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    Kappelman   itmpi - ea 102 - modeling organizations Kappelman itmpi - ea 102 - modeling organizations Presentation Transcript

    • About the Presenter About the PresenterLeon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. is a research scientist, teacher, author, speaker, and  consultant dedicated to helping organizations better manage their information, systems, and  technology assets.  He is Director Emeritus of the Information Systems Research Center and a  Professor of Information Systems in the Information Technology & Decision Sciences  Department of the College of Business at the University of North Texas, where he is also a  Fellow of the Texas Center for Digital Knowledge.  Dr. Kappelman is founding chair of the  Society for Information Management’s (SIM) Enterprise Architecture Working Group.  He has  assisted many public and private organizations with technology management activities  including strategic planning, governance, software development, project management,  enterprise architecture, continuity of operations, and IT workforce management.  He has  given presentations and written articles on these and other IT management topics, and  testified before the US Congress on technology legislation and IT management practices.   Professor Kappelman has published several books, over 100 articles, and has lectured and  conducted seminars and workshops on many management, business, and technology topics  in North America, Europe, and Asia.  His work has been reported in the Wall Street Journal,  New York Times, Business Week, Newsweek, Dallas Morning News, Washington Post, Vanity  Fair, L.A. Times, and scores of other newspapers and magazines; he has appeared on CNN,  CNBC, PBS, ABC World News Tonight, as well as numerous local and regional television and  radio stations.  He brought nearly $2.5 million in research contracts to the university. (1‐ August‐2010)
    • Enterprise Architecture 102:  Modeling Organizations M d li O i i (Surviving and Thriving the Information Age) Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Professor of Information Systems Founding chair, Society for Information Management EA Working Group Founding chair, Society for Information Management EA Working Group http://eawg.simnet.org Director Emeritus, Information Systems Research Center Director Emeritus, Information Systems Research Center f Fellow, Texas Center for Digital Knowledge Fellow, Texas Center for Digital Knowledge Information Technology & Decision Sciences Department Information Technology & Decision Sciences Department College of Business, University of North Texas College of Business University of North Texas Website: http://courses.unt.edu/kappelman/ Email: kapp@unt.edu     Phone: 940‐565‐4698     Fax: 940‐565‐4935© Leon A. Kappelman ITMPI Webinar 10-March-2011
    • What is Architecture?• The underlying design or structure of anything The underlying design or structure of anything.   – It exists whether or not it is made explicit (known). – If it is not explicit, assumptions must be made. If it is not explicit, assumptions must be made.• If explicit, Architecture is … – “t “the set of descriptive representations about an object.” – John  p p j Zachman – a model or representation of an object created in order to … a model or representation of an object created in order to … • “see” the object, see the object • “communicate” with others about the object, • “do” something with or to the object: create, manage, evaluate, or  change it.
    • Why Enterprise Architecture? You cannot effectively manage  ff y g something you cannot “see” and  understand (know)! ( ) Especially if it’s big, complicated, or will  grow or change at some point in time, or  if you need to communicate accurately  with others about it. with others about it.
    • “The act of discovery  y consists not in finding  new lands but in seeing  with new eyes.” –M Marcel Proust lP
    • What is the “Information Age”?4 Key Characteristics of the Information Age h i i f h f i
    • “It is not the strongest of It is not the strongest of the species that survives, the species that survives,nor the most intelligent,  g ,but the one that is most responsive to change.” – Charles Darwin
    • US Federal Reserve Board Chairman Bernanke in June 06 commencement speech @ MIT said …June’06 commencement speech @ MIT said• “In the case of information and communication  technologies, new economic research suggests that the  technologies new economic research suggests that the investments in associated intangible capital ‐‐ figuring out  what to do with the computer once its out of the box ‐‐ are quite important indeed.”  • “Important investments in intangible capital remain to  be made, as much still remains to be learned about how  be made as much still remains to be learned about how to harness these technologies most effectively … as the  full economic benefits of recent technological changes  have not yet been completely realized.” h b l l li d ” He’s talking about the need to invent some of the unique  intellectual capital of the Information Age, just like quality and  i t ll t l it l f th I f ti A j t lik lit d productivity were to the Industrial Age. “Bridging the Chasm” in The SIM Guide  SIM Guide  to Enterprise Architecture,  to Enterprise Architecture, , edited by Leon A. Kappelman, CRC Press, NYC, (www.crcpress.com).
