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Hukum pidana internasional
 

Hukum pidana internasional

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    Hukum pidana internasional Hukum pidana internasional Presentation Transcript

    • HUKUM PIDANA INTERNASIONALDosen:Prof. Dr. Yudha Bhakti, S.H. M.H. aspek pidana dari hukum internasional dan aspek internasional dariHj. Tien Saefullah, S.H., M.H. hukum pidana;Idris, S.H., M.A.  Aspek Internasional:Widati Wulandari, S.H., M.Crim. 1) Memiliki dampak atas lebih dari satu negara;Nella Sumika Putri, S.H., M.H. 2) Menyangkut lebih dari satu kewarganegaraan; 3) Menggunakan sarana/prasarana yang melampaui batas negara.MATERI PERKULIAHAN  Kriangsak1. Pengertian, Ruang Lingkup dan Sumber Hukum HPI  Hukum yang mengatur kejahatan internasional…dimana terdapat2. Kejahatan Internasional penggabungan/pertemuan dari aspek pidana pada hukum3. Sejarah dan Perkembangan HPI internasional dan aspek internasional pada hukum pidana4. Penegakan HPI melalui Pengadilan Nasional5. Penegakan HPI melalui Pengadilan Internasional  Antonio Cassesie  Ad Hoc Tribunals  Aturan-aturan internasional yang dibuat untuk  Hybrid Tribunals melarang/menghukum kejahatan internasional sekaligus  International Criminal Court (ICC) mewajibkan negara-negara untuk menuntut dan menghukum6. Topik-topik Khusus setidaknya sebagian dari kejahatan itu.  Kejahatan Penerbangan  Edward M. Wise  Terorisme  Subjek yang meliputi semua masalah yang berada di area dimana  Transnational Organize Crime (TOC) hukum pidana dan hukum internasional tumpang tindih dan berhubungan.PENGERTIAN, RUANG LINGKUP DAN SUMBER HPI a) Aspek Internasional dari Hukum Pidana NasionalPengertian dan Ruang Lingkup HPI  Bagaimana badan peradilan nasional dari suatu negara harus Bassiouni bersikap dalam kasus pidana yang melibatkan unsur asing;  Produk dari penggabungan dua disiplin hukum yang berbeda yang  Misalnya masalah yurisdiksi, penerapan yurisdiksi, masalah telah tumbuh dan bekembang menjadi saling melengkapi yaitu ekstradisi.Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 1
    • b) Aspek Pidana dari Hukum Internasional 2) Pengakuan secara implisit sifat-sifat pidana dari tindakan-  Prinsip-prinsip atau aturan-aturan hukum internasional yang tindakan tertentu dengan menetapkan suatu kewajiban untuk membebankan kewajiban pada negara berkenaan dengan hukum menghukum, mencegah, menuntut, menjatuhi hukuman atau pidana nasionalnya; pidananya;  Misalnya perlindungan HAM, kewajiban untuk menuntut dan 3) Kriminalisasi atas tindakan-tindakan tertentu; menghukum/mengekstradisi pelaku tindak pidana internasional. 4) Kewajiban atau hak untuk menuntut; c) Aspek Pidana dari Hukum Internasional 5) Kewajiban atau hak untuk memidana tindakan tertenu;  Hukum yang diterapkan dalam pengadilan/ Mahkamah Pidana 6) Kewajiban atau hak untuk mengekstradisi; Internasional yang memiliki kewenangan untuk menjatuhkan 7) Kewajiban atau hak untuk bekerja sama dalam penuntutan, khususnya sanksi pidana pada pelaku tindak pemidanaan termasuk bantuan hukum dalam proses pidana→(Mahkamah Pidana Internasional baik Ad Hoc maupun pemidanaan; permanen beserta Statuta/Charter pembentuknya). 8) Penetapan suatu dasar atas yurisdiksi kriminal; 9) Referensi pembentukan suatu pengadilan pidana internasional;Sumber Hukum HPI 10) Penghapusan alasan-alasan perintah atasan;1) Treaties and Convention;  Dasar penetapan kejahatan internasional:2) Customary Law; 1) Konvensi-konvensi internasional;3) General Principle of International Criminal Law/ General Principle of 2) Pengakuan berdasarkan hukum kebiasaan internasional; Law 3) Pengakuan berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip hukum internasional;4) Judicial Decision, decision of International Organization, doctrine 4) Larangan oleh perjanjian internasional.  Jenis-jenis (22) kejahatan internasional:INTERNATIONAL CRIMES 1) Agression; 2) War crimes;Pengertian 3) Unlawful use of weapons; Bassiouni 4) Crimes against humanity;  Setiap perbuatan yang ditetapkan sebagai kejahatan di dalam 5) Genocide; konvensi-konvensi multilateral yang diikuti oleh sejumlah negara 6) Racial discrimination and Apartheid; (significant number) yang didalamnya terkandung salah satu unsur 7) Slavery and related crimes torture; dari sepuluh karakteristik (Ten Penal Characteristic) 8) Unlawful human experimentation;  Ten Penal Characteristic tersebut yaitu: 9) Piracy; 1) Pengakuan secara eksplisit tindakan-tindakan yang dipandang 10) Aircraft hijacking; sebagai kejahatan berdasarkan hukum internasional; 11) Threat and use of force against internationally protected person;Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 2
