Kappelman - Becoming a 21st Century Enterprise

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Slide deck from a talk given at the Society for Information Management's annual SIMposium conference on 14 November 2011 in Orlando, Florida. …

Slide deck from a talk given at the Society for Information Management's annual SIMposium conference on 14 November 2011 in Orlando, Florida.

Enterprises that are more agile and adaptable are more able to succeed in an Information Age world that demands they do more with less, faster, while traditional boundaries blur, and the rules of engagement change. Succeeding in such a world requires that organizations skillfully manage information about their products, customers, suppliers, markets, assets, and liabilities. Fortunately, most enterprises are skilled in such matters. But succeeding in the world of today, and to a even greater extent in the world of tomorrow, also demands that enterprises master the management all of the knowledge about itself, including details about all of its people and processes, intelligence and knowledge, things and places, timings and motivations, plans and measures, rules and jobs, structures and more. We are in the early stages of developing such skills and capabilities. Enterprise Architecture (EA) is the name of this emerging discipline.
EA represents a new way of thinking about and managing the enterprise, including its information technologies. EA is all about achieving the vision of bridging the chasm between strategy and implementation, of capturing all the knowledge about the enterprise and making it available in real time for every imaginable management need, and of having a shared “language” of words, graphics, and other depictions to discuss, document, manage, and make decisions about every important aspect of the enterprise. EA is key to being agile, adaptable, interoperable, integrated, lean, secure, responsive, efficient, effective, and thereby more able to succeed in the Information Age.

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  • 1. Readying the 21st Century Enterprise with Architecture Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Professor of Information Systems College of Business, University of North Texas Founding Chair, SIM Enterprise Architecture Working Group Readying the 21st Century Enterprise with Architecture:  Read ing the 21st Cent r Enterprise ith Architect re Bridging Strategy and Execution Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Professor of Information Systems Founding Chair, Society for Information Management EA Working Group Founding Chair, Society for Information Management EA Working Group Director Emeritus, Information Systems Research Center Fellow, Texas Center for Digital Knowledge Information Technology & Decision Sciences Department College of Business, University of North Texas Website: http://courses.unt.edu/kappelman/ Email: kapp@unt.edu     Phone: 940‐565‐4698EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 1
  • 2. Enterprise Architecture: Why Bother? •If you can’t “see” it, then you can’t  effectively change it or manage it.  ff ti l h it it •Especially if it’s complicated or big,  or will grow, evolve, or change at  some point in time.3 The act of discovery  consists not in finding  new lands but in seeing  with new eyes. with new eyes – Marcel Proust4 2
  • 3. “know thyself”! – Socrates5 Organization, “know thyself”! – Socrates Consulting6 3
  • 4. What is an Organization? Logical Physical y7 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. “The beginning of e beg go wisdom is the definition of terms” – Socrates8 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 4
  • 5. Ontology The metaphysical study of the nature of being and existence. g Ontology applied to enterprises: • Study of the nature of their existence. • Answers questions like: • What is an enterprise? • What does it mean to be an enterprise? • What do I need to know about an organization if I want to know it?9 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. The practice of Enterprise  Architecture is the ontological  examination of a particular  i i f i l enterprise in order to know  its nature, essential  properties, and the  properties and the relationships among them.10 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 5
  • 6. Architecture? What’s that? Architecture “the set of descriptive  representations about an object .  [J. Zachman] representations about an object”. [J. Zachman] Enterprise Architecture is “the holistic  set of descriptions about the enterprise  over time“.   [SIMEAWG] Enterprise Architecture is modeling the  Enterprise Architecture is modeling the  Enterprise Architecture is modeling the enterprise.11 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Stephen Hawking “All we ever know is our models.” All we ever know is our models. "Our models may get closer and closer,  but we will never reach direct  perception of reality.” • Every model is imperfect (= not reality). Every model is imperfect ( not reality). • But models are all we have. • Even language is a model.12 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 6
  • 7. 1314 7
