‫واﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰاﻧﺎت‬
‫اوﻻ‬:‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰاﻧﺎت‬
1-‫اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫اﺷﺘﺮاﻃﺎت‬:
‫أ‬-‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﯿ...
‫ج‬-‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬=‫ﻟﻠﺤﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬)‫اﻟﺮﺷﺎﺷﺎت‬+‫اﻟﺤﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﺧﺮاﻃﯿﻢ‬+ (‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﮭﻼك...
‫ج‬-‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻷﻗﻄﺎر‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﻠﯿﺢ‬ ‫أﺳﯿﺎخ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬10، ‫ﻣﻢ‬12‫ﻣﻢ‬14‫اﻟﺸﺮوخ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﻠﯿﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻢ‬....
‫اﻷﺣ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻤﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺜﺒﯿﺖ‬ ‫أﻋﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺄن‬ ،‫آﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺄ‬ ...
‫ج‬-‫اﻟﻤﻀﺨﺎت‬ ‫دورة‬:
‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮات‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﯾﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪد‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻀﺨﺔ‬6‫ﺧﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤ...
‫اﻟﻐﺮﯾﺒﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺸﺮات‬ ‫دﺧﻮل‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮع‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﯾﺮﻛﺐ‬ ،‫واﻟﺘﻔﺮﯾﻎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻞء‬ ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫واﻟﺘ...
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302 اشتراطات خزانات المياه الارضية والعلوية

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اشتراطات خزانات المياه الارضية والعلوية

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302 اشتراطات خزانات المياه الارضية والعلوية

  1. 1. ‫واﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫اوﻻ‬:‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰاﻧﺎت‬ 1-‫اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫اﺷﺘﺮاﻃﺎت‬: ‫أ‬-‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫أﻣﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﯿﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬)10(‫أو‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺘﯿﺶ‬ ‫ﻏﺮف‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺎرات‬. ‫ب‬-‫ﯾﻜﻮ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫داﺧﻠﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﺆدي‬ ‫واﻷوﺳﺎخ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻄﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻤﺮه‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮب‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وﯾﺠﺐ‬ ،‫اﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫وﻟﯿﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎرة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎه‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﺄن‬ ‫ﯾﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫وﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺎرات‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫وﺟﺪت‬ ‫إن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮب‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬50‫ﺳﻢ‬. ‫ج‬-‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺷﯿﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﺮف‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮب‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫إذا‬. ‫د‬-‫أ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎورة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬‫اﻟﺴﻜﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎرات‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺌﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﮭﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎرة‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫أﻗﺮب‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬. 2-‫اﻟﻌﺰل‬ ‫اﺷﺘﺮاﻃﺎت‬: ‫ﻻ‬ ‫وﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺷﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺎﻣ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫إﺣﻜﺎﻣ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫وﻗﺎع‬ ‫ﺣﻮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻠﺰم‬‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫وﺣﻮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫ﻗﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻠﯿﯿﺲ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﻋﺎزﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫وﺣﻮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫ﻗﺎع‬ ‫وﺗﻐﻠﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أﻻ‬ ‫وﯾﺸﺘﺮط‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺮﺷﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫أﺳﻤﻨﺘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﯿﺎﺳﮫ‬ ‫واﻟﺨﺎرج‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫أﻓﻘﯿ‬ ‫ﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ورأﺳﯿ‬. 3-‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب‬: ‫ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬‫ﻣﻌـﺪل‬ ‫أﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮھﺎ‬ ‫وﯾﺘـﻢ‬ ‫اﻷﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﻣﯿـﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻜﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻔﻲ‬ ‫وأن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﯿﺪﯾﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﺴﻜﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘـﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬)100(‫ﻟﺘﺮ‬/‫ﻓﺮد‬/‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫وﻻ‬ ‫ﯾﻮم‬)10‫م‬3(‫اﻵﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬: ‫أ‬-‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬)‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻦ‬"‫ﻓﯿﻼ‬"–‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻨﻰ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﻧﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻨﯿﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫وﺣﺪﺗﯿﻦ‬500‫م‬2(‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻨﺼﺢ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬12‫م‬3‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـﻊ‬3‫م‬3‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬150‫م‬2‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﯿﺔ‬. ‫ب‬-‫اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬: 1-‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻃﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫اﺳﺘﮭﻼك‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪل‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬National Plumbing Code).N.P.C ( 2-‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أﺳـﺎس‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬8‫ﻗﺪم‬/‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻮاﺋﻢ‬ ‫ث‬5‫ﻗﺪم‬/‫اﻟﻔﺮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫ث‬. 