JIIT OSDC OSDC – Open Source Developers Club OSDC, formerly known as Linux User Group (LUG), is a students initiated and maintained body which promotes and encourages the use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) amongst students in JIIT. Open for anyone to join. Links: Wiki - http://opensource.jiitu.org/wiki/ IRC - #jiit-lug on irc.freenode.net Google Groups (Mailing List) - http://groups.google.com/group/jiitlug/
HTML Brief on HTML: Stands for HyperText Markup Language. The predominant markup language that is used for web pages. You can use any text editor to write HTML code (example: notepad in Windows, gedit and vim in Linux).
HTML (Example) <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html lang="en" dir="ltr" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <title>HTML - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</title> </head> <body> <h1>Sample HTML Page</h1> <hr size=1 /> <p>Loremipsum...</p> <p>Donecdapibus...</p> </body> </html> File name: sample.html
Markup Languages A markup language is a modern a way that is synsystem for annotating a text in tactically distinguishable from that text. So, a piece of text enclosed within some kind of markup has some meaning and the meaning is related to the markup. Examples of markup languages: HTML, XML
Markup Languages Example: <html lang="en" dir="ltr" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head><title>HTML - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</title></head> <body> <h1>Sample HTML Page</h1> <hr size=1 /> <p>Loremipsum...</p> <p>Donecdapibus...</p> </body> </html> <title> tag defines the title of the webpage that is shown in the browser window’s title bar. <h1> stands for Heading 1, which basically means heading of a particular size. Similarly, <p> stands for paragraph. All these tags surround a piece of text and each tag has a meaning. And that’s how browsers interpret web pages.
XML Stands for Extensible Markup Language. XML is designed to store and transport data. XML code itself is stored in simple text files with a .xml extension. HTML (and XHTML) is a type (or form) of XML. Just like HTML, you can use any editor you want to code XML. XML is important to know and is very easy to learn.
XML So, an XML file without any context has no meaning. For example, if we treat HTML files as XML code, then they make sense as the information stored in HTML files is used to render web pages in web browsers. This makes XML very powerful as any developer can define a standard form of XML code which can be used for a particular application. Other famous forms of XML – XUL, SVG, etc.
XML (Example) <?xml version="1.0"?> <name>Message</name> <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body>Don't forget me this weekend!</body> </note> <note> <to>JIIT</to> <from>JUIT</from> <heading>Fest Invitation</heading> <body>Invitation for sports fest!</body> <file location="http://www.abc.com/invitation.jpg" /> </note> Isn’t this very similar to HTML? As I mentioned before, HTML is a form of XML or we can say that it has evolved from HTML. File name: sample.xml
CSS Stands for Cascading Style Sheets. CSS is a style sheet language used to describe the look and formatting of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML. But, the language can also be applied to any kind of XML document, including plain XML, SVG and XUL.
CSS (Example) <html lang="en" dir="ltr" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <title>HTML - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</title> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css.css" /> </head> ... ... </html> <link> tag is used to create links (not hyperlinks) between HTML pages and other types of files like CSS files. It is also used for a lot of other purposes. The type attribute specifies the type of file that is being linked to the HTML file. The href attribute specifies the path of file that is going to be linked. File name: css.html, css.css