  • 8. 15 EA is about the creation of a shared language (of words, images, and so on) to communicate about, think about, and manage the enterprise. enterprise If the people in the enterprise cannot  If the people in the enterprise cannot  communicate well enough to align their ideas  well enough to align their ideas  and thoughts about the enterprise (e.g.,  strategy, goals, objectives, purpose, …),  then they cannot align the things they manage  then  then they cannot align the things they manage (e.g., applications, data, projects, goods and  services, jobs, vehicles, people, …).16 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 8
  • 9. “Architecture is “A hit t i politics.” — Mitchell Kapor17 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. “Information Age  Organization Organization” EA is all about Peter Senge’s “technologies” of a Learning Organization, “where people are continually learning to see the whole together”: • Holistic/systems thinking (big picture & connections) • Team learning (collaboration) • Shared mental models (shared language & models) • Building shared vision (shared goals) • Personal mastery (Senge, The Fifth Discipline, 1990)18 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 9
  • 10. Do we really need a “shared language”?19 No EA = no shared language = you get: “IT and business alignment remains CIOs top  concern.… Some things never change.”  ( f (InformationWeek, 3Sept08) , p ) “Yet again, alignment is the top priority for CIOs.”  Business Alignment: The Eternal Priority” (CIO  Insight, 22Mar07) “top IT management concerns of CIOs in 2006 …  the alignment of IT and business at their  the alignment of IT and business at their companies …according to …survey by the Society  for Information Management. ” (InformationWeek,  18Sep06)20 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 10
  • 11. “KEY ISSUES FOR IT EXECUTIVES 2005” MISQuarterly Executive, 2006, Luftman, Kempaiah, & Nash.21 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Top  IT Management Concerns 1980‐2010 Top  IT Management Concerns 1980‐ IT Management 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 1994 1990 1986 1985 1983 1980 ConcernsBusiness productivity & cost reduction 1 1 7 4Business agility and speed to market 2 3 13 17 7 5 7IT and business alignment 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 9 7 5 2 7 9IT reliability and efficiency 3 6Business Process ReengineeringB i P R i i 3 4 18 15 11 5 10 10 2IT Strategic planning  6 7 3 8 4 4 4 2 10 3 1 1 1 1Revenue generating IT innovations 6 8 8 5 7 4THIS IS SYMPTOMATIC OF NOT SUFFICIENTLY  IT cost reductionSecurity and privacy 9 9 8 6 3 2 3 3 19 18 6 14 12UNDERSTANDING THE “REQUIREMENTS”):GlobalizationChange management 10 11 15 14 6 7 3 2 3 3 19 18 6 14 12 • SPECIFIC DETAILS OF A PARTICULAR  OBJECTIVE, Outsourcing/vendor managementEnterprise architecture 12 13 11 11 11 33 15 15 9 8 4 1 8 ACTIVITY, AND/OR PROCESS.  ACTIVITY AND/OR PROCESSIT human resource considerations 13 13 17 17Knowledge management • OVERALL CONTEXT – THE BIG PICTURE OF HOW IT Project managementSourcing decisions 13 13 11 17 10 23 5 10 ALL FITS TOGETHER.CIO leadership roleIT organization design 10 15 16 10 20 • OR BOTHSocietal implications of IT EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 11
  • 12. 23 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. “Alignment,” “flexibility,” “nimbleness,” “simplicity,”  “agility,” and so on are design objectives or goals.   They answers questions like “what do we want it to  look like?”   The answer to the question “how do we accomplish  it?”  Most call “planning” or “strategic planning” and  “execution” or “implementation”;   A few, but only those thinking in a very  comprehensive  and holistic sense of the term, call it “enterprise  architecture.”   It will be called ……?...... in 20 years.24 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 12
  • 13. How does a EA ow an shared language help IT perform better?25 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved.26 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 13
  • 14. 27 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved.28 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 14
  • 15. Artwork by Russell Douglas in The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Enterprise Architecture As Strategy: Creating a Foundation for Business Execution,  Jeanne Ross,  Age Enterprise, 2010, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, NYC, (www.crcpress.com).29 Peter Weill, & David Robertson, Harvard Business Press,  2006. EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Artwork by Russell Douglas in The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Enterprise Architecture As Strategy: Creating a Foundation for Business Execution,  Jeanne Ross,  Age Enterprise, 2010, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, NYC, (www.crcpress.com).30 Peter Weill, & David Robertson, Harvard Business Press,  2006. EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 15
  • 16. “We shape our buildings — thereafter they shape us.” us. — Sir Winston Churchill “We shape our enterprises and their systems — thereafter they shape us ” us. — Leon Kappelman31 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. System Requirements?   System Requirements? We know how to do that!  Don’t we?32 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 16
