The following was written in 1963. “Theproblem … is taking a far greater tollon the physical and mental health ofour country than any known disease.”What was the greatest problem in theU.S. in 1963 that was, “taking a fargreater toll on the physical and mentalhealth” of the U.S. than any knowndisease? Defend your answer.As you know, the U.S. experienced many socialand political difficulties in the 1960s.
“The problem that has no name(which is simply the fact thatAmerican women are kept fromgrowing to their full humancapacities) is taking a far greatertoll on the physical and mentalhealth of our country than anyknown disease.”- Betty Friedan, ―The Feminine Mystique‖ 1963.
What issues were importantto the Feminism Movementin the U.S., and whatobstacles did the Movementface?Essential Question
First Phase (1820s-1920s)Fighting de jure inequalitiesInterbellum (1930s-1950s)Second Phase (1960s-1980s)Fighting de facto inequalitiesThird Phase (1990-present)Fighting global inequalitiesFeminism in the U.S.
English Law, 1765―In marriage husband and wife are oneperson, and that person is the husband...‖
Massachusetts Bay Colony Women’s Legal Position– Property and possessions she owned before marriagebecame her husband’s and property she inheritedafter her marriage passed directly to her husband.– Wages she earned were his.– In the event of a divorce, he had custody of theirchildren.– She could not sign a business contract.– She could not sue anyone.– She could not be sued by anyone.– Her husband had to pay all her debts.– If she committed a crime, she was punished for it.
―Women’s Work‖Women were expectedto do the “skilled labor”jobs around the home• gardening• canning• cooking• cleaning• tending children
Nineteenth Amendment, 1920Section 1: The right of citizens ofthe United States to vote shall notbe denied or abridged by the UnitedStates or by any State on account ofsex.Section 2: The Congress shall havepower to enforce this article byappropriate legislation.1820s-1920sFirst Wave of FeminismFocused on promotion of equal contract,marriage, parenting, and propertyrights for women
Interbellum1930sAt this time members of thefamilies had moretraditional roles wherefathers worked, mothersstayed at home to raise thefamily and children went toschool.
The traditional roles changedat the start of the SecondWorld War.InterbellumWorld War II
Mainstream America tried toreturn to the ―traditionalroles.‖Interbellum1950s
The movement for women’s rights had many differentnames: the women’s liberation movement, thefeminist movement, and the equal rights movement. Core belief of the women’s liberation movement wasfeminism—the conviction that women and menshould be equal in society, politics, and economics. Feminists cheered the passage of the Civil Rights Actof 1964, which banned discrimination in employment. Still, fighting gender-based discrimination was givenlow priority.Second Wave of Feminism1960s-1980s
Second Wave of Feminism1960s-1980s• Betty Friedan- 1963 published The Feminine Mystique- 1966 founded National Organization forWomen (NOW)• Gloria Steinem- 1971 founded NationalWomen’s Political Caucus- 1972 founded Ms. Magazine
Reproductive freedom- Availability of birth control- Roe v. Wade 1973- Maternity leaveEqual Opportunities- Employment- Education- AthleticsSecond Wave of Feminism1960s-1980s
Effects of the Women’s MovementEmploymentThe number ofwomen holdingprofessional jobsincreased, butopportunity andpay are still notequal.
113th Congress (2012)- 17 female Senators- 73 female Representatives in the House- Women’s representation in Congress nowequals 16.8%.Overall, women make up just 22.7% of theelected officials in the U.S. today.Effects of the Women’s MovementPolitics
• Perception that the previous Wavesof Feminism only benefitedwealthy white women• Realization that women are ofmany colors, ethnicities,nationalities, religions, andcultural backgrounds• Embraces diversity and change• No all-encompassing single feministideaThird Wave of Feminism1990s-present