Enterprise Architecture 101: Who, What, Where, When, Why, How?
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Enterprise Architecture 101: Who, What, Where, When, Why, How?

on

  • 2,592 views

An introductory webinar about EA.

An introductory webinar about EA.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,592
Views on SlideShare
2,582
Embed Views
10

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
112
Comments
0

2 Embeds 10

http://www.linkedin.com 9
http://www.slideshare.net 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Enterprise Architecture 101: Who, What, Where, When, Why, How? Document Transcript

  • 1. Enterprise Architecture 101: Who, What, Where, When, Why, How? Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Professor of Information Systems Chair, Society for Information Management EA Working Group http://eawg.simnet.org htt // i t Director Emeritus, Information Systems Research Center Fellow, Texas Center for Digital Knowledge Information Technology & Decision Sciences Department College of Business, University of North Texas Website: http://courses.unt.edu/kappelman/ Email: kapp@unt.edu     Phone: 940‐565‐4698     Fax: 940‐565‐4935EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 1 v.15Mar09EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 2 1
  • 2. Society for Information Management Enterprise Architecture Working Group The SIMEAWG is … … an all‐volunteer group of over 80 EA  practitioners, academics, and thought  leaders, representing nearly 50  organizations from industry, government,  and academia, dedicated to understanding  and academia, dedicated to understanding and improving EA practices, and helping IT  professionals and their organizations  capitalize on the opportunities of EA. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 3 SIMEAWG Member Organizations• ACG • L-3 Communications• Allstate Insurance • LiquidHub• Association of Enterprise Architects • Lockhead Martin• Atos Origin • Microsoft• Auxis • Net(net)• Aviall Services • New Madison Avenue• y BAE Systems • nextPression• BizRules.com • Northwestern Mutual• Capital One Auto • Pariveda Solutions• Chateaux Software • Pennsylvania State University• Chubb & Son • PepsiCo• CISCO - IBSC Public Sector • Pernod Ricard• CIT Group • Pinnacle• Diversifed Technology Services • PNM Resources• Document Sciences Corporation • Portland General Electric• EA Directions • Price Chopper Supermarkets• Eagle Ottawa Leather LLC Leather, • Russell Reynolds Associates• EDS, an HP company • Syracuse University• Forrester Research • Texas Instruments - Education Technology Business• HCSC • Universidad Catolica del Norte• IBM • University of Idaho• Interstate Batteries • Univeristy of Maryland University College• iRobot • Zachman Framework Associates /• Information Technology & Decision Zachman International Sciences Dept @ Univ. of N. Texas • Zale Corporation EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. As of 13-Mar-09 4 2
  • 3. Mission of the SIMEAWG (SIM Executive Board Oct‐2006) • Enable IT organizations to understand, create,  and manage EA in partnership with the business; • Identify and share processes, methods, tools,  concepts, and best practices; • Help IT organizations substantially enhance the  p g y way they manage change, reduce complexity,  reengineer processes, plan, strategize, govern,  manage projects, and deliver value.EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 5 SIMEAWG – What we do COLLABORATE: Meet three times a year. Have three conference calls a year. Have three conference calls a year. Work together on … STUDY: Conduct an annual study to determine the “state of EA”. Sponsor and participate in research to understand and further the practice of  EA SHARE: SHARE Give presentations at SIMposium, SIM chapters, and other events. Through http://EAWG.SIMNET.ORG Publish reports, case studies, collection of articles, & soon OUR BOOKEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 6 3
  • 4. The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Age Enterprise A project of the Society for Information Management’s Enterprise Architecture Working Group, to be published in the Fall of 2009, by CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, NYC, (www.crcpress.com). Edited by: Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Foreword by: Jeanne W. Ross, Ph.D. Contributing Authors, Panelists, & Artists (alphabetically): • Bruce V. Ballengee • George S. Paras • Larry Burgess • Alex Pettit • Ed Cannon • Jeanne W. Ross • Larry R. DeBoever • Brian Salmans • Russell Douglas • Anna Sidorova • Randolph C. Hite • Gary F. Simons • Leon A. Kappelman • Kathie Sowell • Mark Lane • Tim Westbrock • Thomas McGinnis • John A. ZachmanEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 7 Society for Information ManagementEnterprise Architecture Working Group New members welcomed http://eawg.simnet.org Next meeting: Dallas, May 27-28, 2009EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 8 4
