Who's citing whom?


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Presentation from a library and information skills training session, 7 March 2007

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  • Welcome. This session will introduce you to cited reference or citation searching as a tool for research. We will focus on using the Web of Science for this, with a brief reference to Scopus. This is followed by journal citation reports, particularly journal impact factors using ISI Journal Citation Reports to identify highly cited journals in a particular field.
  • Who's citing whom?

    1. 1. Who’s citing whom? An introduction to citation searching and journal citation reports. Prepared by Kara Jones & Suzanne White Library & Learning Centre University of Bath March 2007
    2. 2. Prof Eisenthal’s article has been cited almost 1500 times since it was published in 1974.
    3. 3. Goals <ul><li>By the end of today’s session you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Find highly cited articles or authors </li></ul><ul><li>Find who has cited your articles </li></ul><ul><li>Find out who is writing on the same topic </li></ul><ul><li>Learn which scholarly journals are the most popular and the ‘hottest’! </li></ul>
    4. 4. Outline <ul><li>Cited reference searching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Web of Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview of topic – as a search technique and as a data gathering tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other citation search tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Journal impact factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview of topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using JCR for impact factors, immediacy index </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Cited Reference Searching <ul><li>Cited reference searching enables you to find articles that have cited a previously published work. </li></ul><ul><li>Through a cited reference search, you can discover how a known idea or innovation has been confirmed, applied, improved, extended or corrected. http://wos.isiknowledge.com/help/hcr_lookup.htm#crlookup#crlookup </li></ul><ul><li>Citation searching is useful to see how much your own work has been cited by others. This will give an idea of your work on the broader research community. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Web of Knowledge <ul><li>Web of Science </li></ul><ul><li>ISI Proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Biosis Previews </li></ul><ul><li>Web Citation Index </li></ul><ul><li>Journal Citation Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who has used any of these? Which databases do you usually search? </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Using Web of Science <ul><li>The Web of Science is a respected and comprehensive index, composed of three large databases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arts and Humanities Index (1975 - ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Science Citation Index (1970 - ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science Citation Index (1970 - ) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Cited Reference Searching <ul><li>What is cited reference searching? </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Bartsch, R.A. & Cobern, K.M., 2003. Effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations in lectures . Computers & Education, 41(7), pp. 77-86. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Bibliography / Cited References list – takes you ‘back in time’ to previously published articles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Times Cited / Citation search - takes you ‘forward in time’ because you can identify more recent articles that cite this one. </li></ul></ul>Bartsch, R.A. & Cobern, K.M., 2003. Effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations in lectures . Computers & Education, 41(7), pp. 77-86.
    10. 10. Cited reference searching <ul><li>Cited reference search - WoS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only search for author, journal title and year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use truncation (*) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the indexes provided </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Enter search terms using truncation (*). Use indexes for author and journal title.
    12. 13. <ul><li>Watch for variants, when the article has been cited incorrectly. </li></ul><ul><li>Variants not found for secondary authors </li></ul>
    13. 15. Analyse by citation publication year
    14. 16. Analyse by Source title
    15. 17. Eliminating self-citations <ul><li>Self-citations refer to cited references that contain an author name which matches the name of the author of a citing article. </li></ul><ul><li>To eliminate self citations in WoS, combine a cited reference search with a search by source author. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform a cited reference search to find articles that cite the works of a particular author. </li></ul><ul><li>Click the General Search button on the toolbar. Enter the name of the same author in the Author field. Click Search. </li></ul><ul><li>Click the Advanced Search button on the toolbar. Combine the two searches you just completed in a Boolean NOT expression (e.g., #1 NOT #2). The results of the General Search (the articles written by the author) should be the set on the right-hand side of the operator. </li></ul>
    16. 18. Example / experiment <ul><li>Access the cited reference search in Web of Science. </li></ul><ul><li>Search for a journal article you / a colleague has published. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice searching using the examples on your handout. </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorial available at bottom of cited ref page! </li></ul>
    17. 19. Cited Reference Searching Elsewhere <ul><li>Google Scholar – scholar.google.com </li></ul><ul><li>Many journal indexes, ie. ACM Digital Library, Emerald, etc… </li></ul>
    18. 23. Practice time <ul><li>Use this example for cited reference searching, or choose your own example. </li></ul>
    19. 24. The best measure? <ul><li>Professor Frank Jackson from the Australian National University was chosen as a ‘citation laureate’ by Thomson ISI (publisher of Web of Science). He wrote two much discussed papers setting out an argument in the philosophy of mind – an argument he has since repudiated. </li></ul><ul><li>“ These later papers get cited a fair bit but not as much as those that presented the views I no longer accept… but that’s life,” Professor Jackson said.* </li></ul><ul><li>Lane, Bernard. 2006 ‘Over-citation puts integrity under cloud’. The Australian [online]. Available: http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,20063447-12332,00.html. [Accessed: 9 Aug 2006]. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you foresee any other difficulties with this method? </li></ul>
    20. 25. Where to publish? <ul><li>Journal impact factors using ISI Journal Citation Reports </li></ul><ul><li>A tool to show characteristics of a particular journal or journals within a certain subject area. </li></ul><ul><li>May provide information to help decide which journals to publish in. </li></ul>
    21. 26. Journal Citation Reports <ul><li>Most frequently cited journals in a field </li></ul><ul><li>Hottest journals in a field (immediacy index) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows a comparison between different journals in the same field </li></ul><ul><li>JCR – 7600 journals from more than 3300 publishers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science edition: 5900 journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Science edition: 1700 journals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ JCR year’ – The year the report data was collected </li></ul><ul><li>1997 - 2005 </li></ul>
    22. 27. 1. Choose edition and year. <ul><li>View journals by subject, search for a specific journal or view all journals </li></ul>
    23. 28. Cited half-life: The median age of articles cited in the JCR year. Articles: Total number of articles published in the JCR year. Immediacy index: average times an article is cited in the year it is published. Impact factor: average number of times journal articles from past 2 years cited in JCR year.
    24. 29. Journal impact factor <ul><li>The journal impact factor is the average number of times articles from the journal published in the past two years have been cited in the JCR year. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated by dividing the number of citations in the JCR year by the total number of articles published in the previous two years. </li></ul>
    25. 30. Immediacy index <ul><li>The average number of times a article is cited in the year it is published. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated by dividing the number of citations to articles published in a given year by the number of articles published in that year. </li></ul><ul><li>For comparing journals specializing in cutting-edge research, the immediacy index can provide a useful perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently issued journals have the advantage. </li></ul>
    26. 31. Journal impact factor calculations for ‘Nature’ Journal immediacy index calculations for ‘Nature’
    27. 32. Practice time <ul><li>Search either the Science / Social Science edition of JCR for a particular journal, or compare journals in a subject area. </li></ul>
    28. 33. Controversy! <ul><li>Caution: </li></ul><ul><li>Citations do not indicate quality – people may be citing an article to dispute its findings </li></ul><ul><li>Not all research work is published </li></ul><ul><li>An impact factor is an average of articles in a journal, not an individual article. </li></ul><ul><li>New journals and title changes may fare badly </li></ul><ul><li>Citation bias – people may cite their own work </li></ul><ul><li>Bias in favour of English language material </li></ul>
    29. 34. Questions? <ul><li>Presenter: </li></ul><ul><li>Kara Jones </li></ul><ul><li>University of Bath </li></ul><ul><li>Library and Learning Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Claverton Down </li></ul><ul><li>Bath BA2 7AY </li></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul>