Cold War Hot Spots, 1945-1962
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Cold War Hot Spots, 1945-1962

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  • Communism generally refers to both an economic and a political system and it seeks to manage both the economy and the society by ensuring that property is owned collectively and is based on the principle that the goods and services produced in an economy should be owned publicly, and controlled and planned by a centralized organization. Communism asserts that goods and services should be distributed among the populace according to individuals' needs.The government is in control of every aspect of your life.Both socialism and communism are based on the principle that the goods and services produced in an economy should be owned publicly, and controlled and planned by a centralized organization.
  • Britain, France and the US merged 3 zones into oneEast Germany- Soviet style socialist. Socialism generally refers to an economic systemseeks to manage the economy through deliberate and collective social control. It is based on the principle that the goods and services produced in an economy should be owned publicly, and controlled and planned by a centralized organization. Socialism asserts that the distribution should take place according to the amount of individuals' production efforts.Capitalism is a socio-economic system in which private ownership means profit to the owner. The owner controls the means of production, so the profit belongs to the private business owner. In capitalism, the free market determines the production, distribution and price of goods and services.
  • The Marshall Plan helped the united States build strong political support in Western Europe. This support would be vital in the Cold War years to come.The Marshall Plan achieved its objectives of increasing productivity, stimulating economic growth, and promoting trade. Living standards quickly improved, and the strengthened economic, social, and political structures in participating countries lifted Europe back up to a stable, productive region
  • Proxy War - a war instigated by a major power that does not itself participate both sides were supported by external powers.
  • Nationalizationeliminates the concession system—in which private international companies control oil resources within oil-producing countries—and allows oil-producing countries to regain control. Once these countries become the sole owners of their resources, they have to decide how to maximize the net present value of their known stock of oil. They realized that they could control the price of oil by limiting the supply. Embargo - any legal stoppage of commerce:
  • Autocracy is defined by one individual having unlimited legislative and executive power.
  • Communism generally refers to both an economic and a political system and it seeks to manage both the economy and the society by ensuring that property is owned collectively and is based on the principle that the goods and services produced in an economy should be owned publicly, and controlled and planned by a centralized organization. Communism asserts that goods and services should be distributed among the populace according to individuals' needs.Both socialism and communism are based on the principle that the goods and services produced in an economy should be owned publicly, and controlled and planned by a centralized organization.On 2 August 1964, the US navy destroyer USS Maddox was attacked in the Gulf of Tonkin by North Vietnamese torpedo boats while providing radar cover for an amphibious raid into the North by the South Vietnamese. The attack was driven off by the Maddox and aircraft from the carrier USS Ticonderoga
  • Satellite state is a state that was formally independent, but is now under heavy political and economic influence or control by another country.
  • Nationalizes private property (His government seized private properties ,some owned by U.S. citizens and businesses)Nationalizes public utilitiesRemoved American citizens from the island 1963, Castro moves toward fully-fledged Communist system based on Soviet modelU.S. – diplomatic & commercial embargo Cuba forced to trade only with Soviet Union for a time
  • Quarantine of Cuba (stop all shipments)Secret negotiations

Cold War Hot Spots, 1945-1962 Cold War Hot Spots, 1945-1962 Presentation Transcript

  • Quick Write – November 28/29Brinkmanship is the practice of pushing adangerous situation to the verge of disaster,hoping that the opposition will back down andgive you what you want. In order forbrinkmanship to be effective, the threats usedare continuously escalated.List 2 benefits and 2 drawbacks to usingbrinkmanship.Should the U.S. use brinkmanship when dealingwith other nations today? Explain.
  • The Cold War Begins  Following World War II, an era of high tension between the United States and the Soviet Union emerged.  The United States did not trust the Soviet Union, and as far back as the 1920’s had viewed the Soviet Union as a potential threat.  Americans were hostile to the ideas of communism and had at times feared its spread into the United States.
  • Cold War Hot Spots, 1945-1962 Soviet Union Tests Atomic Bomb, 1949Germany, 1948- 1961 Cuban Revolution, 1959 Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961 U.S. begins to send Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 troops to Vietnam, 1960 U.S. overthrows Iran Prime MinisterGuatemalan President, Overthrown, 1953 1954 Korean War, 1950- 1953 Hungarian Revolution, 1956
  • National Security Act 1947Established the National Security Council (NSC)Merged the War and Navy departments into the NationalMilitary Establishment (NME) headed by the secretary ofdefenseRecognized the US Air Force as an independent servicefrom the ArmyEstablishes the role of the Central Intelligence Agency(CIA)
  • Germany  Divided into 4 sectors following WW II  Western allies soon merged 3 zones into 1  West Germany – democratic  East Germany – soviet-style socialist
  • Germany  Berlin Wall  1961, Berlin, the last place through which Germans could leave East Germany, was blocked off by the “infamous” Berlin Wall  This wall became a symbol of Soviet control 1:06
  • The Marshall Plan  Marshall Plan  United States sent massive economic aid (13 billion), to European democracies to help rebuild  Between 1948 & 1951, the U. S. government sent aid to 17 different countries
  • Korea  Proxy war, 1950-1953  Both sides were supported by external powers  North Korea – Soviet Union  South Korea – United States  Both North and South Korea were attempting to re-unify Korea under their respective governments.
  • Iran  1951, Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh was elected prime minister.  Mossadegh became enormously popular in Iran after he nationalized Iran’s oil reserves.  In response, Britain embargoed Iranian oil and, amidst Cold War fears, invited the United States toDr. Mohammad Mossadegh join in a plot to depose Mossadegh.
  • Iran  1953, President Eisenhower authorized Operation Ajax.  The operation was successful, and Mossadegh was arrested on 19 August 1953.  U.S. replaced Mossadegh with General Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 3:50  Rule became increasingly autocratic.  With American support, the Shah was able to rapidly modernize Iranian infrastructure, but he simultaneously crushed all forms of political opposition with his intelligence agency.
  • Vietnam  1954, war to gain independence from France  Split into North and South by treaty  Supposed to hold elections to reunite country  North was Communist, South was dictatorship  Elections didn’t happen and North attacked south  U.S. supported South  Golf of Tonkin - 1964  Anti-War movements in U.S.  1975 Vietnam is united under Communist government
  • Guatemala  1954, a freely elected Guatemalan leader, Jacobo Arbenz, is overthrown in a coup orchestrated by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2:03
  • Hungary  Following the fall of Nazi Germany, Soviet troops occupied all of the country and through their influence Hungary gradually became a communist satellite 2:02 state of the Soviet Union.  The communist rule was nearly unbearable for Hungary’s war-torn citizens.  1956, Hungarian Revolution.  The Soviets retaliated massively with military force, sending in over 150,000 troops and 2,500 tanks.
  • Cuba Fidel Castro leads successful revolution, 1959 Bay of Pigs InvasionAttempt by U.S. trained force of Cuban exiles to invade south-westCuba and overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro.Planned & funded by U.S. government.The Cuban military defeated the invading force in a matter of daysand the event accelerated a rapid deterioration in Cuban-Americanrelations.
  • Cuba Cuban Missile Crisis U-2 spy plane discovers Soviet medium-range ballistic missiles in CubaU-2 reconnaissance photograph of Sovietnuclear missiles in Cuba. Shown are thetransports and tents for fueling andmaintenance.
  • Other Threats  Atomic Bomb  U.S. - 1945  Soviet Union - 1949  Thought of Deterrence  Arms Race  Develop more Nuclear weapons than the other guy  Space Race  Soviets first in space  Sputnik I October 4, 1957  Americans first on the moon  Apollo 11 July 21, 1969