  • 5. Enterprise Architecture 101: Who, What, Where, When, Why, How? Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Professor of Information Systems Chair, Society for Information Management EA Working Group http://eawg.simnet.org htt // i t Director Emeritus, Information Systems Research Center Fellow, Texas Center for Digital Knowledge Information Technology & Decision Sciences Department College of Business, University of North Texas Website: http://courses.unt.edu/kappelman/ Email: kapp@unt.edu     Phone: 940‐565‐4698     Fax: 940‐565‐4935EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 9 Enterprise Architecture: Why Bother? Y t ff ti l You cannot effectively  manage something you  cannot reasonably “see”! Especially if it’s big, complicated, or you think it will grow or be changed at some point in time.EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 10 5
  • 6. An example of EA  An example of EA in action …EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 11EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 12 6
  • 7. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 13EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 14 7
  • 8. Organization, Organization “know thyself”! – SocratesEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 15 Organization, Organization “know thyself”! – Socrates Socrates – ConsultingEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 16 8
  • 9. What is an Enterprise? Logical PhysicalEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 17 What’s wrong with this picture? • “IT and business alignment remains CIOs  top concern.… Some things never change.”  (InformationWeek, 3Sept08) (InformationWeek, 3Sept08) • “Yet again, alignment is the top priority for  CIOs.” Business Alignment: The Eternal  Priority” (CIO Insight, 22Mar07) • “top IT management concerns of CIOs in  top IT management concerns of CIOs in 2006 … the alignment of IT and business at  their companies …according to …survey by  the Society for Information Management. ”  (InformationWeek, 18Sep06)EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 18 9
  • 10. “KEY ISSUES FOR IT EXECUTIVES 2005” MISQuarterly Executive, 2006, Luftman, Kempaiah, & Nash.EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 19 What’s wrong with that picture? • Mis‐alignment and lack of alignment are symptoms of  deeper problems.  They are not causes. • The enterprise, all of its resources, and the  environment in which it operates (economy,  competition, laws, culture, geo‐politics, etc.) are in a  constant state of change.  • Alignment one day is mis‐alignment the next. – Agility may be key to alignment. – Simplicity may be key to agility.  • Alignment, agility, simplicity are just three of many  possible design characteristics management might  want (e.g., also secure, cheap, lean, fast, etc.).    • It’s all about managing complexity and change. – That’s why humans invented architecture. – You’ve got to “know it” in order to build or change it.EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 20 10
  • 11. “It is not the strongest of the th species th t survives, i that i nor the most intelligent, but the one that is most responsive to change. change.” – Charles Darwin EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 21 Fred Brooks got it 34 years ago!“The hardest single part of building a software  system is deciding precisely what to build.  No  other part of the conceptual work is as difficult as  other part of the conceptual work is as difficult as establishing the detailed technical requirements….   No other part of the work so cripples the system if  done wrong.  No other part is more difficult to  rectify later.” No Silver Bullet – Essence and Accident in  Software Engineering, 1975. How can you build IT if you  don’t know what IT is? EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 22 11
  • 12. SIMEAWG IT Management Practices Study Averages (1‐5 scale)• 3.67  Overall average (64 questions) g ( q )• 3.92  Purpose / function of EA (7 questions)• 3.90  Potential benefits of EA (20 questions)• 3.68  ISD CMM practices and capabilities (12 questions)• 3.53  Use of requirements artifacts (10 questions)• 3.33  Requirements practices & capabilities (15 questions) The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Age Enterprise, 2009, edited by Leon A. Kappelman, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, NYC, (www.crcpress.com).EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 23 “The beginning of wisdom i the id is th definition of terms” – SocratesEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 24 12
  • 13. What is an ontology?• An ontology is a shared understanding of some domain  of interest, some subject.  This is also referred to as a  conceptualization. • An ontology entails some sort of world view with respect  to a given domain. It contains: – a set of concepts (e.g., representing entities,  attributes, processes), together with  – their definitions and  f – their inter‐relationships.• In other words, an ontology is an explicit, agreed up  specification about something (i.e., the thing of  interest). EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 25 Applied to enterprises … ontology is the study of the nature of their existence; the nature of what it means to be an h t t b enterprise. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 26 13
  • 14. Enterprise architecture isontological examination of a gparticular enterprise in orderto explain its nature,essential properties, and therelationships among them.EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 27 What is an Enterprise? Logical PhysicalEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 28 14