    • What is Enterprise Architecture? p• The current name given to creating and  utilizing some of that intangible capital.• “The holistic set of descriptions about the  enterprise over time.“ – SIM EA Working Group p• Modeling the enterprise in order to know  and communicate about it (and its  d i b i ( di requirements, goals, strategies, policies,  technologies, people, products, etc.). 
    • EA is about the creation of a sharedlanguage to communicate about, l i bthink about, and manage the enterprise.  If the people in the enterprise can’t communicate well If the people in the enterprise can’t communicate enough to align their ideas and thoughts about the  enough to align their ideas enterprise (e.g., strategy, goals, objectives, purpose), then they can’t coordinate and align the thingsthen they can’t coordinate and align the things they  manage (e.g., applications, data, projects, goods and  ( li i d j d d services, jobs, vehicles).EA gets to the essence of what IS people do –EA gets to the essence of what IS people do – h f h S l d knowing, communicating, and delivering  on requirements.
    • Why do we need enterprise requirements? Requirements failure is a plan for total failure.
    • “We shape our buildings — thereafter th shape us.” th ft they h ” — Sir Winston Churchill“We shape our enterprises and We their systems — thereafter they shape us.” p — Leon Kappelman
    • Information Age Organization ≈ Learning OrganizationPeter Senge: “Learning Organization”  g g g – The Fifth Discipline, 1990“Where people continually expand their capacity to create Where people continually expand their capacity to create  the results they truly desire, where new and expansive  patterns of thinking are nurtured, …where people are  patterns of thinking are nurtured where people are continually learning to see the whole together.”Characterized by the mastery of five basic disciplines or Characterized by the mastery of five basic disciplines or ‘component technologies’.  They are: – Personal masteryy – Systems thinking – Mental models – Building shared vision Building shared vision – Team learning
    • • EA is about learning together to see the whole enterprise through system thinking & modeling theenterprise in order to understand, communicate p ,about, change, adapt, and manage it.• EA is about at least 4 of Senge’s 5: Systems thinking y g Mental models Building shared vision Team learning
    • EA i bEA is about creating the  gInformation Age Information AgeOrganization.Organization
    • Requirements?  Requirements?We know how to We know how todo that, don’t we?d th t d ’t ?
    • Fred Brooks on the difficulties of software development… “To see what rate of progress one can expect To see what rate of progress one can expect in software technology, let us examine the difficulties of that technology. Following diffi lti f th t t h l F ll iAristotle, I divide them into essence, the difficulties inherent in the nature of software, and accidents, those difficulties that today  , ff yattend its production but are not inherent.” "No Silver Bullet ‐ E "N Sil B ll Essence & Accidents of Software Engineering” 1986 in Information  & A id fS f E i i ” Processing 86. H.J. Kugler, ed., Elsevier, 1069‐1076. (Invited paper, IFIP Congress 86, Dublin) Reprinted in The Mythical Man‐Month,  20th Anniversary Edition, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., Addison‐Wesley, 1995.
    • Fred Brooks on the difficulties of software development… “Thesee what rate part of building a software“To hardest single of progress one can expect The hardest single part of building a software  To see what rate of progress one can expect  system is deciding precisely what to build.  No in software technology, let us examine the  other part of the conceptual work is as difficult as  other part of the conceptual work is as difficult asdifficulties of that technology. Following diffi lti f th t t h l F ll i establishing the detailed technical Aristotle, I divide them into essence, the  requirements….  No other part of the work so  requirements No other part of the work sodifficulties inherent in the nature of software,  cripples the system if done wrong.  No other part and accidents, those difficulties that today  , ff is more difficult to rectify later. is more difficult to rectify later” yattend its production but are not inherent.” "No Silver Bullet ‐ E "N Sil B ll Essence & Accidents of Software Engineering” 1986 in Information  & A id fS f E i i ” Processing 86. H.J. Kugler, ed., Elsevier, 1069‐1076. (Invited paper, IFIP Congress 86, Dublin) Reprinted in The Mythical Man‐Month,  20th Anniversary Edition, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., Addison‐Wesley, 1995.
    • SIMEAWG IT Management Practices Study Averages (Scale: 1[=awful] to 5 [=superior])• 3.67  Overall average (64 questions)• 3.92  Purpose / function of EA (7 questions)• 3.90  Potential benefits of EA (20 questions)• 3.68  ISD CMM practices and capabilities (12 questions) i d bili i ( i )• 3.53  Use of requirements artifacts (10 questions)• 3.33  Requirements practices & capabilities (15 questions) 3 33 Requirements practices & capabilities (15 questions) The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the  Information Age Enterprise, , edited by Leon A. Kappelman,  Information Age Enterprise,  Information Age Enterprise, , edited by Leon A. Kappelman, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, NYC,  (www.crcpress.com).
    • INDUSTRY DATA ON DEFECT ORIGINS Because defect removal is such a major cost element, studying defect origins is a valuable undertaking. IBM Corporation (MVS) SPR Corporation (client studies) 45% Design errors 20% Requirements errors 25% Coding errors 30% Design errors 20% Bad fixes 35% Coding errors 5% Documentation errors 10% Bad fixes 5% Administrative errors 5% Documentation errors 100% 100%TRW Corporation Mitre Corporation Nippon Electric Corp. 60% Design errors 64% Design errors 60% Design errors 40% Coding errors 36% Coding errors 40% Coding errors 100% 100% 100% Copyright © 2009 by Capers Jones.  All Rights Reserved. SWQUAL0824
    • What is an Enterprise? g pWhat is an Organization?
    • Organization,Organization“know thyself”! y – Socrates
    • Organization,Organization“know thyself”! y – Socrates – Socrates Consulting Socrates Consulting
    • OntologyThe metaphysical study of the natureof being and existence.of being and existenceOntology applied to enterprises:Ontology applied to enterprises:• Study of the nature of their existence.• Answers questions like:  i lik • What is an enterprise? • Wh t d What does it mean to be an enterprise? it t b t i ? • What do I need to know about an organization if I  want to know it? want to know it?
    • The practice of Enterprise Th ti fE t iArchitecture is the ontological Architecture is the ontologicalexamination of a particular enterprise in order to know its nature, essential properties, and  t ti l ti dthe relationships among them.the relationships among them.
    • “Enterprise” Architecture?“Enterprise” Architecture? What in the world are  What in the world are enterprise‐wide  enterprise‐wide requirements?
    • An Organization is … g LOGICAL PHYSICAL SC
    • An Organization is … g RESOURCES BEHAVIORS
    • Strategist s Strategist’s VisionBusiness/Executive Model Logical Model Physical ModelSubcontractor/Component ModelS b /C M d l Functioning Enterprise F ti i E t i
    • W H W W W WH O H H H HA W E O E YT ? R ? N ?? E ? ?
    • “Someday you’re“S d ’going to really wishArchitecture = Requirements you had all those qmodels; so you mightas well get started g Management Project Management Projectnow.” Instantiation Zachman – John
    • Zachman’s Enterprise Framework… is an ontology, a data model (schema) i t l d t d l( h )for all the knowledge about the enterprise.… is process and method agnostic. It doesn t care  is process and method agnostic It doesn’t carehow you do it.… posits that this is the data/information/knowledge… posits that this is the data/information/knowledgeyou must capture & use to effectively & efficiently … • achieve & maintain your enterprise objectives  y p j (e.g., aligned, agile, optimized, lean, green, or  whatever).  • manage change and complexity. h d l i • create and manage organizations (and their  resources, including technologies) that will survive  resources including technologies) that will survive and thrive in the Information Age.