    • 12) Taking of civilian hostage; 3) Act of private individual that have been subjected to treaty 13) Drug offenses; prohibition: 14) International traffic in obscene publication;  Transnational traffic in illicit commodities: narcotics, 15) Destruction and/or theft of national treasures; endangered species, obscene publication. 16) Environmental protection;  Harm to a common or mutual interest of states requiring 17) Theft of nuclear materials; cooperation for it’s effecftive supression: overfishing, 18) Unlawful use of the mails; marine pollution, interferrence with submarine cables, 19) Interferrence of the submarine cables; unlawful use of the mails. 20) Falsification and counterfeiting; 21) Bribery of foreign public officials. Element of International Crimes Menurut Bassiouni, ada tiga elemen dari international crimes, yaitu: Edward M. Wise (1) Unsur Internasional, termasuk ke dalam unsur ini, yaitu:  What is international crimes? a) direct threat to world peace and security;  Crimes against international law: b) indirect threat to world peace and security;  Hukum internasional mewajibkan semua negara untuk menuntut c) shocking to the conscience of humanity. dan menghukum kejahatan-kejahatan dimaksud dengan hukum (2) Unsur Transnasional, termasuk ke dalam unsur ini, yaitu: nasional; a) conduct affecting more than one State;  Perbuatan-perbuatan yang dinyatakan sebagai kejahatan b) conduct including or affecting citizens of more than one State; menurut hukum internasional, oleh karena itu dimintai c) means and methods transcend national boundaries. pertanggungjawaban secara individu. (3) Unsur Necessity, termasuk ke dalam unsur ini, yaitu:  Types of International Crimes a) cooperation of State necessary to enforce 1) Violation of international norm directed toward restraining the conduct of state officials admitted under color of law Subject of International Crimes  War crimes;  Individual→ Nurremberg Principle; HPI menghendaki  Crimes against peace; pertanggungjawaban individu (dasar hukum Putusan Nurremberg  Crimes against humanity; Tribunal) karena kejahatan melawan hukum internasional dilakukan oleh  Genocide; manusia, bukan oleh entitas abstrak, dan hanya dengan cara menghukum  Apartheid; individu yang melakukan kejahatanlah aturan-aturan dapat ditegakkan.  Torture;  State→ILC Draft on State Responsibility  Involve a missuse of power, of the  Corporation 2) Crimes associated with terrorist activities: piracyCatatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 3
    • JURISDICTION  National judicial organs may rely on universal jurisdiction even if their national legislation does not specially provide for it. Yurisdiksi berasal dari Bahasa Latin; juris dan dictio yang artinya pelaksanaan keadilan. Principle 4 - Obligation to Support Accountability Untuk menentukan yurisdiksi, dikenal beberapa asas, yaitu:  A state shall comply with all international obligations that are applicable a. Teritorial Principle, didasarkan pada tempat kejahatan dilakukan to: prosecuting or extraditing person accused or convicted of crimes b. Active Nationality Jurisdiction, didasarkan pada kewarganegaraan under international law in accordance with a legal process that complies pelaku with international due process norms, providing other states investigating c. Passive Nationality Jurisdiction, didasarkan pada kewarganegaraan or prosecuting such as crimes with all available means of administrative korban and judicial assisteance, and undertaking such other necessary and d. Protective Jurisdiction, didasarkan pada prinsip appropriate measures as are consistent with international norms and kepentingan/kedaulatan negara yang bersangkutan standards. e. Universal Jurisdiction Principle 5 - Immunities  Diberlakukan untuk kejahatan tertentu (serious crimes), yaitu  The official position of any accused peron, wheter as head of state or piracy, slavery, war crimes, crimes against peace, crimes against government or as a responsilbe government official, shall not relieve humanity, genocide, torture. such person of criminal responsibility nor mitigate punishment.  Dapat dituntut dan diadili dimana saja dan oleh siapa saja. Principle 6 - Statute of LimitationPrinceton Principles on Universal Jurisdiction  Statutes of limitation or other forms of prescription shall not apply to serious crimes under international law as specified in Principle 2 (1).Principle 1 - Fundamentals of Universal Jurisdiction Universal Jurisdiction id criminal jurisdiction based solely on the nature Principle 7 - Amnesties of the crime, without regard to where the crime was commited, the  Amnesties are generally inconsistent with the obligation of states to nationality of the alleged or convicted perpetrator, the nationality of the provide accountibility for serious crimes as specified in Principle 2 (1). victim, or any other connection to the state exercising such jurisdiction. Principle 8 - Resolution of Competing National JurisdictionPrinciple 2 - serious Crimes under International Law a. multilateral or bilateral treaty obligations; Serious crimes under international law include: (1) piracy, (2) slavery, (3) b. the place of commision of the crime; war crimes, (4) crimes against peace, (5) crimes against humanity, (6) c. the nationality connection of the allegde perpetrator to the requesting genocide; and (7) torture. state; d. the nationality connection of the victim to the requesting state;Principle 3 - Reliance on Universal Jurisdiction in the Absence of e. any another connection between the requesting state and allegedNational Legislation perpetrator, the crime, or the victim;Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 4