  • 15. Architecture? What’s that?•Architecture is“the set of  descriptive representations about  an object”    [John Zachman]•Architecture is modelingEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 29EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 30 15
  • 16. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 31EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 32 16
  • 17. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 33EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 34 17
  • 18. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 35EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 36 18
  • 19. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 37EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 38 19
  • 20. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 39 Stephen HawkingEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 40 20
  • 21. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 41 Stephen Hawking "Our models may g closer y get and closer, but we will never reach direct perception of reality.” “All we ever know i our k is models.”EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 42 21
  • 22. What is an Enterprise? Logical PhysicalEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 43 Architecture? What’s that?•Architecture is “the set of  descriptive representations about  an object”    [John Zachman]•Enterprise Architecture is “the  holistic set of descriptions about  the enterprise over time“     the enterprise over time“ [SIMEAWG]•Enterprise Architecture is  modeling the enterprise.EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 44 22
  • 23. Value Chain View  Figure 3-5 35EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 45EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 46 23
  • 24. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 47EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 48 24
  • 25. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 49EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 50 25
  • 26. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 51EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 52 26
  • 27. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 53EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 54 27
  • 28. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 55 What is an Enterprise? Logical PhysicalEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 56 28
  • 29. EA is about the creation of a shared language  to communicate about, think about, and  manage the enterprise.   manage the enterpriseIf the people in the enterprise cannot communicate well enough to align their ideas and thoughts  about the enterprise (e.g., strategy, goals,  objectives, purpose), then they cannot align the things they manage (e.g.,  applications, data, projects, goods and services,  jobs, vehicles)EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 57 We need models of the E (i.e., EA), in order to see,  communicate, & agree about, and decide, plan &  manage where we are going; and verify where we are. Cook, M. (Speaker). (26 February 2005). Scorecards and Behavior Checklists as a Method of Measuring Process Deployment Across the Organization [presentation]. Plano, TX: SEI Software Engineering Process Improvement Workshop, EDS Auditorium.EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 58 29
  • 30. “Architecture is Architecture politics.” — Mitchell Kapor EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 59Peter Senge: “The Learning Organization” (The Fifth Discipline, 1990)“Where people continually expand their capacity to create the results  they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are  nurtured, …where people are continually learning to see the whole  nurtured where people are continually learning to see the whole together.”Characterized by the mastery of five basic disciplines or ‘component  technologies’.  They are: – Personal mastery – Systems thinking – Mental models – Building shared vision – Team learning EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 60 30
  • 31. Four Forces of the Information AgeEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 61EA is about “modeling” the enterprisein order to understand, communicateabout, and manage what you cannot b d h“see.” EA is all about: Systems thinking Mental models Building shared vision Team learningEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 62 31
  • 32. EA is all about creating the ti th information age enterprise.EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 63 “We shape our buildings — thereafter they shape us.” — Sir Winston Churchill “We shape our enterprises and their systems — thereafter they shape us.” — Leon KappelmanEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 64 32