    • StrategyExecution
    • What is EA?• EA is a different way of seeing, communicating about, &  managing the enterprise & all of its assets, including IT. • EA gets to essence of IT success: To know, communicate, and EA gets to essence of IT success: To know, communicate, and  deliver on the organization’s requirements. • EA is key to: – achieving & keeping business IT alignment & other objectives achieving & keeping business‐IT alignment & other objectives. – helping the organization create value. – achieving & maintaining balance among: • Short term and long term objectives Short‐term and long‐term objectives • Subsystem (BU, service, process, function) and whole (organization).• EA includes many things you already do such as: – requirements analysis design strategic planning network design standard requirements, analysis, design, strategic planning, network design, standard  setting, data architecture, knowledge management, SOA, BPR, etc. – BUT EA is much, much more than that.  So build on what you do.• EA i f d EA is fundamental to creating, maintaining, and  t lt ti i t i i d managing Information Age Organizations.
    • “Someday you’re“S d ’going to really wishArchitecture = Requirements you had all those qmodels; so you mightas well get started g Management Project Management Projectnow.” Instantiation Zachman – John
    • Implementation Guidelines: Getting Started Getting Started• Build on what you are already doing, including current projects.• Use collaborative approaches to doing and governing EA: – Organize an EA working group or EA council.  – Learn together & work toward agreement about language, models, methods• Get participation & commitment from IT & business management: – At all levels (but start as high as possible).   Leadership counts! ( g p ) p• Determine the goals, focus, scope, and priorities: – Aim for completeness & comprehensiveness.   Deal with day‐to‐day needs.• Embrace continuous change, learning, and communication: – Remember it’s a journey and a process Remember, it s a journey and a process. – Evangelize.  Have an “elevator speech”.  Get your “converters” one at a time.  • Start small and show early success:  – Identify EA initiatives of most value to organization.   – Help the value creators, it creates champions and wins hearts and minds.• Monitor, evaluate, and improve on a continuous basis: – Quantify the benefits and the value created. – Regularly take a hard look at EA cost‐value proposition, and make it better. g y p p ,• Use EA in IT for CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT OF IT ALL and to COMMUNICATE  WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS & STAKEHOLDERS.
    • Road to the Future: Institutionalizing EA Institutionalizing EA• This is a new way of life: There is no quick fix; no silver bullet.• This will take time and determination as well as vision courage and This will take time and determination, as well as vision, courage and  commitment: Do not underestimate the difficulty and complexity of  changing culture and architecting and engineering one of  humankind s most complex objects  the Enterprise. humankind’s most complex objects – the Enterprise.• Do not get discouraged: This is a revolution in thinking, a discipline,  an engineering process. Change of this magnitude takes time and  p perseverance.• Set realistic expectations: Things have to be implemented and  modified periodically so you have to accept some risk of “scrap and  rework."  Progress trumps perfection. g p p• Dont assume anything: Make executive education and technical  training a continuous process.  It is easy to forget long‐term issues in  the short‐term stress of daily life. • Learn!: The state of the art is only about 25 years old and the "playing  field" still pretty level – there is still much to learn and discover, and  many opportunities to create advantage and value.
    • “No one has to change.Survival optional ”S r i al is optional.” – Dr. W. Edwards Deming
    • The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture  Creating the Information Age Enterprise 542KA = 40% off A project of the SIMEAWG www.crcpress.com Edited by: Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Foreword by: Jeanne W. Ross, Ph.D. Contributing Authors, Panelists, & Artists (alphabetically): • Bruce V. Ballengee Bruce V Ballengee • George S. Paras George S Paras • Larry Burgess  • Alex Pettit • Ed Cannon • Jeanne W. Ross • Larry R. DeBoever y • Brian Salmans • Russell Douglas • Anna Sidorova • Randolph C. Hite • Gary F. Simons • Leon A. Kappelman • Kathie Sowell • Mark Lane • Tim Westbrock • Thomas McGinnis • John A. Zachman All authors’ royalties support the work of  All th ’ lti t th k f the not‐for‐profit SIMEAWG.