  • 17. INDUSTRY DATA ON DEFECT ORIGINS Because defect removal is such a major cost element, studying defect origins is  a valuable undertaking. IBM Corporation (MVS) SPR Corporation (client studies) 45% Design errors 20% Requirements errors 25% Coding errors 30% Design errors 20% Bad fixes 35% Coding errors 5% Documentation errors 10% Bad fixes 5% Administrative errors 5% Documentation errors 100% 100% TRW Corporation Mitre Corporation Nippon Electric Corp. 60% Design errors 64% Design errors 60% Design errors 40% Coding errors 36% Coding errors 40% Coding errors 100% 100% 100% Copyright © 2009 by Capers Jones.  All Rights Reserved. SWQUAL083333 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved.Brooks on the difficulties of software development … “To see what rate of progress one can expect in software technology, let us examine the difficulties of that technology. Following Aristotle, I divide them into essence, the difficulties inherent in the nature of software, and accidents, those difficulties that today attend its production b t are tt d it d ti but not inherent.” "No Silver Bullet - Essence & Accidents of Software Engineering” 1986 in Information Processing 86. H.J. Kugler, ed., Elsevier, 1069-1076. (Invited paper, IFIP Congress 86, Dublin) Reprinted in The Mythical Man-Month, 20th Anniversary Edition, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., Addison-Wesley, 1995. EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 17
  • 18. Brooks on the difficulties of software development … “To see what rate of “The hardest single part of  progress one can expect in building a software system is  software technology, let us deciding precisely what to  build Nothe difficulties the examine other part of of build.  No other part of the  that technology. Following conceptual work is as difficult  Aristotle, I divide them into as establishing the detailed  essence, the difficulties technical requirements….  No  inherent in the nature of other part of the work so  software, and accidents, cripples the system if done  those difficulties that today wrong.  No other part is more  wrong its production bis tmore attend itNo other ti but are tt d d part difficult to rectify later.” not inherent.” "No Silver Bullet - Essence & Accidents of Software Engineering” 1986 in Information Processing 86. H.J. Kugler, ed., Elsevier, 1069-1076. (Invited paper, IFIP Congress 86, Dublin) Reprinted in The Mythical Man-Month, 20th Anniversary Edition, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., Addison-Wesley, 1995. EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. U.S. AVERAGES FOR SOFTWARE QUALITY (Data expressed in terms of defects per function point) Defect Removal Delivered Defect Origins Potential Efficiency Defects Requirements 45% 1.00 77% 0.23 56% Design 1.25 85% 0.19 Coding 1.75 95% 0.09 Documents 0.60 80% 0.12 Bad Fixes 0.40 70% 0.12 TOTAL 5.00 5 00 85% 0.75 0 75 (All defect sources ‐ not just coding defects) Copyright © 2009 by Capers Jones.  All Rights Reserved. SWQUAL083636 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 18
  • 19. BEST IN CLASS SOFTWARE QUALITY (Data expressed in terms of defects per function point) Defect Removal Delivered Defect Origins Potential Efficiency Defects Requirements 40% 0.40 85% 0.08 77% Design 0.60 97% 0.02 Coding 1.00 99% 0.01 Documents 0.40 98% 0.01 Bad Fixes 0.10 95% 0.01 TOTA TOTAL 2.50 .50 96% 0. 3 0.13 50% of  17% of  US avg. US avg. OBSERVATION: Most often found in systems software > SEI CMM Level 3 Copyright © 2009 by Capers Jones.  All Rights Reserved. SWQUAL0837EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved.37 SIMEAWG IT Management Practices Study Averages (Scale: 1[=awful] to 5 [=superior]) 3.67  Overall average (64 questions) 3.92  Purpose / function of EA (7 questions) 3.90  Potential benefits of EA (20 questions) 3.68  ISD CMM practices and capabilities (12 questions) 3.53  Use of requirements artifacts (10 questions) 3.33  Requirements practices & capabilities (15 questions) The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Age Enterprise, 2010, edited by Leon A. Kappelman, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, NYC, (www.crcpress.com). EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved.38 19
  • 20. What is an Enterprise? Logical Physical y39 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. LOGICAL PHYSICAL EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 20
  • 21. 41 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Strategist’s Vision Business Model Logical Model Physical Model Subcontractor’s View Functioning Enterprise42 21
  • 22. RESOURCES BEHAVIORSEA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. W H W W W W H O H H H H A W E O E Y T ? R ? N ? ? E ? ? 22
  • 23. EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. I P S G N O C S F R H O E A O R T D L D F A A L U L S S A T T S E S / & T W R R / T A U E I R A C P M O I U R T R N L U G E R T S E S S E 23
  • 24. Things  |  Behaviors |  |    | Logical | | ___________________________________________ | | Physical | |   | | |EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved.EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 24
  • 25. Architecture/Requirements A hit t /R i t (Strategy, Design, & Plans) Project Management (Execution & Implementation) Instantiation / Operations (Functioning Enterprise)EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Strategy Execution E tiEA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 25