  • 33. What is EA? US government’s GAO says an EA :  • … provides “a clear & comprehensive picture of  an … organization.”  – Information Technology: Enterprise Architecture Use Across The Federal Government Can Be Improved, GAO‐02‐6, February 2002,  I f ti T h l E t i A hit t U A Th F d l G tC B I d GAO 02 6 F b 2002 http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d026.pdf. • “… is a blueprint for organizational change  defined in models [of words, graphics, & other  depictions] that describe (in both business and  technology terms) how the entity operates today [the  ‘AS IS’] and how it intends to operate in the future [th ‘AS IS’] d h it i t d t t i th [the  ‘TO BE’]; it also includes a plan for transitioning to  this future state [‘TRANSITION STATES & TRANSISTION  PLANS’]” ([text] or emphasis added) – Enterprise Architecture: Leadership Remains Key To Establishing And Leveraging Architectures for Organizational Transformation, GAO‐ 06‐831,  August 2006, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06831.pdf.  EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 65 Example: EA Transition States => Major    Milestones of Transition Plan Target Architecture ACE Functionality Drawback declarations and corresponding refunds Handling bankruptcy-driven events on Customs accounts ACE 17 Admission of merchandise into and withdrawal from foreign trade zones (FTZs) Control of in-bond merchandise transportation before entry and payment Designation of examination site different from port of arrival and merchandise tracking between sites Processing of special category import declarations (e.g., Trade Fairs, Permanent Exhibits, by ACE 16 Government) Interface with the Automated Export System (AES) PHASE 4 Full integration with AMS for air imports Verification of carrier reviews Processing of inspectors’ physical verification of manifested quantity (PVMQ) reviews ACE 15 Compliance verification of bonded premises Full integration with AMS for sea imports g p ACE 14 Full implementation of Track 1 import processes Recording, forwarding to port of entry, and tracking of mail imports Integration with the Mail Entry Writing System (MEWS) Problem Resolution Cycle (PRC) to track commercial fraud allegations ACE 13 Support for Enforce Evaluation Teams’ review and determination of actions on violations Interface with the Seized Asset and Case Tracking System (SEACATS) Billing processing for compliance violators Enforce Evaluation Teams support ACE 12 Single reconciliation transactions for national-based accounts Determination and coordination of measures to address alleged non-compliance Entry summaries for merchandise subject to antidumping and countervailing duties ACE 11 Provision of entry, payment, and liquidation information to sureties Import declarations for imports to bonded warehouses and foreign trade zones Interface with the Laboratory Information Measurement System (LIMS) for analysis and accreditation Interface with the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) ACE 10 Input of Track 1 import declaration data elements PHASE 3 Interface with the US Fish & W ildlife Service Liquidation processing to provide final determination of classification, admissibility, and duties Ability for filer to correct import declarations after their acceptance ACE 9 Processing voluntary admissions by filers of transaction mistakes Processing filers’ disclosures of unintentional long-term non-compliance Processing corrections that do not produce revenue changes ACE 8 Interface with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Processing filers’ protests of Customs actions and decisions Processing automatic account payments via debit vouchers Entry summary, withdrawals, payment, and liquidations of imports to bonded warehouses Inclusion of express consignment carriers as ACE accounts ACE 7 Mechanism for release of low-risk, high-volume cargo of pre-approved importers Electronic bond filing Consolidation of imports valued at less than $2000 Entry summary, release, and payment for sea and rail imports in Tracks 2 and 3 ACE 6 Integration with AMS for sea and rail imports in Tracks 2 and 3 Daily national statement processing of accounts Interface with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ACE 5 Account reporting to account managers and the trade PHASE 2 Entry summary, release, and payment for air imports in Tracks 2 and 3 Integration with AMS for air imports in Tracks 2 and 3 ACE 4 Expansion of account-based processing to all business categories (e.g., brokers, sureties, warehouses) Processing of collections, refunds, deposits, and adjustments Quota processing Transparent common interface for Customs users, independent of the processing system (ACS or ACE) ACE 3 Entry summary, release, and payment for truck imports in Tracks 2 and 3 Interface with the Regulatory Audit Management Information System (RAMIS) ACE 2 Sequencing Account-based periodic statements and payment Periodic filing of entry summary Entry and payment simplification for streamlined release of truck imports in Track 4 Availability of detailed account transactions for data review and verification ACE 1 PlanPHASE 1 National account-based information and performance data National integrated log of contacts between Customs and the Trade Entry and payment simplification for streamlined release of air, sea, and rail imports in Track 4 NCAP Integration with the Automated Manifest System (AMS) for air, sea, and rail imports in Track 4 Interface with Department of Transportation (DOT) and Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) Refinements to NCAP based on experience with the prototype Transparent common interface for the trade, independent of the processing system (ACS or ACE) Baseline Architecture EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 66 33