    • f. the likehood, good faith, and effectiveness of the prosecution in the 3. Subjek atas suatu tindakan karena didasarkan atas ras, agama, requesting state; kebangsaan, etnis, politis dan genderg. the fairness and impartiality of the proceedings in the requesting state; 4. Orang yang diekstradisi akan dijadikan objek penyiksaanh. convenience to the parties and witness, as well as the availabilty of 5. Terhadap kejahatan orang yang diekstradisi telah diputus dan evidence in the requesting state; mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap (Pasal 10)i. the interst of justice. 6. Karena ada alasan imunitas dan abolisi 7. Karena diputus secara in absentia.Principle 9 - Non Bis Idem/ Double Jeopardy A state or its judicial organs shall ensure that a person who is subject to  Alasan Optional/ Pilihan criminal proceedings shall not be exposed to multiple prosecutions or 1. Pelaku adalah warga negara dari negara yang diminta punishment for the same criminal conduct… 2. Negara diminta tidak akan memproses kejahatan tersebut 3. Mendapat ancaman hukuman mati di negara peminta (Pasal 13)EXTRADITION 4. Perbuatan dilakukan di luar wilayah negara peminta yang tidak mempunyai yurisdiksiPengertian 5. Kejahatan yang dilakukan sebagian atau seluruhnya di wilayah Penyerahan oleh suatu negara kepada negara yang meminta penyerahan negara yang diminta (Pasal 8) seseorang yang disangka atau dipidana karena melakukan suatu 6. Negara diminta beranggapan bahwa pelaku akan diadili oleh kejahatan diluar wilayah yang menyerahkan dan di wilayah negara yang extraordinary court/ Ad Hoc meminta penyerahan tersebut, karena berwenang untuk mengadili dan 7. Alasan kemanusiaan. memidananya (Pasal 1 UU No. 1 Tahun 1979 Tentang Ekstradisi).Syarat-syarat: Prinsip-prinsip Ekstradisi Harus ada negara peminta (requesting country) dan negara diminta  Double criminality, yaitu kejahatan diakui oleh hukum di negara (requested country). diminta dan hukum di negara peminta (Pasal 5 ayat (1) KUHP). Harus ada orang yang diekstradisi (tersangka, terdakwa, terpidana)  Principle of speciality, yaitu kejahatan tersebut harus ditentukan Harus ada ada kejahatan yang diekstradisi dalam perjanjian (Pasal 2 ayat (1) UU Ekstradisi) dan kejahatan Harus ada perjanjian ekstradisi tersebut hanya boleh diproses atas kejahatan yang dimintakan (Pasal 15 UU Ekstradisi).Alasan Penolakan Ekstradisi  Non-extradition of poltical criminal, yaitu tidak akan menyerahkan Alasan Mandatory/ Kewajiban tekait kejahatan politik (Pasal 5 UU Ekstradisi)→ penafsiran negatif. 1. Terkait kejahatan politik (Pasal 5)  Nebis in idem, terhadap pelaku kejahatan yang diekstradisikan telah 2. Tindak pidana militer yang bukan kejahatan menurut hukum pidana diputus dan mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap (Pasal 10 UU umum (Pasal 6) Ekstradisi).Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 5
    •  Daluarsa, terhadap kejahatan yang hak menuntut atau hak untuk  Syarat melaksanakan putusan pidana telah kadaluarsa (Pasal 12 UU Pengajuan Permintaan Bantuan, harus memuat : Ekstradisi). 1. Identitas dari institusi yang meminta 2. Pokok masalah yang berhubungan dengan permintaan tersebut. 3. Ringkasan dari fakta-fakta yang terkait, kecuali permintaan bantuanMUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE (MLA) yang berkaitan dengan dokumen yuridis Pengertian 4. Ketentuan UU yang terkait, isi pasal dan ancaman pidananya MLA adalah bantuan timbal balik dalam masalah pidana merupakan 5. Uraian tentang bantuan yang diminta dan rincian mengenai prosedur khusus yang dikehendaki termasuk kerahasiaan permintaan bantuan berkenaan dengan penyidikan, penuntutan, 6. Tujuan dari bantuan yang diminta penuntutan, dan pemeriksaan di sidang Pengadilan (UU No. 1 Tahun 7. Syarat-syarat lain yang ditentukan oleh negara yang diminta 2006). Mutual Legal Assistance tidak memberikan wewenang untuk :  Alasan Penolakan 1. Ekstradisi  Mandatory: Sifatnya wajib, alasan penolakan harus ditolak, diatur Dalam MLA, bukan mengenai orang dan atau penyerahan orang. dalam Pasal 6 UU No.1 Tahun 2006, yang terdiri dari: 2. Penangkapan atau Penahanan dengan maksud untuk ekstradisi orang 1. Tindak Pidana Politik kecuali pembunuhan terhadap kepala negara 3. Pengalihan Narapidana atau pemerintah atau terorisme; 4. Pengalihan Perkara 2. Tindak pidana berdasarkan hukum militer Latar Belakang 3. Tindak pidana terhadap orang atau pelakunya telah dibebaskan, 1. Terdapatnya tindak pidana yang bersifat transnasional grasi, atau telah selesai menjalani pemidanaan; mengakibatkan timbulnya permasalahan hukum suatu negara dengan 4. Tindak pidana terhadap orang atas tindak pidananya tidak dapat negara lain yang memerlukan penanganan melalui hubungan baik dituntut; berdasarkan hukum masing-masing negara. 