WHAT ARE COMPETENCIES???COMPETENCIES BEHAVIORS (actions) OUTPUTS ORGANIZATIONAL RESULTS
DEFINITIONSHayes (1979)- “Competencies are generic knowledge motive,trait, social role or a skill of a person linked to superiorperformance on the job”.Albanese (1989) – “Competencies are personal characteristicsthat contribute to effective managerial performance”.UNIDO (2002)- “A Competency is a set of skills, relatedknowledge and attributes that allow an individual to successfullyperform a task or an activity within a specific function or job”.
COMPONENTS OF COMPETENCYCompetency has three major components which are as follows:1)Knowledge:It refers to the information a person possesses about specific areas,knowledge comprises many factors like memory, numericalability, linguistic ability, and is, therefore, a complex competency.It can be either:•Scientific Knowledge•Technical Knowledge•Job Knowledge
2)Skill:It represents intelligent application of knowledge, experience, andtools. This is the procedural "know how" knowledge (what one cando), either covert (e.g., deductive or inductive reasoning) orobservable e.g. "active listening" skill in an interview.3)Attitudes:Attitudes are predispositions to other individuals, groups, objects,situations, events, issues etc. Attitudes decide our approach oravoidance behavior. They are normally conceptualized as positiveor negative.
Surface knowledge and skills are relatively easy to develop. But core motive and trait competencies are at the base of the personality and are more difficult to assess and develop.*By- Seema Sanghi
BEHAVIOR INDICATORSA Competency is described in terms of key behaviors that enablesrecognition of that competency at the workplace.Some key behavior indicators in an employee:Ability to know what needs to be done or find out (research)and take steps to get it doneAsk questions when not sure of what the problem is or to gainmore information.Able to identify the underlying or main problem.Shows willingness to experiment with new things.
COMPETENCIES BASIC PROFESSIONALINTELECTUAL KNOWLEDGEMOTIVATIONAL EXPERIENCE EMOTIONAL EXPERITISE GAINED BY AN INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL EMPLOYEE
Motivational Intellectual Social EmotionalContinuous Team work Initiative Planning &learning organizingPerseverance Creativity Inter-personal skills, Optimism communicationAchievement Analytical Responsibility Self-orientation ability confidence
ORGANIZATONAL COMPETENCIES Competencies which are considered essentialGENERIC BASIC for all employees regardless of their function or PROFESSIONAL level. Communication, initiative, listening etc. INTELECUAL Competencies which are considered essentialMANAGERIAL for employees with managerial or supervisory responsibility in any functional area including directors and senior posts.FUNCTIONAL/TECHNICAL Specific competencies which are considered essential to perform any job in the organisation within a defined technical or functional area of work e.g. Finance, environmental etc
NEED FOR COMPETENCY MAPPINGNeed for ensuring that competent people are available forperforming various critical roles.Downsizing adds to the consequent need to get a lot of thingdone with fewer people and thus reduce manpower costs andpass on the advantage to the customer.Recognition that technology, finances, customers and markets,systems and processes can all be set right or managedeffectively if we have the right kind of human resources.And recognition of the strategic advantage given by employeecompetencies in building the core competencies of theorganization.
Advantages of Competency MappingFOR THE COMPANY:Establishes expectations for performance excellence.Improved job satisfaction and better employee retention.Increase in the effectiveness of training and professionaldevelopment programs because of their link to success criteria.Provides a common, organization wide standard for career levelsthat enable employees to move across business boundaries & helpcompanies “raise the bar” of performance expectations.
FOR THE MANAGERS:Identify performance criteria to improve the accuracy and easeof the selection process.Provide more objective performance standards.Easier communication of performance expectations.Provide a clear foundation for dialogue to occur between themanagers and employees and performance, development andcareer-oriented issues.
FOR THE INDIVIDUALS:Identify their strengths ,weaknesses & behavioral standardsof performance excellence.Provide a more specific and objective assessment of theirstrengths and the tools required to enhance their skills.Enhances clarity on career related issues.Helps understand where they stand.
Disadvantages of Competency MappingSome of these are discussed below:There may be no room for an individual to work in a field that wouldbest make use of his or her competencies.If the company does not respond to competency mapping byreorganizing its employees, then it can be of little short-term benefitand may actually result in greater unhappiness on the part ofindividual employees.If too much emphasis is placed on inputs at the expense ofoutputs, there is a risk that it will favor employees who are good intheory but not in practice and will fail to achieve the results that makea business successful.
Model of Competency Mapping A competency mapping model is an organizing framework that lists the competencies required for effective performance in a specific job, job family (e.g., group of related jobs), organization, function, or process. Individual competencies are organized into competency models to enable people in an organization or profession to understand, discuss, and apply the competencies to workforce performance.
DEVELOPING THE MODEL• Strategize – assess business needs, evaluate contextual drivers etc.• Initiate – identify methodologies, develop project plans, review existing data etc.• Model – analyze and synthesize data, identify competencies etc.• Pilot – develop implementation and evaluation plans, develop and initiate competency applications etc• Link – link to all human resources system components and phase in implementation of other competency based applications.• Evaluate – establish and evaluate measures, and continuously improve the system.
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3Data Gathering & Data Analysis ValidationPreparation Study Review list of Content Identified probable Validation Jobs Competencies session Construct Reinforce Identify Competency proficiency of major Definitions critical competencies categories of skills Assign Refine competency Identify proficiency levels definitions, if Probable necessary competencies
IDENTIFY DEPARTMENTS &ORGANIZATION HIERARCHYOBTAIN JOB DESCRIPTIONCONDUCT SEMI-STRUCTUREDINTERVIEWS Steps forPREPARATION OF LIST OF SKILLS implementing theGENERATE LIST OF COMPETENCIES Competency Mapping modelINDICATE PROFICIENCY LEVELSVALIDATE COMPETENCIES &PROFICIENCY EVELSPREPARE COMPETENCY MATRIXMAPPING OF COMPETENCY
Data Collection tools Behavioral Events Interview Expert Panels Surveys Job Analysis Role Analysis Direct Observation
CONCLUSIONAs a conclusion we can say that, it is through thecompetencies of its employees executives, managers,and individual contributors that an organizationexecutes its strategy and achieves results that arecrucial to its success.