  • 34. “An architect is the An architect is the  drawer of dreams”  — Grace McGarvieEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 67 Why do we need plans? Failure to plan is a plan for failureEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 68 34
  • 35. EA is about “modeling” the enterprise in order tounderstand, communicate about, and manage it."The Blind Men and the Elephant" John Godfrey S J h G df Saxe (1816 1887) (1816-1887) EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 69EA is about “modeling” the enterprise in order tounderstand, communicate about, and manage it."The Blind Men and the Elephant" John Godfrey S J h G df Saxe (1816 1887) (1816-1887) Wall Fan Snake Tree HoseRope EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 70 35
  • 36. EA is about “modeling” the enterprise in order tounderstand, communicate about, and manage it."The Blind Men and the Elephant" John Godfrey S J h G df Saxe (1816 1887) (1816-1887) Wall Fan Snake Tree HoseRope Current state of affairs in most enterprises. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 71 The act of discovery consists not in finding new lands but in seeing with new eyes. – Marcel Proust EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 72 36
  • 37. What is an Enterprise? Logical PhysicalEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 73 An Enterprise is …EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 74 37
  • 38. An Enterprise is … Logical Physical yEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 75 An Enterprise is … Logical PhysicalEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 76 38
  • 39. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 77“The system is the enterprise.” – John ZachmanEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 78 39
  • 40. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved.http://zachmaninternational.com 79 Zachman’s Enterprise Framework … … is an ontology, a data model (schema) for all the knowledge about the enterprise. … is process and method agnostic. It doesn’t care how you do it. … posits that if you want to be aligned, agile, optimized, or whatever your enterprise design objectives, then these are the data you must capture & use in order to effectively: • achieve those objectives; • manage change and complexity; • manage the enterprise & all its resources including its technologies. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 80 40
  • 41. W H W W W W H O H H H H A W E O E Y T ? R ? N ? ? E ? ?EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 81 Context Out of Context Functioning EnterpriseEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 82 41
  • 42. Strategist’s Vision Business/Executive Model Logical Model Physical Model Subcontractor’s View Functioning Enterprise EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 83 EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved.http://zachmaninternational.com 84 42
  • 43. EA is about “modeling” the enterprise in order tounderstand, communicate about, and manage it."The Blind Men and the Elephant" John Godfrey S J h G df Saxe (1816 1887) (1816-1887) Wall Fan Snake Tree HoseRope Current state of affairs in most enterprises. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 85 Vision Defense Procreation Materials Cooling Processing & Distribution Suction Locomotion EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 86 43
  • 44. Cooling Support PumpVision Solid Waste Fuel Output InputInformation processing Food processingSupport &Locomotion Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Internal distribution of materials 87 Information Skeletal/ Ears: Cooling & processing Support sound processing Circulatory: Eyes: internal distribution & Vision/Light logistics Processing Elimination: Solid & Liquid WasteMouth/Teeth: Outlets Input: Preliminary processing of nutrients Heart: Pump Digestive: Chemical breakdown of nutrientsSupport &Locomotion Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved.EA 101: © 2000-2009 88 44
  • 45. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 89 What is EA?• EA is all about a different way of seeing, communicating  about, and managing the enterprise and all of its assets,  including its technologies. • EA includes many things you are already do; such as EA includes many things you are already do; such as  requirements analysis, system design, strategic planning,  network design, standard setting, knowledge  management, data warehousing, SOA, BPR, etc. – BUT EA is much, much more than that.• EA gets to essence of IT success: Knowing & communicating the organization’s requirements.• EA is key to achieving AND KEEPING business- IT alignment, any other objectives, and helping the organization succeed at creating value.EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 90 45
  • 46. Every model is imperfect• The map is not the highway.   – Every model contains assumptions, enunciated or not.   – Every model filters reality, whether you realize it or not. y y, y – "Our models may get closer and closer, but we will never reach  direct perception of reality.” Stephen Hawking• Important truths:  – “All we ever know is our models.” Stephen Hawking – Data are a model. – Language is a model.  – News media, pundits, and talking heads represent models. News media, pundits, and talking heads represent models. – Architecture is models.• The important questions are:  – Is the model useful for the purposes at hand?   – Do we understand & acknowledge its shortcomings? EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 91 “Someday you’re going to yy g g really wish you had all those models; so you might as well g get started now.” – John Zachman EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 92 46
