Diseases of the paranasal sinuses.
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Diseases of the paranasal sinuses.

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    Diseases of the paranasal sinuses. Diseases of the paranasal sinuses. Presentation Transcript

    • DISEASES OF THE PARANASAL SINUSES
    • Anatomy of the SINUSES
    • Sinusitis
    • SINUSITIS
      • Sinusitis is the inflammatory condition of the mucous membrane lining of the sinuses. It may progress to pus formation.
      • Sinusitis may be acute and chronic.
      • inflammation of the maxillary sinus is called maxillitis;
      • inflammation of the ethmoidal sinus is called ethmoiditis;
    • SINUSITIS
      • inflammation of the frontal sinus is called frontal sinusitis ;
      • inflammation of the sphenoid sinus is called sphenoiditis;
    • SINUSITIS
      • hemisinusitis – the involvement all sinuses on one side into inflammation process;
      • pansinusitis – all sinuses are involved;
      • polisinusitis – several sinuses, but not all, are involved
    • SINUSITIS
      • For their origination sinusitis
      • may be primary and secondary . Primary sinusitis are rare diseases , they appear as result of trauma or allergy. But usually infection spreads to sinuses from other focuses .
    • SINUSITIS
      • Sinusitis may divided into:
      • R hinogenous – infection spreads from the nasal cavity. It is the most common way for infection and such sinusitis is the complication of the flu.
      • O dontogenic – infection spreads from upper teeth. This way is typical only for maxillary sinus. The pathologic process may spreads from 4,5,6 cheek-teeth apex to the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus
      • Traumatic
      • H ematogenic
      • Allergic .
    • PATHOGENESIS OF SINUSITIS
      • There are three main factors lead to the sinusitis development:
      • The most important factor is the opening of sinus hole . It may be blocked due to different reasons . As a rule , the hole may be blocked by the swollen mucous membrane . The other reason may be an anomaly of anatomical structures . The retain of secret , decrease the pressure of oxygen contribute the bacteria multiplication.
    • PATHOGENESIS OF SINUSITIS
      • The other important factor is the defect of self-cleaning mechanism of the mucous membrane of sinus. Bacteria, viruses damage the respiratory epithelium and cause the immobility of the cilia.
    • PATHOGENESIS OF SINUSITIS Changes of secret quality are taken place in the development of sinusitis . Secret becomes more concentrated and stick and therefore it can not be eliminated from the sinus .
    • PATHOGENESIS OF SINUSITIS
      • There are two additional factors :
      • I mmunodeficiency .
      • Pathological changes of nose and nasopharynx that make difficulties for normal outflow from the sinuses (septum deviation, hypertrophic rhinitis, adenoids) .
    • SINUSITIS
      • ACUTE sinusitis are divided into:
      • Catarrhal.
      • Purulent.
      • Necrotic.
      • CHRONIC:
      • Purulent
      • Polyps of sinuses
      • mixed
    • Diagnosis of Acute Rhinosinusitis, Major and Minor Factors   Fever Ear pain/ pressure/ fullness Purulence in nasal cavity on examination Cough Hyposmia/anosmia Dental pain Nasal discharge/ purulence/ discolored postnasal drainage Halitosis Nasal obstruction/blockage Fatigue Facial congestion/fullness Headache Facial pain/pressure Minor Factors Major Factors
    • SINUSITIS SYMPTOMS
      • Common symptoms:
      • rise in temperature
      • bad appetite
      • sleep disturbances
      • changes of the blood (leukocytosis)
      • Local symptoms:
      • Pain located in the affected sinus .
      • Nasal obstruction .
      • Purulent discharge from the nose .
      • Oedema of facial tissues .
      • Watering .
      • Smell disturbances (hyposmia) .
    • DIAGNOSTICS
    • ONE-SIDED MAXILLARY SINUSITIS
    • ONE-SIDED ETHMOIDITIS
    • ONE-SIDED SPHENOIDITIS
    •  
    •  
    • CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT
      • Antibiotics
      • Nasal decongestant
      • Mucoactive drugs
      • Symptomatic treatment
      • Puncture of the affected sinuses
      • Physiotherapy
      • Treatment of the affected tooth
    • PUNCTURE OF MAXILLARY SINUS
    •  
    • NASAL IRRIGATION
    • SURGICAL TREATMENT
      • Necrotic sinusitis
      • Orbital complications ( abscess and phlegmon of orbit )
      • Intracranial complications ( meningitis, brain abscess)
      • Rhinogenic sepsis
      • Odontogenic sinusitis combined with maxillary osteomielitis
    • SURGERY