3-‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬: ‫أ‬–‫ﻟﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻣﺪاد‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬3‫اﻟﺴﻜﺎن‬ ‫ﻻﺳﺘﮭﻼك‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ‫أﯾﺎم‬. ‫ب‬-‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤـﺮﯾـﻖ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﺿـﮫ‬ ‫درﺟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻧـﻮع‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾـﺪ‬N.F.P.A (National Fire Protection Association)‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ‬ ‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬. ‫ﻛﺎﻵﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺑﻨﺎء‬: -‫اﻟﺮﺷﺎﺷﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬‫وﺟﺪت‬ ‫إن‬) =500-750(‫ﺟﺎﻟﻮن‬/‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺮاوح‬ ‫وﻟﻤﺪة‬ ‫دﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬30-60‫دﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬. -‫واﻟﺨﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺮاﻃﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬=100‫ﺟﺎﻟﻮن‬/‫وﻟﻤﺪة‬ ‫دﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬30‫دﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬.
  2. 2. ‫ج‬-‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬=‫ﻟﻠﺤﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬)‫اﻟﺮﺷﺎﺷﺎت‬+‫اﻟﺤﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﺧﺮاﻃﯿﻢ‬+ (‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﮭﻼك‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﯿﺎه‬. 4-‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎت‬: ‫اﻵﺗﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﯾﺰود‬: ‫أ‬–‫ﻋﻮاﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺒﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﯾﺮﻛﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬. ‫ب‬-‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮي‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻟﺮﻓﻌﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺳﺤﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬‫ﻗﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺒﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﯾﺮﻛﺐ‬. ‫ج‬-‫ﺳﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫وﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺪأ‬ ‫ﺿﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺻﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺪﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫دھﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﻤﺎﻣﺎت‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ﻏﺴﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﺮف‬ ‫وﺧﻄﻮط‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺋﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬. -‫ﺗﮭﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﺐ‬)‫ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬2‫ﺑﻮﺻﺔ‬(‫اﻟﺤﺸﺮات‬ ‫دﺧﻮل‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻚ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺎﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﺑﻜﻮع‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻘﻒ‬. -‫ﺗﺮ‬‫أﻋﻤ‬ ‫ﻹﺟﺮاء‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫واﻟﺨﺮوج‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺪﺧـﻮل‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺴﮭﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫وﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﺪأ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺎري‬ ‫ﺳﻼﻟﻢ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺐ‬‫ﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﺪورﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻄﮭﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬ 5-‫واﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻔﯿﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬: -‫ﻟﻠﻜﺒﺮﯾﺘﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎوم‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬)‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬(V) )‫اﻷﻣﺮﯾﻜﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺼﻨﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻌﻮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬( ASTM ). -‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮھﺎ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻹﯾﺒﻮﻛﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫وأرﺿﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﺪران‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻠﻰ‬. -‫ﻓﺘﺤ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺣﻜﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻮاﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺮب‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫وﻗﻮاﻃﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻋﻮازل‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻊ‬‫اﻟﺘﻨﻔﯿﺬ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺒﺎﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺎت‬. -‫ﻃ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻗﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺗﻮﺿﻊ‬ ، ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻛﻮك‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻛﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮب‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫واﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺳﺲ‬‫ﻣﺎﻧﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻷر‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗـﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺴﻮب‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫واﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫أﻣﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻟﻠﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‬‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺟـﻮه‬ ‫وﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻼﻃﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻄﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮫ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﯾﺒﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻔﻠﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎزﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻏﺸﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺘﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﺰان‬. -‫ﻟﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻞء‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ‫واﻟﺮدم‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰل‬ ‫وﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﯿﺬھﺎ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﮭﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎزﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬48‫أﺳﺒﺎب‬ ‫وﻋﻼج‬ ، ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﯿﺬه‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰل‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺮدم‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺪء‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫وﺟﻮده‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺒﯿﻦ‬ ‫رﺷﺢ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ ‫أي‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺮﯾﻎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺠﻒ‬ ‫وﺗﺮﻛﮫ‬. 6-‫اﻟﺮدﻣﯿــﺎت‬: ‫اﻹﻧﺸﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺮدم‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﺮدم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬)‫ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻰ‬(‫ﻃﺒﻘ‬‫ﻟﻠﻄﺮق‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮﯾﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ً‫ﺎ‬AASHTO‫رﻗﻢ‬1)-(A‫أو‬2)-(A ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺠﺎوز‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺮدم‬ ‫وﯾﺘﻢ‬ ، ‫ﯾﻌﺎدﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫أو‬20‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﯿﻜﺎﻧﯿﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫دك‬ ‫وﯾﺘﻢ‬ ، ‫ﺳﻢ‬95‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪ ‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎس‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻈﻤﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮة‬ ‫ذو‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺮدم‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﯿﺬ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺸﺮف‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وﯾﺘﻌﯿﻦ‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪل‬ ‫ﺑﺮوﻛﺘﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺗﺴﺠﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺮدم‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺪاﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎرات‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫إﺟﺮاء‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫اﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ھﺬه‬. 7-‫اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﺷﺘﺮاﻃﺎت‬: ‫أ‬-‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺻﻮل‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻋﺎة‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﯿﺬھﺎ‬ ‫وﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫وﺣﻮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫أرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻼﻃﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺎت‬ ‫اﻷرﺿ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻼﻃﺔ‬ ‫واﻷﻓﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺮأﺳﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺻﻼت‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫وأﯾﻀﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺮأﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺤﻮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﺎ‬ ‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺒﺎت‬‫واﻟﺤﻮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫ﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺄ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻠﯿﻤ‬ ‫أداؤھﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺮأﺳﯿﺔ‬‫وأي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫وﺿﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻓﻘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﻓﺘﺮاﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮھﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺣﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻮﻧ‬ ‫اﻟﺮأﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺤﻮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﺎ‬ ‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫رﺑﺎط‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻋﺎة‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫أﺣﻤﺎل‬. ‫ب‬-‫ﺑ‬ ‫وﺗﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻠﯿﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺒﻜﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫وأرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪران‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻠﯿﺢ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬‫واﻟﻜﺮاﺳﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻨﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬
  3. 3. ‫ج‬-‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻷﻗﻄﺎر‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﻠﯿﺢ‬ ‫أﺳﯿﺎخ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬10، ‫ﻣﻢ‬12‫ﻣﻢ‬14‫اﻟﺸﺮوخ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﻠﯿﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻢ‬. ‫د‬-‫ﺷ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮع‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺰھﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻏﻄﯿﺔ‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺤﺎت‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺰود‬‫ﺣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻚ‬‫ﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺴ‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺎه‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻄﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻼﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫وأﻏﻄﯿﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺘﺤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮب‬ ‫رﻓﻊ‬ ‫وﺿﺮورة‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺂﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﺪأ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯿﻞ‬ ‫واﻻﺳﺘ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﺎﺗﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺰام‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫داﺧﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻘﻮﻃﮭﻢ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻔﯿﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﯿﺎﻃﺎت‬ ‫واﺗﺨﺎذ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬‫إﻋﺪاد‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺸﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪة‬ ‫واﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻄﻄﺎت‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫وﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻏﻄﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﺄن‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﺎﻣﯿﻢ‬ ‫ھـ‬-‫ﻣﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫أﺣﻤﺎل‬ ‫أي‬ ‫وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻗﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫وزن‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺣﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻘﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬‫ﻗﻌﺔ‬. ‫و‬-‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺑﻌﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﯾﻐﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎر‬ ‫اﺧﺘﯿﺎر‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺰل‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﯿﺎﻃﺎت‬ ‫وأﺧﺬ‬. ‫و‬-‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻻﯾﻘـﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻘـﺎس‬ ‫اﻟـﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺑﻘـﺎع‬ ‫ﺻﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ھﺒـﻮط‬ ‫ﻋﻤـﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺘــﻢ‬ ‫أن‬)50‫ﺳﻢ‬×50‫ﺳﻢ‬(‫وﻋﻤﻖ‬)25‫ﺳﻢ‬(‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺳﺤﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫أﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬. ‫ز‬-‫اﻷﻣﻄﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮﯾﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﮭﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻘﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻈﮭﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرج‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫أن‬. ‫ح‬-‫ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺨﺎت‬ ‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺰود‬)‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫إذا‬(‫ﺑﺄﺑﻌﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺻﻼت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺴﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺮﻓﺔ‬0.5×0.5×0.35‫وﺗﺰود‬ ‫م‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻟﻨـﺰح‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻃﺴﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻀﺨﺔ‬. ‫ط‬-‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫واﻟﻔﻄﺮﯾﺎت‬ ‫واﻟﺒﻜﺘﺮﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺑﺪھﺎن‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺻﻰ‬. ‫ي‬-‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫أﻏﻄﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺴـﻼﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻼﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺐ‬ 8-‫اﻟﺪورﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﺷﺘﺮاﻃﺎت‬: ‫أ‬-‫اﻷر‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫إﺻﻼح‬‫وإﺟﺮاء‬ ‫وﺗﺠﻔﯿﻔﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻔﺮﯾﻎ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮﺑﺎت‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻇﮭﺮت‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺮﺑﺎت‬ ‫وﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻒ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺮورﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬. ‫ب‬-‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻮاﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﯾﺔ‬‫ﺗﻠﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮھﺎ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺮﺳﯿﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻼح‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺴﺪادات‬ ‫وإزاﻟﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻨﻈﯿﻔﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫واﻟﺼﻤﺎﻣﺎت‬. ‫ج‬-‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫أواﻟﻌﺒﺚ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺼﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻘﮭﺎ‬ ‫وإﺣﻜﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﯾﺔ‬. ‫د‬-‫اﻟﻤﻀﺨﺎت‬ ‫واﺧﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺺ‬)‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻮﺻﯿﻼت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وأﺟﮭﺰة‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻮﺗﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫أﺟﺰاء‬). ‫ھـ‬-‫اﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫داﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻛﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. ‫و‬-‫ﻷﻓﺮادھـﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻼﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪات‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺄﻣﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫إﻟﺰام‬. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ‬:‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰاﻧﺎت‬ 1-‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫اﺷﺘﺮاﻃﺎت‬:
  4. 4. ‫اﻷﺣ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻤﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﯿﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺜﺒﯿﺖ‬ ‫أﻋﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺄن‬ ،‫آﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺄ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎن‬ ‫اﺧﺘﯿﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺬ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬ ‫وأن‬ ،‫اﻹﻧﺸﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻼﻣﺔ‬ ‫أﺿﺮار‬ ‫أﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﯿﺬھﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺮﺗﺐ‬ ‫وأﻻ‬ ،‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺘﻌﺮض‬‫اﻹﺿﺎﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺣﻤﺎل‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻔﺮﯾﻎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻞء‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺰان‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﮭﯿﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺸﺄ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﺎع‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮب‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫أﯾﻀ‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬‫رﺗﻔﺎع‬3‫أو‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﺘﻔﻊ‬ ‫أول‬ ‫ﺳﻘﻒ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻷﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬5‫ﻟﻠﺘﺠﮭﯿﺰات‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻷﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻘﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎع‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﯾﺮﺗﻔﻊ‬ ‫وأن‬ ،‫اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺔ‬60‫واﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﮭﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬. 