bring your queen out early, you mayhave lower valued pieces like knights and bishops attacking it. These attackscause your queen to be chased across the board, not allowing your other piecesto be devloped. Thus, you lose time in development. The point is that if youviolate this guideline, you will also violate guideline #2. If you desire to bringyour queen out, keep her along the 2nd rank along the queen bishop file. By do-ing this, she is well protected. She also has good sight in attacking other piecesin conjunction with a knight, bishop, or rook.5. Trade pieces for a good reason: When trading pieces, you need to keep twothings in mind: (a) value and (b) position. In regards to (a), one may ask him-self, “If I trade piece P1 for piece P2, then will I be up in material?” A goodplayer likes to be up rather than down in material. However, (a) is not all youshould consider when trading. (b) is also important as well. Even though (a)may benefit me point wise, there is still another question to ask. “Does myposition look better?” When I mean position, I mean one’s arrangement oftheir pieces on the board that can lead to checkmate. Sometimes (b) may havemore significance than (a) and vice versa. If you know that sacrificing your queen will lead you to victory,by all means do it. After all, sometimes it is not how much material you have left on the board. It is a matterof whether you can capture the opponent’s king, which is based on your position along with some material tomate.I know there are many more things that a chess player should be aware of. These five guidelines will give suchplayers a good foundation as well as to help them succeed in all their chess games.
Conversation TimeA: Oh, I don’t know if you heard, but someone moved into that old house down theroad.B: Yeah, I know. I met the owner of the house yesterday as he was moving in. Hisname is Armand.A: Really? What’s he like? You have to fill me in.B: Actually, he’s a bit strange. I don’t know... I’ve got a bad feeling about him.A: Really? Why?B: Well, yesterday I brought over a housewarming gift, but Armand started actingreally weird, and then he practically kicked me out! I tried to, sort of, peek into hishouse, but everything was so dark inside that I couldn’t really get a good look. Thewhole thing really crept me out.A: Well, you’ll never guess what I saw this morning. A delivery truck pulled into hisdriveway, and it dropped off a long, rectangular box. It almost looked like a coffin!B: You see! Why would he...C: Hello ladies...B: Ah, Armand! You scared the heck out of me! This is my friend Doris.C: A pleasure to meet you...If you are not doing anything tonight, I would like tohave you both for dinner. I mean...I would like to have you both over for dinner.WordsI don’t know if you heardused to introduce a pieceof informationfill me in tell me about ita bad feeling a sense orfeeling that sth bad is go-ing to happenweird strange, unusualkick out to make or forcesb leave when they don’twant tocreep me out to make mefeel uncomfortable and abit scaredyou’ll never guess used tointroduce a piece of newsdrop off: to take sth to aplace a leave them therescare the heck out of me tocause someone to feel a lotof fearFind Your Tongue...toblowyourownhorn:tobragaboutyourachievementsHeisalwaysblowinghisownhorn.Hetellseverybodyabouthisachievementsandwantthemtoknowaboutit.“Wherethere’sawillthere’saway.”Usedtosaythatifyoureallywanttodosomething,youwillfindawaytosucceedEnglish IdiomEnglish SlangEnglish Phrasal VerbEnglish ProverbAwesome:GreatWhatanawesomesunset.blowup:ExplodeTheterroriststriedtoblowuptherailroadstation.TheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness.20
SuccessisavehiclewhichmovesonawheelcalledHARDWORK.ButthejourneyisimpossiblewithoutfuelcalledSELFCONFIDENCE.Need help with your TOEFL Listening Section? We have come up with theTop 10 TOEFL Listening Tips and Tricks to help YOU prepare for yourTOEFL listening exam!1. Take past TOEFL listening tests and become familiar with theformat. Quickly read the comprehension questions before the re-cording begins - this helps you to listen out for key points – oftenthere is a lot of content that you will not be tested on – keep yourfocus and energy for the points that count!2. Practice note taking whenever you are listening to some-thing in English – only write down key words or phrases, use ab-breviations for long words and always write in English. Record onlythe major points – you won’t have time to write down the minor, un-important details in the exam.3. Improve your vocabulary – the more words you know, the eas-ier it will be for you to understand the listening section. Learn newvocabulary.4. Listen for signal words that indicate major steps, changes or ideas such as seldom,at the moment, in 1975, so far, usually, often, up to now, at the moment. Make sure to alsolisten out for repetition, synonyms and pronouns.5. Download listening practice lessons, such as lessons on Daily English Audio and stopit at different times. Try and guess what will happen next! This is a great way to practice yourability to connect and combine ideas. Then go back and listen to the lesson in full and seehow well you did.6. Determine the purpose of a conversation or speech– what do you think the speakersare trying to do? Are they angry? Trying to resolve a conflict? Sad? Express an idea? Prac-tice this technique every time you hear English including English movies or TV shows, evenpeople you hear speaking English on the street! This will help you focus on the key points andimprove your ability to filter out information that is not necessary for the TOEFL listening examquestions.7. Recognize key points – who or what is the conversation about? What is the main point ofthe lecture? Why are they talking about this? Remember, the TOEFL listening exam is testing yourcomprehension, not your ability to memorize and repeat what you have just heard!8. Find connections between ideas – how do these points connect to the key ideas ofthe passage? If they do NOT connect to the key ideas, they are probably not the majorideas of the passage and you should not focus on them.9. Pay attention when someone in the exercise asks a question – often it is a cluethat information is about to be given. However, this is not always true so be careful forresponses that sound a lot like the answer to a question. Listen very carefully as theseresponses are often there to test your ability to understand the context of what youheard.10. Categorize the type of exercise you are listening to when taking practiceTOEFL listening tests. Ask yourself – is it a lecture (mostly one-sided and onacademic topics) or a conversation (language is more informal, two or more people)?This will help you understand the flow of the conversation more clearly.Top 10 Listening Tips for the TOEFL Testcount: to be importantmajor: very large or im-portantcombine: to join two ormore things togetherresolve: to find a satisfac-tory solution to a prob-lem, etcconflict: a fight or seriousdisagreement, oppositionone-sided: unequal, un-fair, nonreversible21
Bestlessonoflifeislistentoeveryoneandlearnfromeveryone,becausenobodyknowseverythingandeveryoneknowssomething.Phrasal Verbs - part 2Prepositional Verbs22Prepositional verbs are a group of multi-word verbs made from a verb plus another word or words. Manypeople refer to all multi-word verbs as phrasal verbs. On this page we look at prepositional verbs.Prepositional verbs are made of:verb + prepositionAll prepositional verbs have direct objects. Here are some examples of prepositional verbs:Prepositional Verbs Meaning Examples direct objectbelieve in have faith in the ex-istence ofI believe in God.look after take care of He is looking after the dog.talk about discuss Did you talk about me?wait for await John is waiting for Mary.Prepositional verbs cannot be separated. That means that we cannot put the direct object between thetwo parts. For example, we must say “look after the baby”. We cannot say “look the baby after”:Who is looking after the baby? This is possible.Who is looking the baby after? This is not possible. It is a good idea to write “something/somebody” in your vocabulary book when you learn a new prepo-sitional verb, like this:• believe in something/somebody• look after sthg/sby