Introductions and Conclusions How to Make Them Work For YOU! Once Upon a Time.... AND The End!
Purposes for Introductions The opening/introduction grabs the reader’s attention. clearly implies an organizational structure of the paper. is connected to the body of the writing and is a clear lead-in to the main idea or thesis. includes a thesis that is stated or implied.
Strategies for Introductions/Leads A writer may begin with anecdote or scenario (a brief story that captures the essence of the issue or situation) Abrief history/overview 5 W’s of situation or issue and maybe an H an interesting fact an description taking a stand a contrasting situation a combination of the above list
Some Leads to Avoid Definition’s Question’s A cliché (e.g., We have all heard the expression, “Better safe than sorry.” But is that true of today’s airline security procedures? ) A unfocused lead (“Adoption programs in this country have some flaws. They are not completely bad, but they need to be dealt with. There are a couple of things I am concerned about, even though, overall, adoption is a good thing.”)
Do Not Start With... In my opinion... In this paper I will... The purpose of this essay is to...
Do not forget to add to the introduction: The second sentence should contain an opinion where you pick an angle from which to approach the topic. Are you for or against it? The third sentence is where you should build a bridge from your general topic to your specific thesis statement. The fourth sentence should be your thesis statement and sub-points.
An example ... In 1983 the method of DNA analysis was discovered by the Cetus Corporation and is now a popular method of DNA analysis in genetic testing. Although genetic testing can benefit society in numerous ways, such as the diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases and ancestry verification, it also has the precarious capability to become a tool in selecting a more favorable genetic makeup of an individuals and ultimately cloning humans. Genetic testing will depreciate our quality of life and may result in discrimination, invasion of privacy, and harmful gene therapy.
An Example... Agriculture is a tough field to enter. Farming is no ordinary profession, nor is it cheap. With farming, comes many risks - some even life threatening. As with any other profession, equipment is needed to perform the job effectively. In this field, the equipment is very costly. The prices of the equipment, chemicals, and seed are increasing whereas the prices of the crop are steady decreasing. How are farmers supposed to make a substantial income when the prices are overwhelming? Can the government not allow a set income for farmers each year, in addition to their profit?
Purposes of Conclusions The ending/conclusion clearly connects introduction and body of the paper with insightful comments or analysis. wraps up the writing and gives the reader something to think about.
Conclusion Strategies A writer may end with a call to action a generalization from given information a self-reflection a response to a “so what?” question a combination of the above list an “echo” from the beginning of piece a quotation an anecdote an interesting fact a prediction
Concluding paragraph: This paragraph should include the following: 1. tell the reader what they can do about the issue or give a prediction to what could happen 2. a restatement of the thesis statement, using some of the original language or language that "echoes" the original language. (The restatement, however, must not be a duplicate thesis statement.) 3. a summary of the three main points from the body of the paper. 4. a final statement that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an end. (This final statement may be a "call to action" in an persuasive paper.)
An example... The point is that a local, state, or federal law should not assume guilt, nomatter how well intentioned, the law will eventually have negative side effects If rigorously enforced, what do you think is going to happen when these kidsturn 16? When you say NO! to a teenager what does that make him or her want todo? Defy you! I think that as an alternative to this plan we should have acurfew for those who have proven themselves unworthy of the right to move aboutfreely. Juveniles who have committed crimes for instance. But to strip such alarge portion of the population of a freedom, without asking them, or anyoneelse's opinion for that matter, is simply wrong.
An example... Do some students have the right to intrude on other students by smoking on campus? The unpleasant smells that cling to clothes and hair, the antsy student fidgeting for a cigarette in the middle of class, and the health risks posed for non-smokers by second-hand smoke are solid reasons for banning smoking on campus. If we could solve the first two problems, second-hand smoke is still unavoidable, even with designated smoking areas. The best way to protect the health of all students is to ban smoking campus wide.