Cold War Hot Spots, 1945-1962Presentation Transcript
Quick Write – November 28/29Brinkmanship is the practice of pushing adangerous situation to the verge of disaster,hoping that the opposition will back down andgive you what you want. In order forbrinkmanship to be effective, the threats usedare continuously escalated.List 2 benefits and 2 drawbacks to usingbrinkmanship.Should the U.S. use brinkmanship when dealingwith other nations today? Explain.
The Cold War Begins Following World War II, an era of high tension between the United States and the Soviet Union emerged. The United States did not trust the Soviet Union, and as far back as the 1920’s had viewed the Soviet Union as a potential threat. Americans were hostile to the ideas of communism and had at times feared its spread into the United States.
Cold War Hot Spots, 1945-1962 Soviet Union Tests Atomic Bomb, 1949Germany, 1948- 1961 Cuban Revolution, 1959 Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961 U.S. begins to send Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 troops to Vietnam, 1960 U.S. overthrows Iran Prime MinisterGuatemalan President, Overthrown, 1953 1954 Korean War, 1950- 1953 Hungarian Revolution, 1956
National Security Act 1947Established the National Security Council (NSC)Merged the War and Navy departments into the NationalMilitary Establishment (NME) headed by the secretary ofdefenseRecognized the US Air Force as an independent servicefrom the ArmyEstablishes the role of the Central Intelligence Agency(CIA)
Germany Divided into 4 sectors following WW II Western allies soon merged 3 zones into 1 West Germany – democratic East Germany – soviet-style socialist
Germany Berlin Wall 1961, Berlin, the last place through which Germans could leave East Germany, was blocked off by the “infamous” Berlin Wall This wall became a symbol of Soviet control 1:06
The Marshall Plan Marshall Plan United States sent massive economic aid (13 billion), to European democracies to help rebuild Between 1948 & 1951, the U. S. government sent aid to 17 different countries
Korea Proxy war, 1950-1953 Both sides were supported by external powers North Korea – Soviet Union South Korea – United States Both North and South Korea were attempting to re-unify Korea under their respective governments.
Iran 1951, Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh was elected prime minister. Mossadegh became enormously popular in Iran after he nationalized Iran’s oil reserves. In response, Britain embargoed Iranian oil and, amidst Cold War fears, invited the United States toDr. Mohammad Mossadegh join in a plot to depose Mossadegh.
Iran 1953, President Eisenhower authorized Operation Ajax. The operation was successful, and Mossadegh was arrested on 19 August 1953. U.S. replaced Mossadegh with General Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 3:50 Rule became increasingly autocratic. With American support, the Shah was able to rapidly modernize Iranian infrastructure, but he simultaneously crushed all forms of political opposition with his intelligence agency.
Vietnam 1954, war to gain independence from France Split into North and South by treaty Supposed to hold elections to reunite country North was Communist, South was dictatorship Elections didn’t happen and North attacked south U.S. supported South Golf of Tonkin - 1964 Anti-War movements in U.S. 1975 Vietnam is united under Communist government
Guatemala 1954, a freely elected Guatemalan leader, Jacobo Arbenz, is overthrown in a coup orchestrated by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2:03
Hungary Following the fall of Nazi Germany, Soviet troops occupied all of the country and through their influence Hungary gradually became a communist satellite 2:02 state of the Soviet Union. The communist rule was nearly unbearable for Hungary’s war-torn citizens. 1956, Hungarian Revolution. The Soviets retaliated massively with military force, sending in over 150,000 troops and 2,500 tanks.
Cuba Fidel Castro leads successful revolution, 1959 Bay of Pigs InvasionAttempt by U.S. trained force of Cuban exiles to invade south-westCuba and overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro.Planned & funded by U.S. government.The Cuban military defeated the invading force in a matter of daysand the event accelerated a rapid deterioration in Cuban-Americanrelations.
Cuba Cuban Missile Crisis U-2 spy plane discovers Soviet medium-range ballistic missiles in CubaU-2 reconnaissance photograph of Sovietnuclear missiles in Cuba. Shown are thetransports and tents for fueling andmaintenance.
Other Threats Atomic Bomb U.S. - 1945 Soviet Union - 1949 Thought of Deterrence Arms Race Develop more Nuclear weapons than the other guy Space Race Soviets first in space Sputnik I October 4, 1957 Americans first on the moon Apollo 11 July 21, 1969