5. Tindak pidana diadiili karena perbedaan suku, agama, 2. Penanganan tindak pidana transnasional harus dilakukan dalam kewarganegaraan, kelamin dan perdagangan politik; bentuk kerjasama antar negara dalam bentuk hubungan timbal balik. 6. Tindak pidana yang berhubungan dengan kedaulatan negara yang 3. Keharusan adanya kepastian hukum, ketertiban, perlindungan hukum berlandaskan keadilan dan kebenaran. Tujuan  Optional: Bersifat sewaktu- waktu, diatur dalam Pasal 7 UU. No 1 Memberikan dasar hukum bagi pemerintah suatu negara, dalam meminta Tahun 2006, yang terdiri dari: dan atau memberikan bantuan timbal balik dalam masalah pidana dan 1. Tindak pidana yang jika dilakukan di suatu negara bukan pedoman dalam membuat perjanjian bantuan timbal balik dalam masalah merupakan tindak pidana; pidana dengan negara asing. 2. Tindak pidana atas orang yang dikenakan hukuman mati; 3. Tindak pidana yang jika dilakukan di luar negaranya, bukan merupakan tindak pidana; 4. Tindak pidana yang akan merugikan penyidikan, penuntutan atau membahayakan keuangan negara;Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 6
    •  Jenis Bantuan MLA (Pasal 3 ayat 2): c. Perintah jabatan tidak membebaskan dari tanggung jawab pidana a. mengidentifikasi dan mencari orang; d. Collective guilt dan konspirasi dapat dipidana b. mendapatkan pernyataan atau bentuk lainnya; c. menunjukkan dokumen atau bentuk lainnya; 2. International Military Tribunal- Far East (IMTFE) Tokyo d. mengupayakan kehadiran orang untuk memberikan keterangan atau  Dasar hukum Pernyataan Jenderal Douglas MacArthur membantu penyidikan; e. menyampaikan surat;  Pendiri Jenderal Douglas MacArthur f. melaksanakan permintaan penggeledahan dan penyitaan;  Material Jurisdictions: crimes against peace, conventional war crimes, g. perampasan hasil tindak pidana; crimes against humanity h. memperoleh kembali sanksi denda berupa uang sehubungan dengan  Tidak ada appeals, review hanya untuk pidana (sentence) yang tindak pidana; dijatuhkan IMT i. melarang transaksi kekayaan, membekukan aset yang dapat dilepaskan atau disita, atau yang mungkin diperlukan untuk memenuhi sanksi 3. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) denda yang dikenakan, sehubungan dengan tindak pidana; j. mencari kekayaan yang dapat dilepaskan, atau yang mungkin  Dasar hukum UN SC Resolution No. 827 Tahun 1993 diperlukan untuk memenuhi sanksi denda yang dikenakan, sehubungan  Pendiri UN SC berdasarkan Chapter VII UN Charter dengan tindak pidana; dan/atau  Permanent court di The Hague k. Bantuan lain yang sesuai dengan Undang-Undang ini.  Material Jurisdiction: war crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity from January 1, 1991 selama perang Yugoslavia 1991-2001.  Ada appeals dan review, grasi dan pengurangan pidanaPENEGAKAN HUKUM PIDANA INTERNASIONAL MELALUI  Perlindungan hak-hak terdakwa, saksi dan korbanMEKANISME PENGADILAN PIDANA INTERNASIONAL  Prinsip penting: a. Personal jurisdiction (Art. 6)1. International Military Tribunal- Nuremberg b. Individual criminal responsibility (Art. 7)  Dasar hukum London Charter 1945 c. Retroactive (Art. 8)  Pendiri USA, French, UK, USSR d. Primacy over the national courts (Art. 9)  Permanent court di Berlin, pertama kali bersidang di Nuremberg e. Non-bis-in-idem (Art. 10)  Material Jurisdictions: crimes against peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity selama Perang Dunia II di Eropa 4. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)  Kewenangan memeriksa in absentia (Art. 12)  Dasar hukum UN SC Resolution No. 955 Tahun 1994  Tidak ada appeals atau review  Permanent court di Aruza, Tanzania dan Appeals Chamber ke ICTY  Prinsip Nuremberg:  Material jurisdictions: genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity a. Individual criminal responsibility (Art. 6) from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. b. Asas retroaktifCatatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 7
    •  Kelemahan Hybrid Courts:5. Hybrid Courts a. Kesulitan bahasa, sistem hukum dan pandangan hukum, serta  Ada beberapa hybrid courts, i.e. Extraordinary Chambers in The pengalaman dari aparat penegak hukumnya. Court of Cambodia (2007), Serious Criminal Panels in the District b. Kekurangan human resources terutama pasca konflik Court of Dili in East Timor (2006), Special Court for Sierre Leone c. Statute pendirian terbatas pada negara tersebut, sehingga negara (2002), the Regulation 64 Panels in the Court of Kosovo. lain tidak terikat.  Characterized by a mix of national and international components is said to “hold a good deal of promise and actually offer an approach 6. International Criminal Court (ICC) that may address some of the concerns about purely international  Kualifikasi kejahatan: justice, on the one hand, and purely local justice, on the other.”  