  • 26. Zachman’s Framework for EA … … is an ontology, a data model (schema) for all the  knowledge about the enterprise. … is process and method agnostic. It doesn t care how  … is process and method agnostic. It doesn’t care how you get the knowledge. … posits that if you want to be aligned, agile, optimized, or  whatever your enterprise design objectives, then these are  the data you must have and use in order to efficiently  and effectively:  • achieve those objectives; those objectives; • manage change and complexity; • manage the enterprise & all its resources including its technologies.51 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. http://zachman.com 26
  • 27. By whatever means you get them, these are  the data you must have and use …EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. http://zachman.com By whatever means you get them, these are  the data you must have and use … “Someday you’re going to really wish you had all those models; so you might as well get started now.”– John ZachmanEA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. http://zachman.com 27
  • 28. What is EA? EA is a different way of seeing, communicating about, & managing the  enterprise & all of its assets, including IT.  EA gets to essence of IT success: Knowing & communicating the  organization’s requirements.  EA is key to: achieving & keeping business‐IT alignment & other objectives. helping the organization create value. EA includes many things you are already do; such as requirements  analysis, system design, strategic planning, network design, standard  setting, knowledge management, data warehousing, SOA, BPR, etc., etc., … BUT EA is much, much more than that. You can build your EA practice on what you are already doing55 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Some graphical concepts for communicating  with Zachman’s Enterprise Ontology Scope about something is depicted by width in a  cell. A “sliver” is indicative of narrow or limited scope – as in  a stovepipe or a particular application. Example: Run    Level of detail about something is depicted by  depth in a cell.  It depicts how much you know about it What you don’t know you must assume. ntation12-256 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 28
  • 29. EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Enterprise Architecture for Integration:  Rapid Delivery Methods and  Technologies, Clive Finkelstein, (2nd Technologies, Clive Finkelstein, (2 Edition, June 2011). 58 29
  • 30. EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved.Perfect WorldEA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 30
  • 31. More often than we’d like to admit practice: IT System Acquisition EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved.Typical Practice: IT System Acquisition EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 31
  • 32. Typical Practice: IT System AcquisitionTypical Practice: IT System Acquisition Assessment: Strategic Alignment EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 32
  • 33. Typical Practice: IT System Acquisition EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved.Typical Practice: IT System Acquisition Audit of Controls & Compliance EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 33
  • 34. Typical Practice: IT System Acquisition Audit of Controls & Compliance EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved.Typical Practice: IT System Acquisition Audit of Controls & Compliance 34
  • 35. What is EA? EA is a different way of seeing, communicating about, & managing  the enterprise & all of its assets, including IT.  EA gets to essence of IT success: Knowing & communicating the  organization s requirements.  organization’s requirements. EA is key to: achieving & keeping business‐IT alignment & other objectives. helping the organization create value. EA includes many things you are already do; such as requirements  analysis, system design, strategic planning, network design,  standard setting, knowledge management, data warehousing, SOA,  standard setting, knowledge management, data warehousing, SOA, BPR, etc., etc., … BUT EA is much, much more than that. You can build your EA practice on what you are  already doingEA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. So how do you build an EA practice on what you are already doing? d i ?EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 35
  • 36. Software Architecture Systems Analysis Systems Design Software PortfolioEA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Strategic Planning Business Modeling Business ArchitectureEA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 36
  • 37. Disaster Recovery Continuity of Operations (COOP) Continuity of Government (COG)EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Human Resources Organization Design Job DesignEA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 37
  • 38. Business Process Reengineering Process ImprovementEA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Network Design N t kD i Network ArchitectureEA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 38
  • 39. Data Design Data Architecture Data WarehousingEA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Rules Management Business Rules Expert SystemsEA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 39