2-‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬: ‫أ‬-‫اﻟﺼﻠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬)‫اﻟﻔﻮﻻذ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﮭﺎرﯾﺞ‬): ‫داﺧ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺻﻼت‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻌﺎن‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻮن‬ ،‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎدة‬ ‫وﻣﻄﻤﻮرة‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺰواﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮاﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬ ‫وﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬،‫اﻟـﻠﻮح‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻣﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻔﺢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﺿﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺳـﻄﺢ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻮن‬(SAND BLAST)‫اﻟ‬ ‫دھﺎن‬ ‫ﺿﺮورة‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺼﺪأ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺧـﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻋـﺪا‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﻮاﻧ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺷﺢ‬ ‫ﻋـﺪم‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮاﻓﺮ‬ ‫وأن‬ ،‫اﻟﺰﯾﺘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫أوﺟﮫ‬ ‫وﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ،‫ﺳﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﺪأ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﮭﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺐ‬‫وﻗﺎﻋﮫ‬ ‫ﺒﮫ‬. ‫ب‬-‫اﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰاﻧﺎت‬: ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻂ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺄة‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﯿﺬ‬ ‫وﺷﺮوط‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺳﺲ‬ ‫ﺟﺎء‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬ ‫وﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺤﺔ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺐ‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺎذﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻔﺬة‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫اﻟﮭﺰاز‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫و‬ ،‫أﻣﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﺰان‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وﯾﺠﺐ‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﯿﻜﺎﻧﯿﻜﻲ‬‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﺸﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻼط‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫داﺧﻠﯿ‬ ‫وﻗﺎﻋﮫ‬ ‫ﺟﻮاﻧﺒﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﯾﻔﻀﻞ‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎض‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫وﻗﺎع‬ ‫ﺟﻮاﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺷﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮاﻓﺮ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ،‫اﻟﺤﻮاف‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻄﻮف‬. 3-‫اﻟﻌـﺰل‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬: ‫اﻟﺠﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮات‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ﺿﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰل‬: ‫ﺑﺤﻮاﺋ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫إﺣﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫واﻟﺤﻮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺮك‬ ‫وأن‬ ،‫اﻟﺠﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻤﺎﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺗﺮة‬ ‫ﻂ‬60‫وﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻘﻒ‬ ‫وأﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻄﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬80،‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﮭﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺮورة‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ،‫ﺳﻢ‬ ‫إﺣﺎﻃ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﺤﺮارﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﯿﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮض‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰل‬ ‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫وﺳﻘﻔﮫ‬ ‫ﺟﻮاﻧﺒﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮاﻓﺮ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺗﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﺣﺮارﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮات‬ ‫ﺣﺪوث‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ،‫اﻟﺤﺮارﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﯿﺮات‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﺸﻮﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺰل‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﯾﻨﺔ‬،‫ﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﯾ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺰل‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺘﻢ‬. 4-‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب‬: ‫ﻣﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫اﺣﺘﯿﺎﺟﺎت‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺮر‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪات‬ ‫اﻟﯿﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﮭﻼك‬ ‫ﺛﻠﺚ‬ ‫أﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪد‬. ‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺴﺎب‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻃـﺮق‬ ‫ﺛﻼث‬ ‫وﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬‫ﯾﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮي‬ ‫ﯿﺎه‬: ‫أ‬-‫أﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪة‬: ‫أﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬30‫ﻟﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﯿﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫وھﺬه‬ ،‫اﻟﺪﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﻣﺮة‬30‫اﻧﻘﻄﺎع‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ،‫دﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫وھﺬا‬ ،‫اﻟﻌﻤﻮﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫اﻧﻘﻄﺎع‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺎﺟﺊ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﺎء‬‫وﻓﻲ‬ ،‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮب‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫وﻣﻨﺴﻮب‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺮﺑﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺨﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬. ‫ب‬-‫اﻓﺘﺮاﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬: ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎدل‬ ‫وھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻮارئ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮة‬ ‫وﻣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻮارئ‬ ‫وﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬30‫إﻟﻰ‬ ٪40‫اﻻﺳﺘﮭﻼك‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٪ ‫اﻟﺨﺰ‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺬ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ،‫اﻟﺤﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻹﻃﻔﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﻮﻣﻲ‬‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ‬ ‫واﻧﻌﻜﺎس‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﺳﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺄ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وزﻧﮫ‬.