Grave breaches/ violation of human rights  Legitimacy: in a post conflict situation domestic trials often lack  The most serious crimes of concern to the international community legitimacy because the judicial institution are not impartial 1 and as as a whole (Statuta ICC) independent or are not perceived2 such as.  Unimaginable atrocities that deeply shock the conscience of  Capacity: post conflicts societies frequently face ravaged 3 legal humanity landscapes. Both the physical infrastructure and human resources  International crimes have been severely damaged by the conflict or have always been  Extra ordinary crimes weak to begin with.  Threat to the international peace and security.  Norm penetration: penetration of international norms in domestic  Individual criminal responsibility: societies.  State as abstract entity  Individu punya rasa kemanusiaan, tidak boleh berlindung dibalik  Tujuan Hybrid Courts: jabatan. a. To offer legitimacy by providing ownership without affecting  Mengapa ICC? independency and impartiality; a. Mencegah impunity b. To prosecute more perpetrators in less time and lower cost while b. Kritik terhadap IMT: also building domestic capacity; i. Victor justice (keadilan negara pemenang perang)→ tidak c. To do domestic justice while upholding international law and mewakili rasa keadilan international community complying with international fair trial standards, and thus also ii. retroactive doing international justice. c. Kritik terhadap ICT: i. Selective justice→ tidak mewakili rasa keadilan international community karena didirikan UN SC1 Tidak memihak ii. UN SC ultravires2 Dipersepsikan iii. Retroactive3 DihancurkanCatatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 8
    •  Proses Pembentukan ICC Berlaku jika suatu negara unwilling atau unable untuk mengadili 1) Pursuant to GA request, 1947 ILC prepare the draft pelaku kejahatan yang masuk yurisdiksi ICC. 2) 1954 draft statute for the establishment of an international  Unwilling: posedur pengadilan ditujukan untuk melindungi criminal court was submitted by ILC to GA pelaku, terdapat unjustified delay (penundaan pemeriksaan 3) Political stagnation→ Cold War, impeded4 function of the UN yang tidak sah), proses peradilan tidak independent dan 4) 1989 The GA requested ILC to address the question of memihak. establishment an ICC  Unable: tidak mampu menghadapkan tersangka ke 5) 1990 ILC completed the report pengadilan, tidak mampu mendapatkan bukti-bukti atau 6) 1993 ILC produced a comprehensive text kesaksian, tidak berfungsinya sebagian/seluruh sistem hukum 7) 1994 ILC notified and finalized the text, GA decided to start nasional. establish the ICC 8) 1996 GA established a Preparatory Committee on The GENOCIDE establishment of an ICC  Any of the following acts5 committed with intent to destroy, in whole or 9) 15 June-17 July 1998 Rome Conference attended by 160 in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group;6 parties. a) Killing members of the group; b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; 10) 1 July 2002 entry into force→60 states ratification c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to  Jurisdiction of the ICC: bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; a. Space/territorial jurisdiction (Art. 12): wilayah negara pihak (Art. d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; 12 (1)), negara yang mengakui yurisdiksi atas dasar Adhoc e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. declaration, berdasarkan UN SC Resolution (Art. 13), diperluas  Genocide therefore invites analysis under two headings: the prohibited pada pesawat (Art. 12 (2)(a))) underlying acts and the specific genocidal intent or dolus specialis.7 b. Material jurisdiction (Art. 5): Genocide (Art. 6), War crimes (Art.  Regulation: Convention on Genocide 1948 7), crimes against humanity (Art. 8), crimes of aggression. c. Personal jurisdiction (Art. 13, Art. 25): WN negara pihak ICC, CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY WN bukan pihak ICC yang mengakui yurisdiksi ICC dan  Any of the following acts8 when committed as part of a widespread or kasusnya diajukan ke ICC berdasarkan Resolusi UN SC. systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with d. Temporal jurisdiction (Art. 11, Art. 22, Art. 23, Art. 24): non- knowledge of the attack. retroactive principles. a) Murder; e. Complementary jurisdiction (Par. 10 Preamble, Art. 1 Statute, 5 Article 6 (a)-(e) of Rome Statute. Art. 17 Statute). 6 Protected groups 7 Prosecutor v. Bagilishema, (Trial Chamber), June 7, 2001, ¶55.4 8 Menghalangi, menghambat Article 7 (a)-(k) of Rome StatuteCatatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 9