  • 47. What is EA?• It’s a revolution• It’s all about … – a new way of thinking, and doing. – communications and  language. communications and “language.” – change in culture, hearts, minds of those in the enterprise. – the process, not a project. – the journey, not a task. – the big picture, and the little picture. – the long‐term, and the short‐term. – balance between the whole & the parts. – capturing & managing all the knowledge about enterprise – “modeling” any and all of the enterprise. “ d li ” d ll f th t i – using those models to communicate about the enterprise. – using those models to manage complexity and change. – using those models to manage the enterprise. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 93 “A little rebellion A now and then is a g good thing.” g – Thomas Jefferson EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 94 47
  • 48. Implementation Guidelines: Getting Started • Use collaborative approaches to doing and governing EA: – Organize an EA working group. – Develop understanding and agreement about language, models, & methods. • Get participation & commitment from IT & business management: – At all levels (but start as high as possible).  • D Determine the goals, focus, scope, and priorities: i h l f d i ii – Aim for completeness & comprehensiveness • Embrace change and learning: – Remember, it’s a journey and a process. – Communicate, communicate, communicate!!!!! • Start small and show early success:  – Identify EA initiatives of most value to organization. – Success creates champions and wins hearts and minds. Success creates champions and wins hearts and minds. • Monitor, evaluate, and improve on a continuous basis: – Quantify the benefits – Regularly take a hard look at its cost and value, and make it better. • Use EA in IT to continuously improve development, security,  operations, and support to better serve enterprise needs … AND TO  COMMUNICATE WITH YOUR CUSTOMERS & STAKEHOLDERS. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 95 Road to the Future: Institutionalizing EA• This is a new way of life: There is no quick fix; no silver bullet.• This will take time and determination, as well as vision, courage and  commitment: Do not underestimate the difficulty and complexity of  architecting and engineering one of humankind’s most complex  objects – the Enterprise. objects the Enterprise• Do not get discouraged: This is a revolution in thinking, a discipline,  an engineering process. Change of this magnitude takes time and  perseverance.• Set realistic expectations: Things have to be implemented and  modified periodically so you have to accept some risk of “scrap and  rework."  Progress trumps perfection.• Dont assume anything: Make executive education and technical Don t assume anything: Make executive education and technical  training a continuous process.  It is easy to forget long‐term issues in  the short‐term stress of daily life. • Learn!: The state of the art is only about 25 years old and the "playing  field" still pretty level – there is still much to learn & discover, & many  opportunities to create advantage & value. EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 96 48
  • 49. “No “N one h t change. has to h Survival is optional.” – Dr. W. Edwards DemingEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 97“Enterprise Architecture”? Leon Kappelman, “Bridging the Chasm,” in The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Age Enterprise, 2009, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, NYC, (www.crcpress.com).EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 98 49
  • 50. The SIM Guide to Enterprise Architecture: Creating the Information Age Enterprise A project of the Society for Information Management’s Enterprise Architecture Working Group, to be published in the Fall of 2009, by CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, NYC, (www.crcpress.com). Edited by: Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Foreword by: Jeanne W. Ross, Ph.D. Contributing Authors, Panelists, & Artists (alphabetically): • Bruce V. Ballengee • George S. Paras • Larry Burgess • Alex Pettit • Ed Cannon • Jeanne W. Ross • Larry R. DeBoever • Brian Salmans • Russell Douglas • Anna Sidorova • Randolph C. Hite • Gary F. Simons • Leon A. Kappelman • Kathie Sowell • Mark Lane • Tim Westbrock • Thomas McGinnis • John A. ZachmanEA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 99 Enterprise Architecture 101: Who, What, Where, When, Why, How? Leon A. Kappelman, Ph.D. Professor of Information Systems Chair, Society for Information Management EA Working Group http://eawg.simnet.org htt // i t Director Emeritus, Information Systems Research Center Fellow, Texas Center for Digital Knowledge Information Technology & Decision Sciences Department College of Business, University of North Texas Website: http://courses.unt.edu/kappelman/ Email: kapp@unt.edu     Phone: 940‐565‐4698     Fax: 940‐565‐4935EA 101: © 2000-2009 Leon A. Kappelman. All rights reserved. 100 50