  • 40. “Someday you’re going to really wish you had all those models.” – John Zachman http://zachman.com79 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Road to the Future: Institutionalizing EA This is a new way of life: There is no quick fix; no silver bullet.80 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 40
  • 41. 81 Example of an EA governance integrated into all governance structures … VA Executive Board Organizational Change Management Strategic Management Council Office of Cyber Security Capital Information Technology Board Investment Council Project Management Office EA Architecture Council82 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 41
  • 42. Armstrong Process Group, Inc.  http://www.aprocessgroup.com/offerings/index.asp83 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Road to the Future: Institutionalizing EA This is a new way of life: There is no quick fix; no silver bullet. This will take time and determination, as well as vision, courage and  commitment: Do not underestimate the difficulty and complexity of architecting  and engineering one of humankind’s most complex objects – the Enterprise. g g p j p Do not get discouraged: This is a revolution in thinking, a discipline, an  engineering process. Change of this magnitude takes time and perseverance. Set realistic expectations: Things have to be implemented and modified  periodically so you have to accept some risk of “scrap and rework."  Progress  trumps perfection. Dont assume anything: Make executive education and technical training a  continuous process.  It is easy to forget long‐term issues in the short‐term stress  of daily life.  of daily life Learn!: The state of the art is only about 25 years old and the "playing field" still  pretty level – there is still much to learn & discover, & many opportunities to  create advantage & value.84 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 42
  • 43. You will also need  some EA processes and  governance bodies that  integrate EA into the  processes and  processes and governance activities  for everything else (IT  and business). Example of an EA development Example of an EA developmentprocess: TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) cycle http://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf8-doc/arch/chap03.html EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 43
  • 44. Implementation Guidelines: Getting Started Build on what you’re already doing (including projects). Use collaborative approaches to doing & governing EA: Organize an EA working group or EA council.  Learn together & work toward agreement about language, models, methods Get participation & commitment from IT & business at all levels (as high  Get participation & commitment from IT & business at all levels (as high as possible).   Leadership counts! Determine the goals, focus, scope, and priorities: Aim for completeness & comprehensiveness.   Deal with day‐to‐day needs. Embrace continuous change, learning, & communication: Remember, it’s a journey and a process. Evangelize.  Have an “elevator speech”.  Get your “converters” one at a time.   Start small and show early success.  Then build on it.  Identify EA initiatives of most value to organization.   Help the value creators, it creates champions and wins hearts and minds. Monitor, evaluate, and improve on a continuous basis: M it l t di ti b i Quantify the benefits Regularly take a hard look at EA cost‐value proposition, and make it better. Use EA in IT for CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT and COMMUNICATION  WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS & STAKEHOLDERS87 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. “No one has to change. Survival is optional.” – Dr W. Edwards Deming Dr. W88 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 44
  • 45. SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture A project of the Society for Information Management’s EA  Working Group (SIMEAWG).   Free shipping & 40% discount  with code “542KA” for purchase at  http://www.crcpress.com.   All author royalties go to further the work of the not‐for‐ profit  SIMEAWG. Edited by: Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Foreword by: Jeanne W. Ross, Ph.D. Contributing Authors, Panelists, & Artists (alphabetically):40% discount code  • Bruce V. Ballengee • George S. Paras = 542KA • Larry Burgess  • Alex Pettit • Ed Cannon • Jeanne W. Ross at   at • Larry R. DeBoever Larry R DeBoever • Brian Salmans Brian Salmans CRCPress.com • • Russell Douglas Randolph C. Hite • • Anna Sidorova Gary F. Simons • Leon A. Kappelman • Kathie Sowell • Mark Lane • Tim Westbrock • Thomas McGinnis • John A. Zachman89 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. Readying the 21st Century Enterprise with Architecture:  Read ing the 21st Cent r Enterprise ith Architect re Bridging Strategy and Execution Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Professor of Information Systems Founding Chair, Society for Information Management EA Working Group Founding Chair, Society for Information Management EA Working Group Director Emeritus, Information Systems Research Center Fellow, Texas Center for Digital Knowledge Information Technology & Decision Sciences Department College of Business, University of North Texas Website: http://courses.unt.edu/kappelman/ Email: kapp@unt.edu     Phone: 940‐565‐4698 EA 202: © 2000‐2011 Leon A. Kappelman.  All rights reserved. 45