    • b) Extermination;  Systematicqualitative elementthoroughly organised and c) Enslavement; following a regular pattern on the basis of a common policy involving d) Deportation or forcible transfer of population; substantial public or private resources e) Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in  Element “Policy” violation of fundamental rules of international law; f) Torture;  Art. 7 (2) (a) attack … pursuant to or in furtherance of a State or g) Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, organizational policy to commit such attack enforced sterilization,  Tidak perlu dalam bentuk kebijakan tertulis/ eksplisit h) Etc.  Lembaga yang bertanggung jawab atas kebijakan hanya entitas Regulations: tertentu negara atau organisasi 1) Hague Regulations 1849 & 1907 laws of humanity  Bukan serangan spontan 2) 1925 Massacres of Armenian in Turkey offences against humanity 3) Art. 6 (c) Nuremberg Charter 4) Art. 5 (e) Tokyo Charter WAR CRIMES 5) Art. 5 ICTY Statutes and Art. 3 ICTR Statutes  Committed as part of a plan or policy or as part of a large-scale 6) Art. 7 ICC Statutes commission of such crimes Crimes against humanity 1) Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949,  Lebih luas dari genocide; namely, any of the following acts against persons or property  Tidak mentargetkan kelompok tertentu;  Pelaku tidak harus punya niat untuk menghancurkan kelompok protected under the provisions of the relevant Geneva tertentu; Conventioninternational armed conflict,  Termasuk kejahatan terhadap kelompok politik dan kelompok lainnya. 2) Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in Civilian population: international armed conflict, within the established framework of  Anyone who is not part of the organization power using force should international law, be considered civilian; 3) In the case of an armed conflict not of an international character,  Includes member of military forces who have laid down their arm or those persons placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention serious violations of article 3 common to the four Geneva or any other cause. Conventions of 12 August 1949, Attack 4) Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed  Multiple commission conflicts not of an international character, within the established  Need not military attack framework of international law.  Widespreadquantitative element (dampak bisa satu perbuatan) refers to the large-scale nature of the attack and the number of targeted persons(victims)99 Prosecutor v. Kordic and Cerkez, (Appeals Chamber), December 17, 2004, ¶94,Limaj et al., (Trial Chamber), November 30, 2005, ¶183.Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 10
    •  Protected persons: • December (1998) General Assembly creates open-ended  Those who are find themselves, in case of a conflict or occupation, intergovernmental Ad Hoc Committee(Res/53/111) in the hands of a Party to the Conflict or Occupying Power of which • 1998-2001 Over 120 States successfully complete Convention and 3 they are not nationals;10 Protocols in only two years and 12 sessions  those “who do not enjoy . . . diplomatic protection,” and “are not subject to the allegiance and control, of the State in whose hands 3. Adoption of the Instruments they may find themselves;11 • United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime  Civilians or horse de combat. • Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Woman and Children • Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and AirTRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIMES (TOC) • Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition1. The problem : transnational organized crime • All 4 instruments open for signature until 12 December 2002 • Globalization and new technologies create the same new (afterward by accession) opportunities for crime as for legitimate activities General Assembly Resolution 55/25. 15 November 2000 and • Crimes such as money-laundering, trafficking in human beings and 55/255,31 May 2001 corruption are a serious and growing problem • Groups are bigger, more transnational, with indications of 4. Status of the Instruments networking, and involved in a wider range of criminal activities  First 3 instruments (GA/RES/55/25) opened for signature at Palermo • Transnational nature of the problem requires transnational solution Italy 12-15December 2000.  Third (firearms) Protocol adopted and opened for signature in New2. Negotiation of the instruments York in July 2001. • December (1994) General Assembly approves Naples Declaration  As of 15 August 2002:* and Global Action Plan (Res/49/159) 141 States and the European Community had signed the Convention • December (1996) Poland proposes draft framework Convention to and 18 had ratified it General Assembly, other proposals circulated 107 States and the European Community had signed the Protocol on • 1997-1998 Original draft Convention developed by expert Trafficking in persons and 14 had ratified it group and 7th session of UN Crime Commission 103 States and the European Community had signed the protocol on smuggling of migrants and 13 had ratified it 36 States and the European Community had signed the protocol on10 firearms and 3 had ratified it Prosecutor v. Blaskic, (Appeals Chamber), July 29, 2004, para. 172.11 Prosecutor v. Tadic, (Appeals Chamber), July 15, 1999, para. 168.Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 11