  5. 5. ‫ج‬-‫اﻟﻤﻀﺨﺎت‬ ‫دورة‬: ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮات‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﯾﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪد‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻀﺨﺔ‬6‫ﺧﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺪة‬ ‫وﺗﻘﻒ‬ ‫دﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫وھﺬا‬ ‫ﻣﺮات‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫إﺟﺮاء‬ ‫وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺮك‬ ‫اﺳﺘﮭﻼك‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪل‬ ‫ﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮات‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻗﻞ‬ ‫وﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫دﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬. 5-‫واﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺻﯿﻼت‬: -‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﺐ‬ ،‫ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺰود‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻘﻔﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬25‫ﺳﻢ‬. -‫ا‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮب‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ،‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻞء‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻤﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﺠﮭﺰة‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻮاﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺰود‬،‫ﻟﻤﻘﺮر‬ ‫وﯾﺮا‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺨﺰان‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺮر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻞء‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮب‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺪرﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻂ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫اﺣﺘﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬‫ﺗﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺎدل‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺼﺮﯾﻔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻤﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻄﻲ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻋﻰ‬ ،‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺧﺎرج‬ ‫ﻗﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺒﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺮﻛﺐ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﻞء‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬)‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎﻋﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻤﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻐﻨﺎء‬ ‫وﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ 30ً‫ﻣﺘﺮا‬(‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫وﻻ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻄﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺰود‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻗﺎع‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺮﺟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬10‫ﺳﻢ‬. -‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮھﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺋﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺠﮭﺰ‬1‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻞء‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻷﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻄﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﺋﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻀﺨﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫أﻧﮫ‬‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﯾﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫وﺗﺮﻛﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎذﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﺋﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻞء‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫إﻧﮫ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﮭﺮﯾﺞ‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮب‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻠﻮ‬10‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺼﻞ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وﯾﺠﺐ‬ ،‫ﺳﻢ‬‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫اﺗﺼﺎ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﺐ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫إﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﺋﺾ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫اﻷﺣﻮال‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ،‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻹھﺪار‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻼﻓﯿ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎن‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷرﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪور‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮﯾﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻔﻀ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫اﻷﺣﻮال‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﺄي‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﺋﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬‫أﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺘﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﺋﺾ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﺮﯾﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺼﺺ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬. ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻼت‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﺻﯿﻞ‬ -‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﺴﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺠﮭـﺰ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬)1(‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺻﺔ‬. -‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎﻋﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﯾﺰود‬120،‫ﺳﻄﺤﮫ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮل‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻼﻟﻢ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻗﺎع‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨـﺰول‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻼﻟﻢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫وﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﺳﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫وﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﺪأ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬. -‫اﺗﺰا‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺤﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻮي‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ن‬. 6-‫واﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻨﻔﯿﺬ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﺷﺘﺮاﻃﺎت‬: -‫اﻟﻜﻠ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻏﺴﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ،‫واﻟﺒﻜﺘﺮﯾﺎ‬ ‫واﻟﻔﻄﺮﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫وأرﺿﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﻮاﺋﻂ‬ ‫دھﺎن‬ ‫ﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬،‫ﻮر‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬. -‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫ﻋﺎزﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮاﻓﺮ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬‫واﻟﺤﺸﺮات‬ ‫اﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺧﻮل‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫وأن‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫رﺷﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬ ‫أﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻔﺎذ‬ ‫وﻣﺎﻧﻌﺔ‬ ،‫واﻟﻘﻮارض‬. -‫و‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺮاوح‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻐﺴﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺰود‬4‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻗﺎع‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫وﺗﻮﺿﻊ‬ ،‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺻﺎت‬)‫أرﺿﯿﺔ‬(‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬ ، ،‫اﻟﻔﺎﺋﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬‫اﻟﻐﺴﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬ ً‫ﻼ‬‫ﻣﺎﺋ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫وﯾﺮاﻋﻰ‬ ،‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺴﯿﻞ‬ ‫وﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﯾﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺒﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺿﺮورة‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮرة‬0.5‫اﻷﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬. -‫ﻟﻤﻮا‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻠﻮب‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻮع‬ ‫وﺗﻨﺘﮭﻲ‬ ،‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺳﻘﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﺮﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﮭﻮاء‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﮭﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﺧﺰان‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺰود‬،‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬ ‫زﻧﺔ‬
  6. 6. ‫اﻟﻐﺮﯾﺒﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺸﺮات‬ ‫دﺧﻮل‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮع‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﯾﺮﻛﺐ‬ ،‫واﻟﺘﻔﺮﯾﻎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻞء‬ ‫أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺨﻠﺨﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻀﺎﻏﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻨﻌ‬. -‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺑﻌﺎد‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻘﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬70×80‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺬه‬ ‫وﯾﻜﻮن‬ ،‫وﺻﯿﺎﻧﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻔﮫ‬ ‫داﺧﻠﮫ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨـﺰول‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻣﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻏﻄﺎء‬ ‫ﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎﻋﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫أﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺮاغ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬60‫وﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺴﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﮭﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ‬ ‫واﻷﺟﮭﺰة‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻮاﺳﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬.

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