    • United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized 4. Organized criminal group a. structured group1. Structure of Convention b. three or more person  Defines and standardizes terminology c. existing for a period of time  Requires States to have specific crimes d. acting in concert  Specific control measures (money-laundering, corruption etc.) e. aim of committing :  Forfeiture of proceeds of crime a) serious crime (s) or Convention offences  Cooperation (extradition, legal assistance, investigative measures etc.) b) to obtain direct or indirect financial or other  Training, research, information measures f. material benefit ( Art. 2.a )  Prevention 5. Structured group ( Art.2.c )  Technical provisions (signature, ratification etc.)  not necessarily formal organization, membership or structure, but2. Scope of application ( Art. 2.a.b )  more than just “…randomly formed for the immediate commission of 1) Convention applies to the “prevention, investigation and prosecution” an offence” of : a) Offences established by the convention ( Art. 5,6,8 and 23 ) 6. Serious Crime ( Art. 2.b ) b) Other serious crimes defined in Art. 2  conduct designated by national law as an Offence c) Protocol offences ( Protocols, Art. 1 )  punishable by at least four years 2) Only when : i. transnational in nature 7. Offences established by the convention ii. an organized criminal group is involved a. Convention requires States Parties to have four basic Offence; a) Participation in an organized criminal group (Art. 5)3. Transnational in nature b) Laundering of proceeds of crime (Art. 6) a) Committed in more than in one State ; c) Corruption (Art. 8) b) Substantial part of preparation, planning, direction or control takes d) Obstruction of justice (Art. 23) place in another state; b. Transnationality or in involvement of an organized criminal group c) Involves an organized criminal group engaging in criminal must not be made elements of these offences in domestic law activities in more then one State; or (Art.34.2) d) Has substantial effects in another State. (Art.3.2 )Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 12
    • 8. Offence of participating in an organized criminal group (Art. 5) – Participation, association, conspiracy, attempts, aiding, a. Either abetting facilitating etc.* a) agreeing to commit a serious crime for financial or material * Subject to basic concepts of each State’s legal system benefit • Apply to proceeds of Convention offences, • Protocol offences and other “serious crimes” b. or b) knowingly taking part in criminal or related activities of an Money Laundering measures (Art. 7) organized criminal group to contribute to criminal aim • Comprehensive regulatory regime for banks and financial c. Options take account of different approaches to conspiracy, institutions association etc. • Identify customers, keep records, identify suspicious transactions d. States shall insure that domestic law covers all serious crimes • Cooperation with other States committed by organized groups – financial intelligence units – monitor cross-border movement of cash and instruments 9. Offence – obstructing justice (Art. 23) • Guidelines from regional, interregional or multilateral initiatives  Using force, threats or intimidation, or  promising, offering or giving under advantage 11. Corruption offences (Art. 8) a) to interfere with giving of evidence or testimony  Mandatory offences : b) to interfere with exercise of duties of judicial or law- a) promise, offer, give, solicit or accept enforcement official b) any undue advantage to/by a public official c) in connection with proceedings on any Convention or c) to act or refrain from acting Protocol offence d) any matter relating to official’s public duties  Supports other measures to protect victims and witnesses (Art. e) participation as an accomplice 24-25)  Optional offences  States can have laws to protect other public officials a) corrupting foreign or international public servants b) other forms of corruption 10. Money laundering offences (Art. 6) • Offences of laundering of proceeds of crime (Art. 6) Corruption Measures (Art. 9) – Conversion or transfer to conceal criminal origin • Legislative or other measures – Concealment of nature, source, location, disposition, – to promote integrity movement or ownership – to prevent, detect and punish corruption of public officials – Knowing acquisition of proceeds * – to ensure effective action by officials – as appropriate and consistent with legal systemCatatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 13
    • • Provide anti-corruption authorities with sufficient independence 14. International Cooperation to deter undue influence 1) Extradition (Art. 16) 2) Mutual Legal Assistance (Art. 18) 12. Liability, prosecution and sanctions 3) Other forms of cooperation (Art. 20, 26, 27) a) Criminal, civil or administrative liability for legal persons (Art. 10) 15. Extradition (Art. 16) b) Sanctions or punishments must be dissuasive and take into  Extradition available for all Convention and Protocol offences account the gravity of the offence (Art. 10.4, 11.1)  Convention extradition provisions harmonize with existing c) Discretion should be used to maximize law enforcement treaties and arrangements effectiveness (Art. 11)  No refusal on the sole ground of fiscal matters d) Measures to provide for seizure, confiscation, forfeiture and  Limitations in domestic law and existing treaties apply disposal of proceeds of crime (to the extent possible) (Art.  Parties must either “Extradite or prosecute” own nationals 12)  Where extradition is refused, the States involved, the States e) Bank secrecy cannot be used as an obstacle to confiscation involved should consult or mutual legal assistance (Art. 12.6, 18.8) f) Existing criminal defences are preserved (Art. 11) 16. Mutual Legal Assistance  “States Parties shall afford one another the widest measure of 13. Jurisdiction (Art. 15) mutual legal assistance …” (Art. 18.1)  Convention seeks to ensure that every State Party connected to a  Most requirements are operational, not legislative, but Parties transnational organized crime offence will have adequate must have legal powers needed to produce and deliver assistance jurisdiction.  States Parties are required to designate a central authority to  Offenders should have no place to hide from investigation and receive, execute or transmit legal assistance requests prosecution.  No right to refuse MLA on the ground of bank secrecy  Mandatory/compulsory jurisdiction  More direct liaison arrangements permitted for other forms of  offences on a State’s territory, vessel or aircraft cooperation (Art. 18.13, Art. 19, 27)  where offender not extradited because of nationality  Optional jurisdiction 17. Investigative measures  offender or victim are nationals of State Convention calls for:  offence of participating in organized criminal group with a  agreements governing joint investigation (Art. 19) view to committing serious crime in the State  domestic and cooperative use of special investigative  any other circumstances set by domestic law techniques (Art. 20)Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 14
    • a. controlled delivery 20. Technical and other assistance (Art. 29, 30) b. electronic or other forms of surveillance  State Parties called upon to: c. undercover operation a. implement Convention domestically and through  measures to encourage those involved in transnational organized international cooperation crime to cooperate with law enforcement (Art. 26) b. take into account effects of organized crime on societies and sustainable development 18. Law enforcement and other cooperation c. to enhance financial and material assistance to developing States parties called upon to: countries a) enhance and establish channels of communication; b) cooperate in inquiries concerning 21. Prevention (Art. 31) a. the identity, whereabouts and activities of suspects;  States Parties called upon to develop, implement and share both b. the movement of proceeds of crime or instrumentalities direct and indirect prevention methods c) exchange information a. administrative and regulatory controls to prevent abuses in a. specific means and methods used by organized criminal key areas (professions corporations) groups b. rehabilitation/reintegration of former offenders b. general trends, analytical techniques, definitions, standards c. public awareness campaigns (domestic and international) and methodologies d. social programs to alleviate conditions the make groups vulnerable to recruitment or victimization by transnational 19. Protection of Victims and Witnesses (Art. 24, 25) organized crime groups Must provide effective protection for witnesses, within available means: 22. Conference of the parties (Art. 32, 33) a. physical protection  Convention establishes a conference of the Parties to : b. domestic or foreign relocation a. promote and review implementation c. Special arrangements for giving evidence b. make recommendations to improve convention Within available means, must also assist with: c. consider means of implementing and difficulties d. procedures for claiming compensation and restitution encountered by States e. opportunities to present views and concerns at appropriate  Conference will meet within one year of entry into force stage of criminal proceedings.  Initial meeting of Conference will adopt rules of procedure, a Both articles apply to victims who are also witnesses. draft of which will be prepared by the Ad Hoc Committee that carried out the negotiationsCatatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381) Page 15